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OCTOBER 1S17 TO JUNE 1918. NOS 100-108. 

THE " : * 









Sudhindra Nath Vasu, at the Panini Office, 

Bahadurganj, Allahabad. 

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Next to Manu's Institutes of Sacred Law, tbo Smriti of Y&jfiavalkya Is the 
most important. It contains lOlOslokas or stanzas ; and is divided into three Adh- 
yftyas or books, namoly Achfira or ecclesiastical and moral code : Vyavahftra or the 
civil law and Prftyaschitta (Penance) or the penal code. Each part or Adhy&ya 
contains the following number of stanzas : — 
The Ach&ra 
The Vyavahara 
The Prayaschitta 
The whole of Ach&ra is divided into 13 chapters thus : 

• • • 

• • « 

• • • 















Marriage ... 

Purification of things 

Worship ofJGane^a 

• • • 


• • • 

• • • 

• • ■ 

• • • 

• • • 

• ■ • 

• • • 

• • • 

868 stanzas. 
307 „ 
335 „ 

• • • 





There are several well-known commentaries on Y&jnavalkya's Institutes : such 
as by Apar&rka, Visvardpa, Vijnanesvara, Mitra Mis'ra and Sulapani. But the 
commentary of Vijnanesvara has superseded the) others and under the name of the 
Mitdksara it is accepted as authoritative by the Hindus of most of the provinces 
of India. The full name of the commentary of Vijnanesvara Is Riju-mitaksara or the 
Easy and Concise. But the name Mitaksara has become so well-known that it Is 
too late now to revert to the name given to it by the commentator himself. Even 
by Sanskrit authors the book is quoted, for the sake of brevity, as the Mit&ksara. 

The gloss of Balambhatta is a comparatively recent one. It is rather ency- 
clopedic in its scope. The book professes to have been composed by a learned 
lady, but Babu Govinda Dasa of Benares, the learned editor of the Editio Princeps of 
B&lambhatti states that the real author of it was the husband of this lady. The 
author Vaidyanatha Paiyagunda lived in the eighteenth century, and as he lived in 
Benares, there is every reason to believe in the truth of this Benares tradition. 

The whole of Yajnavalkya's Institutes was translated by Mr. Mandlik into 
English in 1880 A. D. leaving, of course, the commentary and the gloss. I am much 
indebted to that translation in my rendering of the verses of Yajnavalkya. 

In translating the commentary of Vijnanesvara (i.e. the Mit&ksard) I have 
tried to be as literal as was consistent with readable presentation of the original. 
In the gloss of Balambhatta however, the translation is mostly free : and in several 
cases it is even an abridgment of the gloss. Moreover I have not translated the 
whole of it, but only such extracts as I thought would be interesting to general 



readers. The gloss of Balambhatta is a storehouse of information, proceeding on the 
same lines as the Viramitrodaya. I have given also comparative extracts from the 
Grihya-Sfitras to show the nature of those treatises ; and to give concrete notions 
of these books to ordinary readers so that they might not remain as mere names. 
The translations of these books in Max Muller's series, of the Sacred Books of the 
East have, of course, been of great help to me. I have given the exact translations 
of these as they appeared in that, series, except in one case where the phrase 
the wife addicted to her husband,*' has been changed to "the wife devoted to 
her husband," 

The first chapter contain, the sources of the Hindu Law. Among the sources of 
the Hindu Law, Yajnavalkya enumerates the well-known fourteen vidyas or scien- 
ces (according to some eighteen), namely, the four Vedas— the Rik, the Yajus, the 
Saman and the Atharvan— the six Ved&iigas or Appendages to the Vedas— the Pho- 
netics, Liturgy, Grammar, the Lexicon, Astronomy and the Prosody — and Logic, the 
Exegetics, the Puranas and the Dharma-Sdstras or the Institutes of the Sacred Law. 
All these fourteen subjects are not only sources of Vidy&s or knowledge but of law 
also. Yajnavalkya then enumerates the various Institutes of the Sacred Law, 
such as Mann, Atri, &c. According to him the authoritative Smritis are 20 in num- 
ber as named by him ; but according to the commentators this number is raised to 
36 or more by enumerating others not mentioned by Yajnavalkya. Considering the 
question of the sources of law, from a still different point of view, we arrive at a 
four-fold division, namely, 1. the Vedas, 2. the Smriti or Dharma-Sastra, 3. the 
Custom (sadachara)< 4. Voluntary. 

According to this division, the custom holds a third place ; and the general 
rule of Hindu Law as to the relative authority of these four is that the Vedas or the 
Revelations are the supreme authority, next to them are the Smritis or the Insti- 
tutes of the Sacred Law, and third, the customary Law. The rule of interpretation 
in case of conflict among these is that the Revelation (the Vedas) would prevail 
over Tradition (the Smriti) and the Tradition over the Custom. There cannot be 
any valid Custom opposed to the Vedas or the Smritis. 

The modern idea, that prevails in our Courts, is that the customary law is the 
highest, and the written law (the Vedas and the Smritis) of secondary importance. 
Whether Yajnavalkya or Vijnanesvara would have supported such a view I leave 
the readers to judge. 

The Second Chapter is called the Brahmach&ri Prakarana. YSjfiavalkya men- 
tions the well-known ten sacraments of the Hindus, but gives no details of the 
ceremonies. His commentator Vijfidnesvara also does not enter, in his MitSksara, 
into any detailed exposition of these. But Balambhatta supplies the omission. AU 
these ceremonies aro described in copious detail in this gloss. They are certainly 
of great usoto every pious Hindu. All good Hindus, who want to regulate their 
conduct properly, and wish to see that these coromonies should be properly per- 
formed by their priests, should at least know the general outline of the rituals. 
The want of this knowledge of the rituals, by the Hindu laity has reacted on thoir 
priests also. The priests have become in many cases ignorant and the ceremo- 
nies, the propor performance of which would take hours, aro finished purfunctorily 
within half that time. I have given an almost full description of one ceremony 
namoly tho Sasthi Pfljfi That would show what other ceremonies are like. This 
Safthi Pujfi is one of the elementary coromonies, yet oven this contains more than a 
score of Vodic Mantras. Even if our priests know how to rocito these mantras, ton 
to one, they do not know thoir meaning. Unless tho yajamana (tho sacrificors) know 



something of those ceremonies, there is no hope that the priests will be bettor than 
what they are now. At the sarrio time yajamfins must not expect to get a better class 
of priests unless they raise the remuneration of these to respectable figures. 

This socond chapter (Bfilambhatta) contains also the famous law of adoption by 
Baudhftyana. I have given the full Sanskrit text, its word meaning and translation 
as made by Dr. Biihlor. The word meaning, 1 hope, would bo found useful to those 
legal practitioners whose knowledge of Sanskrit is elementary. 

As regards the two sacramonts— the Pumsavana (the ceremony to secure the 
birth of a male child), and the Simantonnayana (the parting of the hai/ of the pregnant 
wife— from which date all marital relation should cease), I have given copious ex- 
tracts from the Grihya Stitras relating to these ceremonies as prevalent in ancient 

The rules of Brahmancharin in ancient time aimed at making man of a student. 
Only those are fit to be members of a noble and highly organised community who 
learn in their school days the lessons of plain living, and discipline. The students 
in ancient times had to live in the houses of their gurus which were generally far 
away from the busy haunts of men : generally in forests, while learning all the scien- 
ces that ancient India could impart— and they were not few— they were scrupu- 
lously guarded from participation in all active duties of life. They were, in the first 
place, unmarried and not like the majority of our High school and College students, 
wif.h babies at home. They were taught to respect their teachers and rulers, and 
the teachers and rulers in their turn loved and protected them. They respected 
the king and the king respected them. They had absolutely nothing to do with 
politics. The sons of kings and ruling chiefs were undoubtedly taught all the laws 
of political economy (Artha-s'astra) and statecraft (R&ja-Niti) but even they were 
not allowed to mix in any political agitation of the time, if there were any such 
things in those days. Nor can it be imagined that a student of those Vedic schools, 
clad in his garment of antelope skin and bearing: a water pot in hand was ever found 
hurling a deadly weapon against any human being. It was not the duty of the 
student to carry on the agitation for the redressing of the wrongs, real or imagin- 
ary, done to him or his country. If a Brahmacharin broke his vow and transgressed 
the rule of his asrama, he was looked down with contempt and not in any way 
encouraged in his wrong path. Such was the student and such the Guru. It is 
nothing short of a sad decadence of religion, in this land of religion, that the noble 
ideal of the Brahmacharya asrama should have entirely disappeared. 

The third chapter on Marriage deserves careful study of Ethnologists, for no 
student of Evolution of Marriage can afford to neglect it. To make this chapter as 
complete as possible, I have added copious extracts from the gloss of Balambhatta. 

The fourth chapter on Castes with Notes from Balambhatta will be found useful 
to those who are interested in the question of Castes in India. There are several 
works on this subject written by Sir George Campbell, Revd. Mr.Sherring of Benares, 
Revd. Dr. Wilson of Bombay, Mr. Thurston of Madras, Sir H. Risley, Dr. Jogendra 
Nath Bhattacharya of Bengal and a few others, but curiously enough, none of them 
seems to have consulted Yajnavalkya with its several commentators and the gloss 
of Balambhatta. Yet those authors would have greatly benefited by a perusal of 
this chapter of the present work. 

It was not considered necessary to add notes from the gloss of Balambhatta to 
the 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th and 9th chapters. 

The tenth chapter on Sraddha is an important one, not only to the antiquarian, 
but to practising lawyers in India. At present there is no treatise in English, ex- 



clusively devoted to this subject. Hence, I have added such notes as I considered 
necessary to elucidate the matter. 

The eleventh and twelfth chapters are not of much importance to the practis- 
ing lawyer but will interest students of Indian religious cults. 

The last chapter is difficult to understand without studying the Artha-s&stra. 
This has been now made possible by the publication of Kautilya Artha-sastra with 
its English translation ; Prof. Benoy Kumar Sarkar's Sukraniti and Positive Back 
ground of Hindu Sociology and Law's Hindu Polity. 

The importance of the study of Hindu Law in all its different branches 
will be evident from what Sir Henry Sumner Maine says that India "may 
yet give us a new science not less valuable than the science of language 
and folk lore. I hesitate to call it comparative jurisprudence, because if it ever 
exists, its area will be so much wider than the field of law. For India not only con- 
tains (or to speak more accurately, did contain) an Aryan language older than any 
other descendant of the common mother tongue and a variety of names of natural 
objects less perfectly crystallised than elsewhere into fabulous personages, but it 
includes a whole world of Aryan institutions, Aryan customs, Aryan laws, Aryan 
ideas in a far earlier stage of growth and development than any which survive 
beyond its border." 

What Maine hesitated to call comparative jurisprudence cannot be brought 
into existence unless the legal lore of ancient India is properly studied. The fact 
cannot be denied that the contents of the law boobs of the Hindus are not so well- 
known to Indian legal practitioners unacqainted with Sanskrit as they deserve to 
be. Lawyers in India chiefly confine their attention to the chapters on Inheritance, 
Adoption and Partition of Hindu Law. But it is difficult to understand the theory and 
practice of that Law without studying all the topics dealt with in the Ach&ra and 
Pr&yaschitta Adhy&yas of Yajuavalkya Smriti. Panini office has published English 
translation of two books of Yajuavalkya with the commentary of Vijuanes vara and 
thus made them accessible to English-educated people unacquainted with Sanskrit. 

A knowledge of Sanskrit Grammar and the six schools of Hindu Philosophy in 
general and of the Pflrva Mimdnsa in particular is necessary to understand the 
original Sanskrit text of Hindu Law. Panini office has tried to supply this want by 
the publication of the Astadhy&yi and the Siddhanta Kaumudi as well as of the six 
schools of Philosophy in the Series of the Sacred Books of the Hindus. 

In the preparation of this translation I was greatly assisted by the late Pandit 
Sarayu Prasad Misra of Allahabad. He was well read in many branches of Sanskrit 
literature— but his forte was Hindu Law and Philosophy. 

The Bengali and Hindi translations of this work have been also of some help 
to me. 

It has not been thought advisable to insert Sanskrit text in the present publi- 
cation. There are several printed editions of the original Sanskrit text, but the 
host and the cheapest is the one published by the Nirnaya S&gara Press of Bombay, 
the price of which is two rupees only. 

S. C. V. 



•■• ••• ••• 

• t • * • • ••• ••• 

■•• » » » ••• •«• 

... ••• ••• 

« . * ••• ••• •■• 

• •• J • • • • • 

• •• • • • * • • • • •• 

••• ••• ••• 

•• • »♦* • •• • • • 

i • • ■ • • • • • • 

••• ••• ••• ••• ••• 

••• I * • 

I . . ••• ••• 

• • • ••• •<■ 

■ • • • • • • t • 

■•• • 

• •• . « » • • • 

• • • 

CHAPTER I.— Introduction 
Vij5ane£vara's salutation 
Vijfianesvara's foreword 
Visvarupa's Commentary referred to 
The question of the sages 
The six kinds of Dharma 
The territorial jurisdiction 
The fourteen sources of Dharma 


The eighteen Pur&nas 
The two Bh&gavat Purdnas 
The TJpapur&nas 
The authority of the Purdnas ... 
The list of Smritis 
The efficient cause of Dharma ... 
The Jnapaka cause of Dharma ... 
The Four-fold evidence of Dharma (verse 7) 
The Conflict of Laws 

The self-realisation, the highest Dharma (verse 8) ... 
The Legal assembly or Parisad 

CHAPTER II.— The Sacraments and Studentship 
The Four Castes (verse 10) 
The Twice-born (verse 10) 
The Sacraments :— 

(a) Garbh&dhdna 

(b) Pumsavana ... 

(c) Simantonnayana 

(d) Jata Karma • 

(e) Nama Karma ... 
(/) Niskraman 

(g) Annapr&sana 

(h) Chudakarana 
Painless delivery ceremony 
Rules for pregnant women 
Rules for their husbands 
Birth rite . 
Adoption ... 
Sasthi Pfij& 
Naming Ceremony 


... ... . ... 

i.« •«• ... ... 

... • ••• ... ... 

• M ... ... ... 

... ••• ... . .« 

i . + ... ... ... • . • 

... ... ... ... 

• ... ••• ».-• 


• •• ... ... 

... ... ... ... 


... . . . •*. ... 

... ••• ... ... 

... ... ... ••• 

... ... ... ••• 

... ... ••• • • • 

... ... ... ••• ••• 

... ... » • • 

The Secret Name 

The Nak sat ras and Names Table 

The Niskraman 

Upavesana ... ... ... ••• ••• 




• 1 1 

Boring of the Ear 
The birthday anniversary 
Chudakaraua or the tonsure 
TheSikha ... ' 

Apastamba on Upanayana 
The Grihya-Sfitras on Pumsavana Simantonnayana ... 
The first learning of the Alphabet 
The utility of the Sacraments ... 
The time of Upanayana 
The duties of Gurus ... 
The study of the Gayatri 
The rules of Personal purification 
Achamana and its method 
Auspicious stars for initiation ... 
Sandhya ... 

. »• 

. • • 

. • • 

• 1 1 , , • • . 


• • • 

Marjana mantras 
Sfirya arghya 
Arghya mantras 

Tilaka ... ••• ... « 


The Japa of GSyatri ... 
The Mantr&chaman ... 
The Gayatri with its Vy&hritis and Siras 
The various meanings of the Gayatri 

„ The Homa ceremony mantras 


The worship of the Guru 
Methods of study 
The qualifications of the student 

The dress of the student, the staff arid the sacred thread 
The forms of begging ... ... ... 

The method of eating 
Things prohibited to a Brahmach&ri' ' 
The definitions of the Guru, AchSrya, Upadhyftya, Ritvij 
The period of studentship 
Vratya defined 
The Twice-born defined 
The Reward of Vedic study 
The fruit of Pancha Mah&yajfia 

CHAPTER III.— On Marriagq 

The final bath and tho teacher's fee 
The selection of a bride and External marks 
Internal marks 
A widow not to bo married 
• Sapinda and non-sapinda 
Tho definition of Sapinda not too wido 
Tho question of step mother and her fathor's rolations 
Marriageable age of girls 

. . • ... 

i • • 

••• •#. • • • 

» . . ... 

••• ... ••• 



Tho gotra and tho pravaras ... ,., ... ... ... 104 

Tho Sapindahood in marriago ... ... ... ... ,., 109 

Sapindahood of amiloma births ... ... ... ... no 

Bhinna gotra Sapimlas ... ... ... 113 

A rulo of Eugenics ... ... ... ... ... ... 117 

Intor-marriago allowed ... ... ... ... ... 120 

Tho rulo about intor-marriage ... ... ... ... tit 121 

Tho oight forms of marriago ... ... ... ,,. ii§ 123 

Tho special forms in various kinds of mixed marriages ... 128 

Persons entitled to givo away a girl in marriage ... ... ... 129 

Tho ponalty for broach of promise of marriage ... ... ,,. igi 

Tho ponalty for concealing the faults of tho bride, etc. ... ... 183 

Ananyapflrva defined ... ... ... ... ,., 134 

The Niyoga ceremony ... ... ... ... ... 154 

The adulteress and her treatment ... ... ... ... 136 

Women always pure ... ... ... ... ... ... 137 

A rule of purification ... ... ... ... ... 138 

The duties of a wife ... ... ... ... ... >t- 143 

In praise of SSstriya marriage ... ... ... ... , t< 149 

The Season ... ... ... ... ... -#- 151 

Astrological Seasons and how to get a male child ... ... ... 152 

Other times of conjugal intercourse ... ... ... ... 153 

Vidhi defined ... ... ... ... ... ... 153 

Niyama defined ... ... ... ... ... 153 

Purisankya defined ... ... ... ... ... ... 155 

"Women to be honored ... ... ... ... ... 163 

The duties of Women ... ... ... ... 164 

The duties of a wife whose husband is away ... ... ... 164 

General duties of all Women ... ... ... ... ... 105 

Duties of a widow ... ... ... ... ... ... 166 

The Sati or Self-immolation ... ... ... ... ... 107 

Dharma, its definition ... ... ... ... ... 170 

Bhavana, its definition ... ... ... ... ... 170 

The duties of a wife ... ... ... ... ... ... 173 

The duties of a husband having many wives ... ... ... 177 

The duties of a widower ... ... ... ... ,„ 173 

Re-marriage of widows ... ... ... ... ... 182 

CHAPTER IV.— On the distinctions of Castes (Varna) and classes (sub-castes) 184 

Anuloma ... ... ... ... ... ... it . 139 

Pratiloma ... ... ... ... ... tt , 192 

Pratilomas and their livelihood ... ... ... ... 193 

Miscellaneous mixed castes ... ... ... ... ... 200 

A summary ... ... ... .„ ... ... 213 

Anulomas ... ... ... ... ... Mi 213 

Pratilomas ... ... ... ... .„ „, 213 

Other mixed castes ... ... ... ... iM ... 213 

Kdyasthas ... ... ... ... ... ,,. 214 

The rise and fall in castes ... ... ... ... ... 218 






CHAPTER V.— On the duties of a householder ... ... ... 222 

The beggar ... ... ... ... ... ... 228 

Beef-offering to the honored guest ... ... ... ... 229 

Annual feast on beef ... ... ... ... >f 

Should give feast but not hanker after other's feast ... ... 230 

The honoring of guests while they depart ... ... ... 231 

The Evening prayer 

The Morning duties ... ... ... ... ... 2S2 

The rule of road ... ... ... ... ... ... 233 

The duties of Ksatriyas and Vaisyas ... ... ... ... 234 

The livelihood of Ksatriyas and Vai&yas ... ... .„ ... 235 

The livelihood of the Sudras ... ... ... ... ... f> 

The universal duties of the Twice-born ... ... ... ... 238 

» / » ». of all men ... ... ... ... 237 

The Srauta or Vedic rites— the K&mya Karmas ... ... ... 238 

The Nitya or obligatory Srauta Karmas ... .... .,. ... M 

The niggardliness in feast-giving ... ... ... ... 239 

The religious house-holder takes no thought of to-morrow ... ... ,, 

CHAPTER VI.— On the Vratas to be observed by a Snataka Brahmana ... 242 

He may take a gift from a King, &o ... ... ... * ... „ 

His other duties ... ... ... ... ... ... 243 

The rules of study commencing .., ... ... ... 249 

The time of vacation in study ... ... ... ... ... 250 

The study holidays ... ... ... ... ... _ 2 51 

The vows of Sn&taka... ... ... ... .„ ... 2 55 

Persons whose food should not be eaten ... ... ... ... 260 

CHAPTER VIL—Lawful and Unlawful food ... ... ... ... 264 

Lawful food for the twice-born... ... ... ... ... 271 

General law of food ... ... .„ ... ... ... 272 

CHAPTER VHI.-On the purification of things |M .... 276 

The purification of utensils ... ... ... ... ... n 

» » Sacrificial Vessels ... ... ... ... 277 

» m » Stained Vessels .,, ... ... ... 278 

» » » Clothes ... ... ,„ ... 279 

m m i* Land ... ... 

m »> ti Food smelt by the cow, &c ... ... 283 

Tin, lead, &c .,, ... ... ... 284 

» » » Water, flesh, <&c ... ... ... ... 287 

» » >» Fire, &c ... ... ... ... ... 288 

CHAPTER IX.-On Gifts ., m io 2 &2 

The proper recipients of gifts ... 
„ „ Brdhmana recipient 

Giving of oows, &c, to Brfthmanas ... ooq 

An unfit person should not accopt gifts ... .,, ... 294 

A special rule of gift ... ... ... ... „. 2 05 

„ „ Cow gift ... ... ... .,. <m m 

Tho fruit of cow gift ... ... ... ... 

The fruit of the gift of tho cow and her calf ... , M ... 20G 


••• ••• ••• « .. » ... 



Tho fruit of ordinary cow-gift ... ... ... ... ... 297 

Tho equivalents of cow-gift ... ... ... ... ... » 

Tho fruit of granting land ... ... ... ... ... >» 

„ giving houso, &c. ... ... ... ... 298 

Tho gift of education is tho highest ... ... ... ... 290 

Dotting tho fruit of gift without giving ... ... ... ... 300 

Some gifts must always bo accepted ... ... ... ... „ 

What must bo accepted ... ... ... ... ... 301 

An exception ... ... »»• ... ... 

CHAPTER X.— On sVaddhas ... ... ... ... ... 302 

Tho times of Sr&ddhas ... ... ... ... ... 803 

The Brahmanas to bo invited in the Sr&ddhas ... ... ... 305 

The Brahmanas to bo avoided ... ... ... ... ... 307 

The Parvana Sr&ddha ... ... ... ... ... 810 

The VisVedeva Sr&ddha ... ... ... ... ... 313 

The Pitpiya Sraddha ... ... ... ... ... 815 

The giving of the Aksayya Water ... ... 326 

Dismissal of Br&hmanas ... ... ... ... ... 828 

The Vriddhi Sr&ddha ... ... ... ... ... 331 

The Ekoddista s'raddha ... ... ... ... ... 833 

Sapifldi Earana ... ... ... ... „. 385 

,t „ of the mother ... ... ... ... 344 

The deceased mother and the P&rvana Sr&ddha ... ... ... 346 

The Uda-Kumbha Sr&ddha ... ... ... ... ... 347 

A doubt ... 

The times of Ekoddista ... ... ... ... ... 350 

The place of throwing the Pindas ... ... ,„ ... 358 

The different kinds of food offered tit SrSddha, and their different rewards 

to the giver ... ... ... ... ... ... „ 

Specific fruit or offering Sr&ddha on a Specific asterism ... ... 363 

CHAPTER XI.— On the worship of Ganapati ... ... .„ 366 

CHAPTER XII.— On the propitiation of the planets ... ... ... 381 

The graha Yajna ... ... ... ... ... ... 

The names of the nine planets ... ... ... ... ... „ 

The color and ingredients of pujft of planets ... ... .,. 382 

The dhy&na of the planets ... ... ... ... ... 383 

Method of Worship ... ... ... ... ... ... 884 

The Vedic mantras for Samidha Homa, etc. ... „. ... 385 

The Samidh fuel ... ... ... ... ... ... 387 

The number of Samidhs ... ... ... ... ... „ 

The Daksina of each planet ... ... ... ... ... 388 

The Worship of malefic planets... ... ... ... ... 389 

Special rules for the Kings ... ... ... ... ... 390 

CHAPTER XIII.— The duties of a King ... ... ... ... 392 

The mental equipment of a King ... ... ... ... 393 

The external equipment of a Sovereign ... ... ... ... 396 

The qualifications of a royal purohita ... ... ... ... 897 

The qualifications of Ritvijs ... ... ... ... ... 398 




The special fruit of gift to Brfihmanas ... ... ... 398 

The method of acquiring wealth ... ... ... ... 399 

The deed of gift ... ... ... ••• ... ••• 400 

Materials and contents of the documents... ... ... ... 401 

The residence of the King ... ... ... ... ... 403 

The royal officials ... ... • •» • •• 404 

Gift of conquests of war ... ... ... ... 405 

Heaven is the reward of dying in battle ... ... ... ... » 

Giving quarters to those who surrender ... ... ... ... 407 

Inspection of treasury and accounts ... ... ... ... >* 

Sending the cash to treasury ... ... ... ... ... 408 

The three kinds of spies ... ... ... ... -.« 

Rest and review of the army ... ... ... ... ... 409 

Evening prayer, hearing report of the spies, &c ... ... ... „ 

Going to bed and rising therefrom with morning duties ... ... 410 

The rule for illness ... ... ••• ••• 

The morning duties of the King ... ... ... ... ,, 

The treatment of various kinds of people ... ... ... 411 

The fruit of good Government ... ... ... ... ... 412 

Protection from cheats, etc, ... .•• ... ... ••• » 

The fruit of not protecting subjects ... ... ... ... 413 

The King to keep himself informed of the doings of his officials ... 414 

The fruit of illegal taxation ... ... ... ... ... „ 

Conquering and the treatment of conquered subjects ... ... 415 

Preserving the manners and customs of the conquered ... ... „ 

Concealing the trade secrets ... ..- ... ... ... „ 

The neighbouring sovereigns ... ... ... ... ... 416 

The four modes of obtaining success ... ... ... ... 419 

The six gunas or six military measures ... ... ... ... 420 

The time of marching ... .•• ••• ... ... 421 

Destiny and effort ... ... • »• ••• ... ... „ 

Alliance better than War ... ... ... ... ... 423 

The Saptftuga of Kingdom ... ... ... ... ... 424 

Tho rod and the evil-doers ... ..• ... ... ... 

The fit and unfit wielders of the rod ... ... ... ... 425 

The fruits of proper and improper punishments ... ... ... „ 

Evils of unrighteous punishments ... ... ... ... >. 

Law is no respecter of persons ... ... ... ... 426 

The fruit of punishing the punishable ... ... ... ... 427 

Tho King to try cases ... ... ••• -•• 428 

The disciplinary power of tho King ... ... ••• ••• » 

The two kinds of punishments— Corporal and pecuniary ... ... 429 

The table of weights and measurements ... ... ... ... » 

Silver weights and coins ... ... ••• ••• ••• 482 

Copper coins ... •*» » 

The Scalo of punishment ... ... • . ••• 487 

Various kinds of punishment ... ... ••• ••• ••• 4fl8 

The regulation of punighmont ... ... •.. ••• — 439 

Thic end. 



Tho sacred litoraturo of tho Hindus is known as (i) Sruti and (it) Smp iti. b'ruti 
literally moans what is hoard. Tho Vcdas, Aranyakas and Upanisads aro included in 
this class. Smriti moans that which is rcraomborod, honco traditions. Tho lawbooks, 
Purfinas, Itih&sas, etc., bolong to this category* Smritis, therefore, are not like 
tho Vedas, considered to bo etornal and unchangeable. Every Yuga or cycle 
had its own Smpiti, 

It is not necessary to enter into the question as to the origin of Smritis. 
Thoso who take interest in tho subject are recommended to peruse the works 
noted below.f Suffice it to say that tho Smritis were brought into existence as 
circumstances called for them, Thus there can be no doubt that the Dovala Smriti 
as printed in the collection of 27 Smpitis published by the Anand&sram of Pflnft 
was composed when Sindh was invaded by the Arabs in the 8th century A. D. 
The opening verses of that Smpiti, bring out this fact very clearly. 

Devala was a port on the Indus in Sindh regarding the invasion of which by 
the Arabs, Mr. Stanley Lane— Poole writes :— ■ 

"The story of Mohammad Kasim's adventures is one of tho romances of history. 
Ho was but seventeen, and he was venturing into a land scarcely touched as yet by 

* My father, the late Rai Bahadur s'risa Chandra Vidy&rnava, intended to write 
an elaborate introduction to his translation of the Achara Adhyaya of Y&jfiavalkya 
Smriti with the Commentary Mit£ksar& and notes from the Gloss of B&lambhatta. 
"With this object in view, he jotted down notes in one of his note-books. Unfortunately, 
good many of these notes are in short-hand in which he was an adept. It is almost 
impossible to decipher these notes. 

However from some^pf the notes and from his conversations with me, I have 
prepared this paper which, I hope, will be useful to those interested in the study of 
Hindu Law. It is not for me to say what Sanskrit scholarship has lost by his un- 
timely death. How critically and carefully he studied Hindu Law is evident from 
his judgment in the well-known Benares Caste-Case. "Well- versed in Arabic, Greek 
and Latin, he had, in contemplation, to write on the influence of Muhamadanism and 
Roman Law on Hindu Jurisprudence. Ranendra Nath Basic, LL.B,, Vakil> High 
Court,' Allahabad. 

t 1. Introduction to the Laws of Manu translated into English, by G. Btihler 
(S. B. B., Vol. XXV.) 

2. M&ndalik's Hindu Law. 

3. Jolly's Tagore Law Lectures for 1883. 

4. Sir R&inakrisna Gopal Bhandarkar's paper " A peep into the Early History 
of India" (J. B. B. R A. S., Vol. XX., pp. 356 et seq.) 

5. Tho Par&sariya Dharma Sfistra, by the late Mr, Shamrao Vithal (in 
J. B, B. R. A. S., Vol. XXII., pp. 324 et seq.) 

6. Govinda Dasa's Introduction to his Edition of B&lambhatti (Chowkhamba 
Sanskrit Series, Benares.) 

7. The article on Smriti in the XXII Volume of the Visvakosa (in Bengalee.) 



Saracen spears, a land inhabited by warlike races, possessed of an ancient and 
deeply rooted civilization, there to found a government which, however successful, 
would be the loneliest in the whole vast Mohammedan Empire, a province cut off 
by sea, by mountains, by desert, from all peoples of kindred race and faith. Youth 
and high spirit, however, forbade alike fear and foreboding. The young general 
had at least six thousand picked horsemen to his back, chosen from the caliph's 
veterans, with an equal number of camelry, and was supplied with a baggage-train 
of three thousand Bactrian camels. Marching chrough Mekran, along the Persian 
coast, he was joined by the provincial governor with more troops ; and five stone- 
slings for siege-work were sent by sea to meet him at Daibul, the great 
mediaeval port of the Indus valley, the forerunner of Karachi. 

" There in the spring of 712 Mohammad Kasim set up his catapults and dug his 
trench. A description of this siege has come down to us from an early historian 
(al-Baladhuri, writing about 840), from which it appears that the Arab spearmen 
were drawn up along the trench, each separate company under its own banner, 
and that five hundred men were stationed to work the heavy catapult named 1 the 
Bride/ A great red flag flaunted on the top of a tall temple, and the order came 
from Hajjaj, with whom the general was in constant communication, to 1 fix the 
stone-sling and shorten its foot and aim at the flagstaff.* So the gunners lowered 
the trajectory and brought down the pole with a shrewd shot. The fall of the 
sacred flag dismayed the garrison ; a sortie was repulsed with loss ; the Muslims 
brought ladders and scaled the walls, and the place was carried by assault. The 
governor fled, the Brahmans were butchered, and after three days of carnage a 
Mohammedan quarter was laid out, a mosque built, and a garrison of four thousand 
men detached to hold the city." Mediaeval India under Mohammedan rule, by 
Stanley Lane— Poole (story of the Nations series). 

Some of the inhabitants of Sindh either voluntarily embraced the religion of 
the invaders or were forcibly converted to it. It was necessary to bring back 
the lost men to the fold of Hinduism. The Devala Smriti shows not only the tolerant 
nature but statesmanlike grasp of its author. 

With the exception of Manu, Y&jnavalkya and a few others, the Smpitis, as 
a rule, do not treat of Vyavah&ra or what may be called Legal Procedure or 
Positive Law. This formed the subject matter of Arthas'ftstra, which treated of 
Statecraft, International, Municipal and Positive Laws. Sovereigns administered 
Civil and Criminal Laws according to ArthasSstra. 

It is a remarkable fact that the Smritis nowhere mention the existence of 
prisons or punishment by incarceration. It may be that in Hindu India as there 
was no Poor Law, so there were no jails which not only degrade their inmates 
but also manufacture criminals. But in the Arthasftstra of Kautilya, there is 
distinct mention of prisons and of their superintendents. 

It is probable that in course of timo, Arthasdstra was ignored, and Smpitis 
came into more prominence than over. According to Hindu law-givers, if there is 
any conflict between Sruti and Smriti, tho former is to prevail. On this analogy, 
the later Smpiti writers declared that the statements of Smyitis wore to bo 
preferred to those of Arthasftstra. But on this point the latter says 

" But whenever sacred law (Sftstra) is in conflict with rational law (Dharma- 
nyftya=King\s law), then reason shall bo hold authoritative ; for there the original 
text (on which tho sacred law has boon based) is not available." (P. 102, Kautilya'* 
Arthasftstra, English Translation.) 



Biihlor hag also pointed out how Kamandiki in his Niti-sftra has rejected 
the opinion of Mflnava. Ho writes (pp. xxxvi, xxxvii and xxxviii of Introduction of 
tho Laws of Manu, S. B. E., vol. XXV) 

li Moro important than tho passages from the last work is tho evidence which 
tho Kdmandakiya Nitisftra furnishes, whore twice opinions of tho Mftnavah and 
once an opinion of Manu aro quoted, but rojoctcd in favor of tho views of the author^ 
teachor, Ch&nakya Kautilya. * * * Nor is it usual to contrast, as Kamandaki does, 
tho rule taught by Manu with those of other teachers and afterwards to reject them. 
If a Hindu writer on law finds it necessary to sot aside an opinion of Manu, ho either 
passes by it in silenco or ho interprets the passage whero it occurs in accordance 
with the principles of some other Smritis with which he himself agrees.'' 

It appears that originally Smritis were codes of Ecclesiastical Law, but on 
the revival of Hinduism, the Br&htoanas were not slow in incorporating Positive 
Law in Smritis, ignoring altogether the existence and importance of the 
Arthas&stra. It is the misfortune of India that in tho early days of the British 
Rule, Arthasdstra was not discovered, for this would have prevented the codifica- 
tion of Personal Law of the Hindus on the present lines. 

Arthasastra is also one of the sources of Hindu Law. Yajnavalkya I, 3, 
mentions 14 sources of Law. Nyaya is one of them. Of course, the commentator, 
Vijudnesvara has defined it as u tarka vidya" or Logic. But perhaps it would be 
more reasonable to take H Ny&ya 11 in that verse as " Dharma Ny&ya '^King's Law 
or Arthasastra. 

There can be little doubt that Yajnavalkya was posterior to Kautilya, author 
of the Arthasastra. The latter disapproves of compounds of more than three words. 
For, he says :— 

" Combination of words consisting of not more than three words and not less 
than one word shall be so formed as to harmonise with the meaning of immediately 
following words/' 

(P. 82 of the translation of Kautilya's Arthas&stra, by R. Shamasastry). 

But in Yajuavalkya Smriti and later Sanskrit, compound words greatly prevail. 
Thus it is evident that Yajnavalkya was aware of Kautilya's Arthasastra, and so it 
is not improbable that he used the word " Nyaya n in the same sense as the author 
of the Arthasastra. 

Although the study of the Arthas&stra was greatly neglected, yet it is a happy 
sign of the times, that it is now engaging the attention of some of the most distin- 
guished graduates of our Universities. The publication of the Sanskrit text as well 
as the English translation of Kautilya's Arthasastra by Mr. s'amasastry of Mysore, 
Professor Benoy Kumar Sarkar's translation of Sukra Niti and his Positive Back — 
ground of Hindu Sociology, as well as the writings of Maharaj Kumar Narendra 
Nath Law, M.A., B.L., P.R.S. show the zeal with which this branch of Sanskrit liter- 
ature is being studied in this country. 

The influence of Arthasastra on Smritis should form the subject of research 
by some competent Hindu lawyers. 

The number 18 is a mysterious number with the Hindus. Like 18 authori- 
tative Pur&nas, the number of authoritative Smritis is also said to be 18. But as 
the- Pur&nas, including Upapuranas, number more than 18, so do the Sm.ritis also. 
Many of the Smritis have been lost or found in fragments or some of their texts 
in commentaries or digests only. 

It is not improbable, that some of the Smritis were lost during the Buddhist 
supremacy in this country. But, then* oi\ the othey haad, some Smritis were 



composed daring the Buddhist period of Indian History. This is evident from 
Madhava's Introduction to his commentary on Paras'ara Smriti. For he writes : — 

Gr^fPsir^injnoqnFtew^ i ng^TT^^sm' $° II. 2. 6., 2.) 

(Parfisara-Madhava, B. 8.8. Vol. I, part 1. pp. 7—10). 

From the above it is evident that Buddhistic and also Jaina Smritis were 
prevalent in Southern India in the time of MSdhava — the commentator on Par&s'ara, 
But where are those Smritis now ? 

In the 43rd Chapter of the Uttara Khanda of Padma Purftua occur the following 
verses : — 

orfovT mad* sttot: o«wft » 

wtgri^ *>m?% siR^t s*n: II 
^ra^f qig^ra^ snip* ^ I 
^torto l^q^ iisrar: *?*t^t m 

aiwi tor^N q^^rg; f^wip u 

Thus Smritis wore classified in three classes, viz :— (1) S'atvik, (2) Rftjasik and 
(8) Tdmasik. It is not improbable that the Tfimasik gmfitis referred to the 
Buddhistic ones. 

The influence of Buddhism on Hindu Smyitis will be evident from the word 
vinaya used in them. As has been shown by the translator, it does not mean 
" modest," but " discipline," the sense in which it is used in Buddhist literature. 

The age of Yajnavalkya. 

In his Indian wisdom, the late Sir Monier Williams wrote. 

" The most important Law-book next to Manu is the Dharma-aastraof YAjnaval- 
kya, which, with its most celebrated commentary, tho Mit&ksarft by Vijnctnesvara, 
is at present tho principal authority of tho school of Bonares and Middle India. 16 
seems originally to have emanated from a school of the White Yajur-veda in MithilA* 
or North Behar, just as wo have seen (p. 213) that tho Code of the Manavas did from 
a school of the Black Yajur-voda in tho neighbourhood of Dolhi. 

" Y&jnavalkya's work is much more concise than that of Manu, being all com- 
prised in throe books instoad of twelve, which circumstance leads to tho inferenco 
that it has suffered oven more curtailment at tho hands of successive revisers of 

* According to Dr. Roor, it is still the loading authority of tho MithilA school, 
but Colobrooko namos other works as constituting tho chief texts of this school, 



tho original text than the Code of tho Mfinavas. Like that Code, it seems to have 
been preceded by a Vriddha and a Vpihad YAjuavalkya, Tho whole work, as wo 
now possess it, is written in tho ordinary Sloka metre. * * * * * 

u As to the date of Yftjfiavalkya's Law-book, it has boon conjccturally placed in 
the middle of tho first century of our era. Tho period of its first compilation cannot, 
of course, be fixed with certainty, but internal evidence clearly indicates that the 
present redaction is much more recent than that of Manu's Law-book. 

" Tho following points have been noted by mo : 

1. Although Y&jtfavalkya's Code must have represented the customs and 
practices prevalent in a district (Mithild) situated in a different and more easterly 
part of India, yet nearly every precept in the first book, and a great many in the 
second and third, have their parallels in similar precepts occurring throughout the 
Code of the M&navas. 

2. Although generally founded on Manu, it represents a later stage of Hindu 
development. Its arrangement is much more systematic. It presents fewer repeti- 
tions and inconsistencies, and less confusion of religion, morality, and philosophy, 
with civil and criminal law. 

3. In Book I, 3 the sources of law are expanded beyond those stated by Manu ; 
although afterwards in I. 7 Manu's fourfold Dharma-mfilam (see p. 216) is adopted, 
thus : 

4 The Vedas, with the Puranas, the Nyaya, the Mim&msa, the codes of law 
(dharma-sdstra), and the (six) Ved&ngas are the fourteen repositories (sthdndni) of 
the sciences (vidyandm) and of law (dharmasya, I. 3). 

i The Veda (sruti), traditional law (smriti), the practices of good men (sad- 
dchdra), and one's own inclination, are called the root of law' (I. 7). 

- 4. Those of its precepts which introduce new matter evince a more advanced 
Brahmanism and a stricter caste-organization ; thus, for example, it is directed in I, 
57 that a BrShmana must not have a Sfldra as a fourth wife, but only wives of the 
three higher classes, whereas in Manu (see p. 250) such a wife is permitted.* 

5. In I. 271, 272, there is an allusion to the shaven heads (munda) and yellow 
garments (kashdtja-vasas) of the Buddhists, which marks a period subsequent to the 
establishment and previous to the expulsion of Buddhism. It must be admitted, 
however, that there is no mention of the Buddhists by name. 

6. In II. 185 the king is recommended to found and endow monasteries and to 
place in them Brahmanas, learned in the Vedas. 

7. In II. 241 mention is made of Ndnaka, c coined money,' both true and coun- 
terfeit (afrwfa and Mtaha), whereas, although Manu speaks of weights of gold and 
silver, such as Suvarnas, Palas, Niskas, Dharanas, and Puranas (VIII. 135-137), it is 
very doubtful whether any stamped coin was current in his day. 

8. Written accusations and defences (lehhya) are required to be made (II. 6, 7), 
and written documents (likhitam) are allowed as evidence (II. 22) ; and in I. 318 
grants of land and copper-plates, properly sealed, are mentioned. 

9. The worship of Ganesa, as the remover of obstacles, is expressly alluded to 
in I. 270, and Graha-yaina or * offerings to the planets' are directed to be made in 
I. 294. 

10. In III, 110 the author of the Code (Y&jnavalkya) speaks of an Aranyaka or 
Upanisad (of the White Yajur-veda), which he had himself received from the Sun, 

* Later Codes limit Brahmanas to wives of their own classes only. 


and of a Yoga-sastra, « Yoga system of philosophy/ which he had himself delivered 
(to Patanjali).* 

" Some of these points seem decisive as to the lapse of a considerable period 
between Manu and Yajuavalkya, and lead us to agree with those who hesitate to 
refer the latter Code, in its present form, to a later epoch than the first century of 
our era-t On the other hand, some of the facts stated incline us to attribute a 
greater antiquity to portions of the work than that usually assigned to it." 

No Sanskrit scholar looks upon Yajuavalkya of the Vedic period as the 
author of the Smriti known by his name. Yajnavalkya Smriti, as it is, cannot be 
older than the seventh century of the Christian era. Sir Rdmkrisna Gopal Bhand&r- 
kar's opinion has been quoted at the end of the XI Chapter on the worship of 
Ganapati. (See P. 380.) 

Yajnavalkya Smriti has not been critically studied, and therefore, great 
uncertainty existed as to its age. It is more a compilation than an original work. 
It should be remembered that it is not an authoritative Smriti for any Yuga. 
Manu was for Satya, Gautama for Treta, Sankha for Dwapara and Parasara for 
Kaliyuga. But YSjnavalkya is not mentioned for any age. How is the fact, then, 
of its being more popular than any other Smriti (with the exception of Manu) to be 
accounted for ? This is to be explained from the systematic manner in which it has 
arranged in books and chapters all the subjects with which Smritis deal. It is popu- 
lar just as a text book compiled by some competent teacher is popular rather than 
a series of monographs prepared by specialists. No other Smpiti is so comprehensive 
as is Yajnavalkya. Some of the verses have been reproduced from Manu. This 
has been shown by Biihler in his translation of Laws of Manu, published in S. B. E. 
Vol. XXV. Then again Jolly has shown (in S. B. E. Vols. VII and XXXIII), that it is 
greatly indebted to Visnu and Narada Smritis for some of its verses. 

But its indebtedness to the Pur&nas has been ignored by Sanskrit Scholars. 
It has not been pointed out by any one yet (with the exception of Weber to be 
referred to presently), that Yajnavalkya has borrowed from some of the Pur&nas. 
The translator has shown the chapters and some of the verses borrowed in this 
Smriti from the Matsya, Visnu and Markandeya Puranas. It is not improbable 
that it has borrowed from other Pur&nas as well. 

The second book on Vyavahara is also met with in the Agni Purana. Weber, 
in his History of Indian Literature p. 281, writes : — 

"Its second book reappears literally in the Agni Purana ; whether adopted 
into tho latter, or borrowed from it, cannot as yet be deter mined. ,, 

It is probable that tho book on Vyavah&ra has been borrowed from the Agni 
Purdna. Tho compiler of Yajuavalkya Smriti has not considered it necessary to 
borrow all tho versos on Vyavahdra, thus omitting many which did not suit his 
purpose. This will bo evident from a comparison of the Vyavahara Adhyaya with 
tho above-named Purana. 

Tho Garuda Purdna contains tho two books on Achfira and Prayaschitta of 

* Soo p. 102 of this volume Patafijali, who flourished, according to Lassen, 
about 200 B.C., is not, however, montiouod in the toxt. 

t Some of YajGavalkya's versos aro found in tho Pancha-tantra, tho date of tho 
oldest portions of which is usually rcforred to tho fifth century of our era. Iu 
almost all Sanskrit works tho introduction of apposito versos from older sources, 
for tho illustration of tho original toxt, is common. " 


Yajnavalkya Smriti. It is difficult to detcrmino tho plagiarist. It seems, however, 
probable that tho Garuda Purdna has borrowed from tho Smriti. 

Tho influence of Pur&nas on Smritis should form tho subject of research by 
somo Sanskrit scholar. Purfinas aro ono of the sources of Hindu Law and how 
much Smpitis aro indebted to them has not been as yet ascortainod. Unfortunately, 
Purftnas havo not been critically studied by modern Sanskrit scholars and henco 
thoir inllucnco on Smfitis remains unknown. 

The age of Vijfuhiesvara. 

According to Dr. G. BUhlcr, Vijfianesvara flourished in tho 11th Century A. D.* 

It is because that tho commentary of Vijfianesvara on YAjfiavalkya Smriti 
bas not beon carofully and critically studied that this uncertainty exists as to tho 
age of that commontator. Some have gone so far as to assert that Madhava in his 
commentary on Parasara Smriti followed Vijfianesvara, Just tho reverse of this is 
tho fact. Vijfianesvara has quoted Madhava.f This shows that he was posterior to 
that great minister of the Vijayanagara Empire. And so he could not have lived 
earlier than the 14th century. 

As to tho nationality of Vijfianesvara there is great uncertainty. It is, how- 
ever, not improbable that he was a Bengali. He calls himself son of Padman&bha 
Bhattopadhyaya. The surname "upadhyaya" in compound with another word 
is peculiarly Bengali. Thus, Vandhya-upadhyaya, Ganga-up&dhyaya, Mukhya- 
up&dhyaya, and Chatta-up&dhyaya. Padmanabha is also a very common Bengali 
name. So Vijfianesvara seems to be a Bengali. 

Although, the Mit&ksara is the law of the Hindus of a large portion of India, 
yet, so far, the whole of it has not been translated into English, or, even the original 
Sanskrit text carefully and critically edited. 


For the proper understanding of Hindu Law, researches on the following line* 
should be conducted : — 

1. The influence of the Vedas, Puranas and Arthasastra on Smritis. 

2. The influence of Buddhism, Jainism, Muhammadanism and also of Portuguese 
Christians on Hindu Law. It will be also an interesting study to trace the influence 
of Roman Law on Hindu Law through the medium of the Arabs and other Muham- 
madan nations. 

3. Reconstruction of fragmentary Smritis scattered in commentaries and 

* See his Note on the age of the author of the MitaksarS, read at a meeting of 
the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, held on 8th October, 1868, and 
publishes in its Journal. 

f See the footnote at page 281 of the present work. 


In the preparation of the translation of the Achara adhyaya, 
some of the most important works consulted, are noted below : — 

Astadhy&yi of Panini, translated by Sris Chandra Vasu. 
Bombay Sanskrit Series :— 

Parasara Smriti, edited by Islampurkar. 

Vasista Dharma Sastra, Edited by Dr. Fuhrer. 
Colebrooke's Digest of Hindu Law 3rd Edition, Madras 1864. 
Gautama, Edited by Stenzler. 

Grihya Sutras— original texts published in the Bibliotheca Indica and Mysore 
Sanskrit Series and Translations in the S. B E. 

Kautilya's Arthaaastra, original Text and English translation by Samasastry 
of Mysore. 

M&rkandeya Puranam (Sanskrit text of Jivananda, and English translation by 
Mr. Pargiter). 

Matsya Puranam (Sanskrit text of Anandasram edition and English translation 
in the S. B. H.) 

Nyaya Laukikanjali, by Col. Jacob. 

Pfirva Mimamsa, in Saddarsana Chintanika, Edited by M. M. Kimte. 
Sanskrit— English Dictionary by Monier— Williams— 1899. 
Sacred Books of the East, Edited by Rt. Hon'ble Professor Max Miiller. 
Sacred Books of the Hindus, Edited by Major B. D. Basu, I.M.S. (Retd.). 
Siddhanta Kaumudi, original text and translation into English by S. C. V. and 
V. D. V. 

Smritis— original text of 27 Smritis published by the Anand&sram of PfinS, and 
English translation by Manmatha Nath Dutt. 

Vedic Concordance by Bloomfield published in Harvard Oriental Series. 

Vis nu Purfinam— Sanskrit text Edited by Jiv&nanda and English translation 
by Prof.H. H. Wilson and Edited by F. P. Hall. 

West and Buhler's Digest of Hindu Law, 3rd Edition. 

Yajnavalkya Smriti, translated into English by Roer and Montrion, Calcutta, 
1861 and by Rao Saheb V. N. M£ndalik, Bombay, 1880. 

&c. &c. &c. &c. &c. 

Abbreviations used. 

A. V.=Atharva Veda. 

B. S. S.— Bombay Sanskrit Series. 

J. B. B. R. A. S.= Journal of the Bombay Branch, Royal Asiatic Society. 

M. W.=Monior William's Sanskrit and English Dictionary, 3rd Edition, 1899. 

R. V.= Rig- Veda. 

S. B. E.= Sacred Books of the East, Edited by Right, Hon'ble Prof. M. Muller. 
S. B. H.=Sacrcd Books of the Hindus, Edited by Major B. D. Basu, I.M.S. 



Vi. Sm.=Vi?nu Smriti, Edited and translated by Jolly, 



Book First— ACHiRA ADHYAYA. 
Chapter First — Introduction. 

Vi j wanes vara' s Salutation. 

He, in whom there exist under complete subjugation, the 
Dharma and non-Dharma, with their three-fold results, as well as 
the five kinds of pains, which overpower all living beings and who 
is untouched by ^11 these, is the Lord. I praise that Visnu who 
is designated by the syllable Om. 


• • • 

Laksmi, the mother of children, bows down to the Beloved-of-Laksmi (Visnu) 
and to Sri Laksmi. Her father was Mahadeva by name, learned in the Vedas up to 
Jat& Patha, well versed in the meaning of Srutis and Smritis : a Diksita Brahman 
and honored by kings. Her mother was Um& virtuous as t m&, (the wife of Siva). 
Mahadeva was son of Krisna, son of Ganesa, of Mudgala clan and Kherada country. 
She, the wife of Vaidyanatha Payaguntla, devoted to her husband, composes this 
Mitaksara Vivriti for the instruction of all. 


Of the four aims of life— religious merit (dharma), wealth (artha), pleasure 
(kama) and Release (Moksa)— the moksa is the Summum Bonum, the highest aim, 
the Parama-Purusartha, and it is universally so acknowledged by all Revelations 
(Sruti), Traditions (Smriti), Legends (Puranas), &c. For the attainment of this, 
Yoga is the specific means. Having resolved this in mind, Vijuanesvara undertakes 
to comment upon that Dharma-Sastra in which Yoga teachings predominate and 
which is composed by the Yogis vara Yajnavalkya who is constantly immersed in 
Yoga. The four aims like dharma, &c, are under the control of the Lord, and 
without His grace they cannot be acquired or understood, hence VijnanesVara reve- 
rently bows to the Lord, before composing his commentary. The salutation is 
couched in words which show the intimate acquaintance of the commentator with 



Yoga. [Thus he describes the Lord in the almost identical terms of the Yoga 
SQtra I 24:— " A being free from Klesa and Karma-vip&ka, &c." The word Kelsa is 
a technical term of Yoga and is defined in Sutra II. 8. The word bhoga is similarly 
a technical term of Yoga defined in II. 13.] This salutation shows that Vijiianesvara 
is himself a Yogin and therefore eompetent to comment on the Dharma-Sastra of 
Yogi Yajnavalkya. 

The good and evil acts — dharma and adharma— lawful and unlawful deeds^ 
constitute the seed or Karm&saya, from which grow the three-fold results, namely, 
jati (high or low. birth as a Brahmana, &c.) Ayu or life period (long or short), and 
bhoga (suffering). The five pains are Nescience, Egoism, Love, Hatred, and Death- 
Terror. The Nescieuce is false belief, taking the impure for pure, the non-eternal 
for eternal, the sorrowful for bliss, and the non-Self for the Self. (See Yoga 
aphorisms II. 3 to 18.). Asmitft or Egoism consists in thinking that there is no soul 
other than the bodies, &c. The word dyatante means exist under complete control. 
Though these are under the control sometimes of the Jivas also, yet they are not 
full master of them and are influenced by them : the Lord is not influenced by these 
nor conditioned by them. The reason of His not being touched by these is because 
He is the Lord, the Isa : the controller of all, whose will is Omnipotent. His name 
is Om (Yoga Sutra, I. 27). So also Yogi Yajnavalkya says The God whose form is 
invisible, who is comprehended only through love, who is pure Intelligence, is 
designated by Om. He becomes gracious when called by that name of Qm, 


Vijnanesvara's Fore-word. 

That Institute of the Sacred Laws which was ordained briefly by 
the sage Yajnyavalkya and which was expounded by Vislvarupa in a 
profuse and profound commentary, is now being explained in an 
easy and concise (Mitaksara) style, for the comprehension of children 
(of men of small understanding.) 


u The Dharma-S'&stra " or the Institute of the Sacred Laws means the Yfij naval-* 
kya Samhitd, from which may be acquired the knowledge relating to Dharma. The 
word 4 rijubhih ' « easy ' means clear and distinct. The word " Mit&ksaraih " isa 
Bahuvrihi oompound : the words (aksara) of which are measured (rnita)— measured^ 
syllabled. The word 'vivichyato* (* 13 being explained') means making clear by 
showing the harmony of this Smriti with the other Smfitis, or as supplying some 
hiatus in other Smritis, or where there is a conflict, to declare that thoro is an option. 
The word * rauhu r * profuse ' means again and again ; the word ' vikata/ 4 profound 1 
moans very deep : the word 4 ukti * (commentary or saying) means explanation. This 
shows that the Mit&ksara is an abridgment of VisvarOpa's larger work : and it is 
meant for those who are not competent to understand the bigger work and are called 
b&la or children or men of small understanding. Thoso whoso ago is of eight years 
or so and have boon just initiated, are callod hero tyUa. They should learn thei? 
duties from it, 



Some pupil of Yajnavalkya, having abridged the Institutes of 
the Sacred Laws composed by Yajnavalkya, recites it in the form of 


question and answer, as the Institutes of Manu were recited by 
Bhrigu* ; and its first verse is this : — 


• • 

Tho Yfijnavalkya SamhifcA composed in verse is the work of some disciple of 
Yijnavalkya, who has abridged the original Sacred Institute of his master, and 
teaches it to his own pupils. This is not a unique case, tho original Institutes of 
Manu woro abridged by Bhrigu, and this is tho Manu Samhitd that wo now know. 
Thus wo read in Manu (I. 58, &c.) : "But ho, having composed these Institutes of 
Sacred Law, himself taught them, according to the rule, to me alone in the begin- 
ning : next I taught them to Marichi and the other sages. Bhrigu here will fully 
recite to you these Institutes." " Tho wise Manu sprung from the Self-existent, 
composed these Institutes" (Ibid. v. 102). "Bowing to Svayambhfi Brahma of 
measureless energy I shall recite the various ancient Dharmas taught by Manu " 
(Ibid 1, t. as in Jolly). This shows that the Institutes of Manu are the work of a 
follower of Manu : and such is the case with this Y&jnavalkya Samhit&. 


* L— The sages having worshipped fully Yaj naval- 
kya, the best of the yogis, asked : — " Tell us completely 
the Dharmas of classes, of orders and of others." — 1. 



1 • 

' " Of the yogis " like Sanaka, and the rest. " I^vara " best : 
(and not lord). Worshipped " fully " with mind, speech, and bodily 
deeds, the said Yajnavalkya. " The sages" like Sama^rava and 
others (who are) capable of understanding and retaining (the scrip- 
tures). "Asked" said. u Tell us the Dharmas" How? "Com- 
pletely" : — comprehensively. Of whom ? " of classes, orders and 

" Classes " (Varnas) like those of Brahmanas &c. " Orders " 
(A^ramas) as Brahmachari (student, Grihastha, householder, &c), 
<Cf Itara " others ; mixed classes, called anuloma (born of wives lower 
in caste than the husband) and pratiloma (born of females higher in 
caste than the father) ; such as Murdhavasikta, &c 

The word " Itara " (other) has not been treated as a pronoun 
on account of the grammatical rule " dvande cha" (Prlnini, I, 1, 
31, by which the pronouns like Itara &c, when coming in Dvanda 
compounds are declined like substantives.) 

Here (in the above question) the word dharma means the six 
topics of Dharma of which the Smritis treat. Thus (1) the Varna- 
dharma or the law (or duty) of castes ; (2) the " Asframa " Dharma or 

* See Manu I, 58—60 for how Bhrigu recites the Institutes composed by Manu, 



the law of orders ; (3) the " Varna-rframa-Dharma" or the law of the 
orders of particular castes ; (4) the " Guna-Dharma " the law (or 
duty) of persons endowed with peculiar qualities ; (5) the Nimitta- 
Dharma or the law of particular occasions ; and (6) the Sadharana- 
Dharma or the general law. 

The Varna- Dharma or the duties relating to classes are such as 
,c Let a Brahmana always abstain from wine," &c. [Gautama II. 20. 
(Stenzler's edition »]. 

The A^rama-Dharma or the duties of orders are such as treat 
of fire, fuel and begging of alms, &c. 

The Varna-sframa-Dharma or the duties relating both to classes 
and orders, are such as a Brahmana student of the Vedas should 
carry a staff of Palaiia wood, &c. (Ap. Gr. S. IV. 11. 15 and A^valayana 
Gr. S. I. 19. 13). 

The Guna-Dharma (the special duties) are such as : — " It is the 
highest duty of a king who has been, according to scriptures, 
duly anointed (and possessed of other qualities), to protect the sub- 
jects, &c." 

The Nimitta- Dharma (or secondary duties) are such as, penances 
which are occasioned by omitting to perform what is commanded or 
committing what is forbidden. 

The Sadharana-Dharma (or the general duties) are such as 
harmlessness, &c. " Do not injure any living being," &c, which are 
the general duties (of all men) down to Chandalas. 

Because the revealed text " Let him be taught the rites of 
purification" (v. 15) is a precept (vidhi) for employing an acharya 
(teacher, to teach the Dharma ^astra), the necessity of studying the 
Dharma fkstras need not be much dilated upon. 

This is, however, the order in which it should be studied. 
Before Upanayana (or investiture with the sacred thread) one is free 


to act as he likes, speak what he likes and eat what he likes.* After 
Upanayana but before the beginning of the study of the Vedas, the 
Dharma ^astras are to be taught. After that the Vedas should be 
studied, accompanied by forbearance (yama) and religious 
observances (niyama) as laid down in the Dharma ^astra.t After 

* Cf. Gautama, Chapter II, Verso 1 : — " Boforo initiation a child may follow its 
inclinations in behaviour, spooch and eating." Soo Manu II, 69. 

j Forbearance consists of not killing, voracity, not stoaling, continence and 
not coveting. Religious observances are purification, contentment, austerity, 
prayer and porsovcring devotion to tho Lord. 



that its meaning should be learned ; after that its Anufthdna or 
acting upon it practically. 

Though Dharma (religion), wealth, pleasure and emancipation 
are all treated of or demonstrated in this Scripture, yet Dharma, 
being the chief of all these, is specially mentioned, by calling it a 
Dharma $astra, and Dharma is supreme, because all the others have 
their foundation in it. It ought not to be said that " Dharma is the 
root of wealth, and wealth is the root of Dharma and so there is no 
difference between these two." Because without wealth works of 
Dharma can be done, such as japa (muttering silently the name of 
Deity), austerities, pilgrimages, &c. But without Dharma there can 
not be a particle of wealth. Such is also the case with kdma 
(pleasure) and Moksa (emancipation), i.e., they are also dependent on 


II. — That best of the Yogis seated in Mithila, 
thought for a short time, and then said to the sages : — 
" In what country there is black antelope, Dharmas 
must be known (performed) there. — 2. 


Being so asked, that best of the Yogis, Yajnavalkya, dwelling 
in the city called Mithila, " thought for a short time " or concen- 
trated his mind for a short time, considering within himself, that as 
these enquirers deserve hearing this Dharma $astra and they ask 
with humility, so it is proper to tell them, and, therefore, he said to 
the sages : — " In what country there is black antelope, in that 
Dharma must be known." The country in which the black, the 
spotted antelope freely roams, in that country the Dharmas which 
will be described hereinafter, are to be practised. The sense being 
that they should not be practised anywhere else. 0 

The Sources of Law. 

" Let him be taught the rites of purification " (v. 15) is the 
precept enjoining the Acharya to teach the Dharma f^astra. From 
what, however, is it concluded that a pupil must learn it ? The 
author replies. 

* Sec Maim II, 23 :— " That, land where the black antelope naturally roams, one 
must know to be fit for the performance of sacrifices. 




III. — The Puranas, the Nya)^a, the Mimansa, the 
Dharma &astra, together with the Angas and the Vedas 
are the fourteen seats or sources of sciences and of 
Dharma. — 3- 


" The P uranas," such as Brahma Purana, &c. " The Nyaya " 
or the science of argumentation. " The Mimansa" or the interpreta- 
tion of the saying of the Vedas. " The Dharma £>astra " such as 
those of Manu, &c. " The Afigas n are the six sciences, viz. y Gram- 
mar, &c. Over and above these are the four " Vedas." The 
sciences are the knowledge by which any human object is accom- 
plished, and their sources are fourteen. " The seats " or sources of 
Dharma are also fourteen. . These must be studied by the three 
classes. The Dharma $astra must also be studied, because it is in- 
cluded among the above enumeration. 

The Brahmana must acquire these, in order to instruct others 
and to practise Dharma. The Ksatriyas and Vai^yas must study 
these in order to practise Dharma only. So ^afikha, after having 
enumerated the seats of sciences, ordains " A Brahmana must learn 
all these s and he should impart knowledge to the others." 

Manu has also shown that the twice-born alone are entitled to. 
study the Dharma ^astras and a Brahmana alone can teach them and 
no one else. 

" Know that he for whom (the performance of) the ceremonies 
beginning with the rite of impregnation (garbhadhana) and ending 
with the funeral rite (antyesti) is prescribed, while sacred formulas 
are being recited, is entitled to study these Institutes but no other 
man whatsoever." (Manu II. 16.) 

" A learned Brahmana must carefully study them, and he must 
duly instruct his pupils in them, but nobody else shall do it." 
(ManuL 103.) 


Tho characteristics of a Purftna arc thus described in the Matsya Purftna : — 
".The PurAnas have five topiss, (they deal with) creation, dissolution, dynasties, 
the Manvantaras and tho career of tho Kings of tho solar and lunar dynasties. 1 ' 
(Matsya Purftna LI1T. 64.) 

" The knowers of tho PurAnas say that there are eighteen PurAnas : — 1. Pfid- 
ma, 2. Brahma, 3. Vai§nava, 4. Saiva, 5. Bh&gavata, 6. Naradiya,7. Mfirkandeya, the 


seventh, 8. Agncya, tho eighth, 9. Bhavisya, tho ninth, 10. Brahmavalvarta, the tenth, 
11. Lin gam, the eleventh, 12. VArllm, tho twelfth, 13. Skanda, tho thirteenth, 14. 
Vftmanaka, tho fourteenth, 15. Kaurma, tho fifteenth, 16. Matsya, 17. Garuda, and 18. 
B rah m fin tla. 

" Tho story of Narasimha told in the Padma Purana consisting of 18,000 verses 
is called Narasimha Parana. Tho description of tho greatness of Nandft, recited by 
Kfirtikoya is called Nandd Purfina among mankind. That which is rocited to Samba, 
containing prophecies, is called Samba Parana, O sages. Thus also is to bo found 
therein the Aditya PurSua." (Matsya LIII. 59-62.) 

" Know yo, O best of the twice-born, that the Puranas othor than the eighteen 
mentioned above, have their origin in these eighteen. ,, (Ibid, 63.) 

[The Matsya Purana then goes on to give a short description of these eighteen 

1. The Br&hma.—" The Purina recited of yore by Brahma to Marichi is called 
the Brahma Purana, and it consists of 13,000 verses (Ibid, v. 12.) 

2. The Padma,— 1 ' The Padma Purana describes the cosmic Golden Lotus (from 
which the universe came out). The wise call it Padma, because it describes the 
Lotus. It contains 55,000 verses. (Jbid, v. 14.) 

3. TheVisnu P.— " That Purana is known as the Vaisnava (the Visnu Purana) 
in which Paras'ara describes all Dharmas, beginning with a description of Varaha 
Kalpa (Ibid, v. 16.) It contains 23,000 verses. 11 [The Visnu Dharmottara should be 
taken as a portion of the well-known Visnu Purana in order to make up the 23,000 
verses. Otherwise the Visnu Purana has only 7,000 verses.] 

4. The Sim P.—" The iS'aiva or Vayu Purana is that in which the Mahatma 
Vayu describes fully the Dharmas, in the course of a description of the Sveta Kalpa, 
containing the mabatmya of Rudra. It consists of 24,000 verses.*' (Ibid, 18). 

5. The Bhagavata P.— "The Bhagavata Purana is that which begins with 
Gayatri, and contains description of manifold Dharmas, together with the story 
of the death of Vritra. The Bhagavata contains a description of those degraded 
men who exist in the Sarasvata Kalpa. It gives an account of that kalpa. It 
contains 18,000 verses." (Ibid, v. 18^22.) 

6. The Ndrada P.— "The" Naradiya Purfina is that wherein Narada tells all 
Dharmas of Brihat Kalpa. It contains 53,000 verses. (Ibid, v. 23.) 

7. The Markandeya P. — " The Markancleya is said to be the Purana told to the 
birds. It contains description of Dharma and Adharma and has 9,000 verses" 
(Ibid, 26). 

8. The Agni Purciya.— " The Agni Purana is recited by Agni to Vasistha, des- 
cribing the story of Isana Kalpa. It contains 16,000 verses and is the giver of the 
fruit of all sacrifices," (Ibid, 28 and 29). 

9. The Bhavisija P. — " The Bhavisya is the Parana in which the four-faced 
Brahma, the Protector of the world, describes the greatness of Aditya, and in the 
course of the narration of Agbora Kalpa, recites to Manu, the creation and susten- 
ance of the world and characteristics of various kinds of beings. It consists of 
14,500 verses. It contains five Parvas :— 1. Brahma Parva, 2. Vaisnava Parva 
3. Vajra Parva, 4. Tvastra Parva, 5. PratlbhSsya Parva. 

10. The Brahma Vaivarta P.—" The Brahma Vaivarta is that Purana in which 
beginning with the description of Rathantara Kalpa, Savarni tells Narada the 
mShatmya of Krisna, and in which Brahma recites the actions of VarSha. It con- 
tains 18,000 verses." (Ibid, 33, 84). 

U. The Unga P.— " That Purfina which the God Mahesvara revealed standing 



in the column (linga) of fire, that a man may attain Dharma (virtue), Kdnia (pleasure), 
artha (wealth) and emancipation, and which begins with a description of Agneya. 
Kalpa is the Linga Purana. It is so described by Brahma himself. It contains 
11,000 verses : (Ibid, v. 37). 

12. The Vardha P.— " The Purana told by Visnu to the Earth, in the course of 
the description of Manava Kalpa, beginning with the praise of the Great Boar, 
containing 24,000 verses is called the Varaha Purana." (Ibid, 38). 

13. The Skdnda P.- " The Purana told by the six-faced (Kartikeya) in the course 
of the description of Kim Purusa Kalpa, containing the Mahesvara Dharmas, and 
many stories is called the Skanda Purana. It contains 81,101 verses," (Ibid, v. 42). 

14. The Vamana P. — " Where beginning with the mahatmya of the DwarMncar- 
nation, Brahuid relates fully the three-fold end of man, that is called the Vamana 
Purdna. It contains 10,000 verses, appertaining to Ktirma Kalpa." (Ibid, 45). 

15. The Kurma P. — Where in the course of the story of Indradumna, the Lord 
Janardana, in the form of a Tortoise, recited the greatness of the Risis, that Purdna 
is known as the Kaurma by the wise It contains 17,000 verses, and is appertain- 
ing to Laksmi Kalpa." (Ibid, v. 47). 

16. The Matsyn P.—" In the beginning of the kalpa, Janardana, with a view to 
promulgate the revelations (S'rutis), assuming the form of a fish described to Manu 
the story of Nara-Simha, &c. It contains the account of seven kalpas (?) O sages ! 
know that to be the Matsya. It has 14,000 verses, (Ibid, v. 50). 

17. The Garuda P — " That which describes the birth of Garuda from the Cosmi 
Egg in the Gdruda Kalpa and which is recited by Kpisna, is called Gdruda Purdna 
and it contains 18,001 verses," (Ibid, v. 52). 

18. The Brahminda P. — " That which begins with a description of the radhdtmya 
of the Cosmic Egg and which contains 12,200 verses ; and wherein are the descrip- 
tions of many future Kalpas, is the Brahmanda Purana. 

The Brahma Purdna is called also the Adi Purdna. The Siva Purdna is called 
also the Vayu Purana : as we find in the Kdlika Purdna :— " The Saiva is the 
Purana told bv Vayu, &c." 

The Agni Purana is called Vahni Purdna also in the enumeration of the Puranas. 

The two Bhdgavata Pnrdyas. Which is the Purdna and which the Upa-Pura>ia. — 
[There are two Puranas under the name of Bhagavata, 1. the Visnu Bhdgavata or 
tho well-known Bhagavata; and 2. the Devi Bhagavata. There is a controversy 
as to which of these is the Purdna, and which tho Upa pura na— for both cannot 
be Puranas. Bdlambhatta appears to hold the Visnu Bhdgavata to be the original.] 

We find in the Kdlika Purana :— " This Kdlikd Purdna has its root in the Bhfiga- 
vata." This Bhdgavata is an Upa-Purdna, as will be shown later on. 

Opponent's view.— But some, however, think that the Devi Bhdgavata is the 
Purdna, and not tho well-known Bhdgavata : for in the well-known Bhdgavata wo 
do not meet with any description of tho Sdrasvata Kalpa, (which is the characteris- 
tic of this Purdna according to tho description above given in the Matsya Purdna). 

Moreover in tho Matsya Purana (Liii. v. 09) wo read " Vydsa, the son of 
Batyavati, having composed tho eighteen Purdnas, finished with tho composing 
of Mahabhdrata, as an explanation of theso." While in tho well-known Bhdgavata 
Purdna wo find that it was composed (not prior to tho Mahabhdrata, but) after tho 
Mahdbhdrata : because Vydsa did not fool satisfaction in tho Mahdbhdrata. Moro- 
ovor the Visnu Bhdgavata conti*adicts tho Mahdbhdrata. In tho latter in tho 
Santi Parva, BhTsma in his discourse Dharma in general, tolls Yudhisthir* tho 
naturo of Mukti or Ilelcaso as taught by £uka, and says that iSuka had attained 



Mukti. Why should thon Vyisa say in the Bhflgavata that 6uka should relate it 
to Pariks'it, when Suka had already attained Nirvftna and could not come back ? 

In tho Visnu Purina (HI. 17.41) in describing the Buddha Avat&ra, we read: 
" Hari gave them Buddha, the incarnation of Illusion and delusion/' [The birth of 
Buddha is described horo as from the body of Visnu]. But in the first Skanda (of 
the V. Bhfigavata) tho Buddha is described as identical with Jina born in tho 
family of lkfvftku. This contradicts Visnu Pur&na. For those and other reasons, 
even Sridhara, tho commentator on (Visnu) Bh&gavata expresses his doubt. 

Reply.- -As a matter of fact, though we do not find in it a description of S&ras- 
vata Kalpa, yet we find in it tho description of the rise of degraded men : (so it 
satisfies ono of tho conditions of the Matsya Purdna). Though it was composed 
after the Mahabharata, yet there is no conflict with tho description of the Matsya 
Pur&na whore the Mahabh&rata is described as being composed after the Pur&nas. 
VySsa composed all the eighteen Puranas before the Mah&bhfirata, but published 
only the seventeen of them ; while this Bhagavata was published after that, &c. 

[B&lambhatta answers all the above objections and comes to the conclusion 
that the arguments of the opponent are not very conclusive and that the weight 
of authority is in favour of the Visnu Bh&gavata being the original Purana.] 

The Saura Purana is an Upa-Purana that has branched out of Brahma Pur&na. 

Three kinds of Puranas. — We further read in the Matsya PurSna : — 44 In the 
Sattvika Kalpas, the glory of Hari predominates ; in the R&jasa Kalpas, the pre- 
dominance is of Brahma ; and in the Tamasa Kalpas, the preponderance is of Agni 
and Siva : and in the miscellaneous Kalpas, the glory of the Pityis and Sarasvati 
is sung. (Matsa Liii, 67 and 68). 

The two Vi?nu Puranas.— The Visnu Pur&na is also of two sorts, one a Pur&na 
and the other an Upa-Purana. 

The total number of verses. — The total number of verses in the Pur&nas and 
Itihasas is given in the Matsya Pur&na. After describing the Mah&bharata it 
goes on to say : — 44 It is composed in one lac verses and is a summary of the meaning 
of the Vedas. That which was composed by Valmiki (is also an Itih&sa). There are 
altogether 5 lacs and 25 thousand verses in all these." 



Litt from the Kurma Purana. — Now we shall describe the Upa-Pur&nas, enume- 
rated in the list of Upa-Smritis in the HemadrL There the following quotation of 
Kurma Purana is given 41 Other Upa-Pur£pas have also been recited by the sages. 
The first is that recited by (1) Sanat Kumara, then (2) the N&rasimha ; then (3) Kapi- 
la, then (4) the Manava (or V&mana)> then (5) the TJsanas, (6) the Bnhm&nda, (7) 
the Varupa, (8) the K£lika, (9) the Mahesvara, (10) the Sdmba, (11) the Saura, (12) 
theParasara (the Pravara), (13) the Bhagavata, (Kflrma 1, 15—20). 

Pa rdsara J s h'st.— " The following list of the Upa-Pura pas is found in the first 
Adhyaya of the Parasara Upa-Purana also : — 1, the Sanat Kum&ra, 2. the Narasimha, 
8. the N&da, 4. the Siva-Dharma, 5. the Daurv&sa, 6. the Naradiya, 7. the Kapila, 8. 
the M&nava, 9. the Usanas, 10. the Brahmanda, 11. the VSruna, 12. the K&li Purana, 
13. the V&sistha, 14, the Lainga, 15. the Samba, 16, the Saura, 17. Pardsara, 18. the 
MSricha, called also the Bhargava. 

The authority of the Puranas. — As regards the status of the Par&naS on points 
of law, Vyasa Smriti says 44 That is the highest law (Dharma) which is revealed 
in the Vedas. That is to be known as inferior which is taught in the Pur£nas and 
the rest. But what is different from these even, calling itself Dharma, must be 




totally renounced by the wise from a distance, for those scriptures are full of delu- 
sion. The knower of the Vedas should perform that which was done by the Risis 
of yore : let him practise thafc with care and diligence, and renounce that which is 
prohibited by them." 

So also : " There may be a mistake made in understanding some passages of the 
Vedas by one's own exertion, but when the Risis have explained them, \yhat doubts 
can there be to the wise," 

The authors of Smritis. 

* . • • 

Let it be that Dharma fckstras should be studied. But what 
is the authority of this particular Dharma ^astra composed by yajnar 
valkya? To this the author replies. 


IV. -^-Maim, Atri, Visnu, Harita, Yajnavalkya, 
Usanas, Angiras, Yama, Apastamba, Samvarta, Katya- 
yana, Brihaspati. — 4. 

V. — Parasara, Vyasa, &ankh, Likhita, Daksa, Gau- 
tama, Satatapa and Vasistha are the promulgators of 
Dharma &astras. — 5. 



Up to the word Usanas the sentence is a copulative compound 
inflected in the singular (Dvandvaikavad bhava). 

This Dharma Sastra propounded by Yajnavalkya should also 
be studied, such is the implied meaning of the above passage. This 
is not an exhaustive enumeration (parisankhya) but it is merely 
illustrative. Therefore the Dharma f^astras of Baudhayana and 
others are not excluded. As each, of these Smritis possesses authori- 
ty, so the points not mentioned by one, may be supplied from the 
others. But if one set of institutes contradicts the other, then there 
is an option (to follow any one of them).* 


Dovala gives tfyo following listof tho Dharma-SAstras :— t. Mann, 2. Yama, 3. 
Vasistha, 4. Atri, 5. Daksa, 0. Visnu, 7. Angird, 8. Usanft 9, Vakpati, 10. Vy^sa ; 11, 
Apastamba, 12. Gautama, 13. KAtyAynna, 14. NArada, 15. Yfijilavalkya, 16. Parfisarq, 
17. Samvarta, 18. Spnkhn,, 19. ITfirita, 20, Likhita. 

* Soo Manu. II. 14 for conflict of fcruti, &c. 

" But when two sacred toxts (Sruti) aro conflicting both are hold to be law ; 
for both are pronounced by the wiso to be valid tew." 



In this list Nftrada is an addition, while in tho Y& navalkya's list we have 
S&t&tapa instead. 

The s'aukha gives tho following list :— 1. Atri, 2. Brihaspati, 3. Uaanas, 4. 
Apastauiba, 5. Vasistha, 0. Katyayana, 7. Paraaara, 8. Vyftsa, 9. Sankha, 10. Likhita, 
11. Sainvarta, 12. Gautama, 13. Sfit&tapa, 14. Hftrita, 15. Ydjilavalkya, 16. Prachetas 
and tho rest By the phraso "and tho rest ,? is meant 17. Budha, 18. Devala, 
19. Sumantu, 20. Jamadagni. 21. VMvftmitra, 22. Prajipati, 23. Paithinasi, 24. Pit&maha, 
25. Baudb&yana, 26. Chhagaloya, 27. Jabala, 28. Chyavana, 29, Marichi, 30. Kasyapa. 

In the Bhavisya Purina we find tho following addressed by Isvara to Guha : — 
" Having pondered over the texts of the eighteen Purapas O child and over the texts 
of tho Smfitis, beginning with Manu and which are thirty-six in number, I now 
tell thee. M 

[This shows that the Smrits are 36 in number]. The Smritis like the 1. Vriddha- 
Satatapa, 2. Yogi-Y&juavalkya, 3. Vriddha- Vasistha, 4> Vriddha-Manu, 5. Laghu- 
Harita, &c, should be included in the well-known thirty-six under their original 
authors. [Thus Manu includes the ordinary and the Vriddha Manu, and so on.] 
Thus Y&jnavalkya says (III. 110) " I have declared the science of Yoga." 

Ratn&kara says ; "We find in the Bhavisya Purapa itself the enumeration of 
other Stn j* itis like Gobhila, Risya Sringa, &c, which are over and above the thirty-six* 
so we conclude that thirty-six does not exhaust the number of Smritis, but is only 
an enumeration made by the Sistas." Those which are found as Grihya Sfitras and 
their Parisistas, &c, belong to a different category: like the Pura^ias. As in the 
Bhavisya : — " The Maitr&yamya, the Chhandoga, the Katha, the Apastamba, tho 
Bhavrichas, their Paris istas and those called Khilas N (are also Smritis).' 1 

The Visnu-Dharma, the Siva-Dharma, the Mahabharata, and the R&m&yana and 

the rest are also to be included among Smritis. As says the Bhavisya: " The 

eighteen Pur anas, the history of R&ma (RSmayana), the Vi§nuJ)harma-&'astra, &c, 
the Siva-Dharma ; the fifth Veda called the Mahabharata composed oy Krisna- 
Dvaip&yana, the Sauradharma, the Mdnavokta Dharma, are also taken as such by 
the wise." (adhy&ya 4, v. 87-88). 

The words "as such" in the above mean that they are also followed by the 
great men, and are authoritative, because they are not decried or dispraised by 
any and followed by great men, so they are to be taken also as Smritis. The opinion 
that the Smritis are thirty-six only in number, or twenty-four only in number, is 
held only by some and is contradicted by others, and is not authoritative. 

That the Smritis are Dharma-Sastras (Institutes of Sacred Law) we learn from 
Manu II. 10 where it is said " The Vedas should be known as Sruti ; and the Dharma- 
Sastras as Smpiti." 

In Angiras we find " The wise say that the following are Upa-Smritis :— 
J&b&li, Nachiketa, Chbandas, Laugaksi, Kasyapa, Vyasa, Sanat Kum&ra, Satadru, 
Janaka, Vy&ghra, K&ty&yana, Jatukarnya, Kapiujala, Baudhayana, Kan&da and 

In Hemadri Dana Khan da the following more are enumerated. " Vatsa, P&ras- 
kara, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Risyas'ringa, Atreya, Babhru, Vy&ghra, Satyavrata ; 
Bharadvaja, G&rgya, Karsnajini, Laugaksi, and Brahma-Sambhava. 

The Smritis of Prajapati, Yama, Budha, and Devala which are enumerated in 
Kalpataru are quoted by Hemadri as authority in the course of other authorities. 

The Kalpataru holds that the four sciences mentioned in the Visnu Purdna 
(III. 6. 26) as they relate to positive physical sciences should be taken as authority 
and Dharma in matters worldly. Those sciences are 44 the Ayurveda (Medicine), the 


yAjnavalkya smeiti. 

Dhanurveda (Archery), the G&ndharvaveda (Music), and the Artha Sdstra (the 
science of wealth)— thus the sciences are altogether eighteen" (Visuu Puran^, III, 
2. 26). 

So also in the Saiva Pur&aa, the Vayaviya Sanihitd, chapter one, it is said r 
" O Romaharsana ! O all-knowing I thou hast obtained through good luck a complete 
knowledge of all the Puranas from Yyasa. The four Vedas, the six Angas, the Mi- 
mams£, the Nyaya, the Pur&na and the Dharma S&stra are fourteen Vidyas. The 
Ayurveda (medicine), the Dhanurveda (Archery), the G&ndharvaveda (Music) and the 
Artha feastra (the science of wealth) are the additional four making the Vidy&s 
eighteen. Of all these eighteen Vidy£s, treating of different topics, the original 
author and direct prophet is the Trident-handed Siva : such is the saying." (Siva 
Pur£na, I. 23). 

Though all these are sources of law, yet all of them do not deal with all 
matters, and sometimes they contradict each other, therefore the commentator says 
that though each of them is an authority, yet the lacunae of one should be supplied 
from the other, where one is incomplete ; and where they differ there is option* 
Manu has also taught this option in II. 14. But when two sacred texts (Sruti) are 
conflicting, both are held to be law; for both are pronounced by the wise to be 
valid law. 

The efficient causes of Dharma. 

Now the author explains the efficient* or subjective causes of 
Dharma (or religious merit). 


VI. — Whatever thing is fully given in (proper) 
country, at (proper) time, with (proper) means, accom- 
panied by faith, to (proper) person, that all is the cause 
of Dharma. — 6. 


" Country " as is described above— the country in which the 
black antelope freely roams. " Time " such as Safikranti, &c. 

" Means " is the assemblage of all subordinate acts necessary 
for the completion of a main act, as described in scriptures. 

" Thing 99 obtained by acceptance of gifts, &c., such as cows, &c. 

" Faith " belief in orthodoxy or after-life. " Accompanied by 
faith" in the manner which results from being accompanied by faith. 

" Person " possessed of qualities to be described hereafter, 

*Tho word dharma is usod in two senses (i) the agent performing the acta 
which produce dharma— the K&raka llctu— tho subjective side of dharma, (2) tho 
oxpositional or declaratory side of dharma— tho books that declare what acts aro 
productive) of dharma— tho jfi&paka Hotu. When a person wishing to perform an act 
is in dbubt as to whether it is dharma or not, he should refer to these jnapaka- 
hotus : and tho Parsad. 


" fitness to receive charity does not arise from knowledge alone &c." 
(verse 200.) 

" Given," i.e., which is not taken back or does not return and 
which is abandoned till another acquires Proprietary right in it. 

These are the generators of Dharma. Are these all ? The 
author says that these are not all because he uses the word "sakalam." 
Others mentioned in the Scriptures such as caste, quality, sacrifices, 
fire-offerings, &c, are also efficient causes of Dharma. What is said 
here is the same as mentioned elsewhere, that the efficient causes of 
Dharma are four-fold, consisting of caste, quality, substance and 
action accompanied by faith. 0 All or some of them must be taken, 
according to the occasion, as taught by the scriptures ; but faith must 
accompany them all. 


Are the above-mentioned fourteen vidyas the k&raka-hetu of Dharma, i.e., do 
they produce or generate merit : or are they the jnapaka-hetu of Dharma, i.e,, merely 
declaratory of Dharma — showing what is Dharma and what is not. To this the 
commentator answers that they are jn&paka-hetus ; the karaka-hetu is different, and 
is mentioned in the verse in discussion. 

The force of the preposition " pra " in " pradiyate " is to show that the gift 
must be irrevocable and complete. The word laksanam in the text does not mean 
tho " indicators of Dharma or jnapaka " by the producers of Dharma: and so the 
commentator explains this word by saying utpadaka. 

The word ' sakala ' in the Yajaavalkya's text is not useless ; for it indicates by 
implication that other factors not mentioned in the verse are also generators of 

In the commentary the word 'k&raka 1 is used, tat sakalam dharmasya k&rakam. 
Another reading is karanam or cause. The most prominent producers of Dharma are 
however, four, namely, jati, Guna, dravya and kriya as mentioned in Nyaya. 

The word " bhav&rtha " in the commentary means Sraddha or faith. 

It does not, however, follow that a gift made without Sraddha is useless : for 
says a text: "Give with faith, give even without faith, give in all conditions." 
Cf. Taitt. Up. 

The Jndpaka causes of Dhavmas. 

Now the author describesthe external sources of law (Dharma) 
the (jnapaka) — the expounding causes of law. 


VIL— The oruti, the Sm^iti, the conduct of good 
men, what appears pleasant to one's own self, and the 
desire which springs from a good resolution, are said to 
be the roots of Dharma —7. 

* These are technical terms of logic, 




" The Sruti " means the Vedas. " The Smriti," the Institutes of 
sacred law. As it is said by Manu " the Vedas are known as $rutis 
or revelation and the Institutes of the sacred law are known as Smritis." 
(IL— 10.) 

" The conduct of good men" the conduct or practice of good or 
eminent men,* but not of bad men. " What to one's own self is 
pleasant " relates to optional matters (in which there are alternatives, 
then one is at liberty to select any one) such as " in the eighth year of 
conception or birth should a Brahmin be invested with the sacred 
thread," &c. In such cases one's wish alone is the law (in selecting 
any one of the alternatives).* " Desire " which is born of a good 
resolve and is not opposed to scriptures. Such as " I shall not drink 
water except at meals." These are the " roots " or evidences of 
Dharma. In case of contradiction among these, those stated first 
are stronger than those which follow. 


The word svasya in the verse is said by some to be redundant and used only to 
fill in the metre : because the word atmanah has the same meaning as svasya, both 
meaning " of the self." Bub as a matter of fact, the word atman denotes all 
conscious beings in general, and if the word svasya were not used in the text, then 
priyamatmanah might have been interpreted as meaning what is pleasing to the 
Supreme Self. Or the use of both sva and atnian indicates that they are not to be 
taken as synonyms here. The word ' ch ' ' and * is to be read along with K&ma. 

The word Sad&chara does not mean 'good conduct,' which would have been the 
meaning, if it were a karmadharaya compound ; but the commentator explains it as a 
Tat Purusa compound, namely, the conduct of good men. The word ' Satam,' i good 
men,' is in the plural, showing that if a single good man has done a solitary act 
which is of doubtful character, that should not be a rule of conduct. The marks of 
fe'istas are given in the Mahabhasya on Prisodar&di sfltra of P&nini (VI. 3. 109). 
* The pleasant to one's own self ' is confined only to matters in which option is 
allowed by law : otherwise the rule would be too wide. The word samyak of the 
verse is explained by the commentator as fc'astra-aviruddha— not opposed to scrip- 
tures. The word mfila in the verse does not moan the progenitor, but evidence or 

* Tho fe'istas (eminent) are defined by Baudhftyana thus :— fe'istas, forsooth, (are 
those) who are freo from envy, froo from pride, contented with a store of grain 
sufficient for ton days, free from covotousness, and froo from hypocrisy, arrogance, 

greed, perplexity and anger. 

" Those are called fe'istas who in accordance with tho sacred law, have studied 
tho Veda, together with its appendages, know how to draw inforencos from that, and 
aro ablo to adduce proofs perceptible by tho senses from tho revealed texts/* 
(L. 1. 5 and 6.) 


[The custom or Sadfich&ra, and the self-imposed law are not however laws 
strictly so called. They aro intuitive laws (S&ksftt) or apparent unwritten laws 
(Sfiks&t). But the direct and pure or pratyaksa laws are those declared in the 

There ishowevor no conflict between the SAks&takrita and the Pratyaksa laws. 
Tho Pratyaksa laws aro the fcirutis alone. It is tho highest authority in matters of 
Dharma : while the Smritis, &c., are various sub-divisions of ferutis. Theroforo, in 
case of conflict of those, the first in order of enumeration prevails.* 

Mitaksara. — The author now mentions an exception to the 
efficient causes of Dharma such as country, &c. 


VIII. — Of all works (consisting of) sacrifices, or 
rituals, or control of conduct, » or harmlessness, or 
liberality or the study of the Vedas ; this alone is the 
highest Dharma (duty) that one should see the Self by 
Yoga. — 8. 


Of works like sacrifices, &c., this alone is the highest Dharma 
that by " Yoga " alone or by stopping of the functioning of the 
thinking principle, with regard to external objects, one should see 
the Self or have the knowledge of reality. The meaning is that in 
(the practice of) Yoga in order to obtain the knowledge of one's Self, 
there are no restrictions of country, &c. As it has been said 
" wherever there is concentration, there exist no restrictions." 


The word karma is to be read along with every one of these, such as, Ijya 
karma, Achara karma, etc. Therefore the commentator says Ijyadinam Karman&m. 

Though the word karma comes as the last word of a compound, it, however, is 
not a Dvandva here. The Dvandva ends with Svadhy&ya. While this word karma 
forms Tatpurusa compound. 

The definition of " Yoga" given by the commentator is almost the same as 
given by Patanjali (I. 2.) Patanjali defines Yoga as cessation of all functions of the 
mind; while Vijfianesvara limits, for the purposes of Dharma, this universal 
definition, adding the words " from external objects," i.e., there should be no 
thought of any external object in the mind. 

The " seeing of self " or " Atmadarsana " means to get true knowledge. For 
the practice of " Yoga" no restriction of country, caste, etc., is laid down. (Every 
one can practise yoga in any couhtry. And not only in that country where black 
antelopes roam). As an authority for this, the commentator quotes Patanjali by 
saying ^ where there is a concentration in a person, there the man gets success, 
irrespective of country, etc." 

— » 

* Cf. the Maxim " Justice, Equity and Good Conscience " of mordern law. 



Means of adjudication. 

Mitaksara. — Now the author explains the means of adjudica- 
tion, whenever there arises a doubt in regard to the efficient (sub- 
jective) causes and the expositional (or objective) causes of Dharma. 


IX. — Four persons who know the Vedas and the 
Dharmas," or who know only the three sciences, consti- 
tute a " Parsad " (a legal assembly.) What it says is 
Dharma. Or that which even one person, who is best 
among the knowers of spiritual sciences, declares.— 9. 


1 Four ' Brahmanas who know (the duties prescribed by) the 
Vedas and the Dharma ^astras.form a " Parsad or a legal assembly." 
Those who study three sciences are called tri-vidyah. Their assem- 
bly is called an assembly of persons who know only three sciences 
(traividyam in the original.) 

The knowledge of Dharma ^astra is understood after them also, 
i.e., the traividyam or the assembly of the knowers of the Three 
Vidyas, must also know the Dharma Sastra. It also constitutes a 
V Parsad." 

What the above-named Parsad says is Dharma. And what 
even one person, who is most experienced in the knowledge of Self 
and who knows the Vedas and the Dharma Sastra, says is also 

Here ends the Introduction, 

balambhatta^s gloss. 

In order to indicate that none but a Br&hmana has a right to expound the law, 
the commentator adds the words " Br&hmanah v after the word " four." The word 
" Dharma " in the text means the Dharma-S&stra, as it is read along with the word 
" Veda " (which is also the name of a scripture) : therefore the commentator uses 
tho word " Pharma-S&stra, &c. M 

The throe Vidyas aro tho Rik, the Yajus and tho Sfima Vedas. But the 


knowers of tho three Vedas must also know tho Dharma-Sfistra in order to consti- 
tute a legal assombly. Tho force of 'ova* or 'only' in the text is to exclude tho 
fourth Veda. 

In tho Kflrma Purfina (XXX. v. 2-7) the same idea is also expressed : " A man 
incurs guilt when ho omits to do an ordainod act, or does an act which is prohibited. 
Tho Pr&yaschitta or ponanco is tho purification for it. Lot a Br&hmana never 
remain without Prayaschitta : lot him perform what tho learned, tranquil Br&hmanas 
say. What a singio Brfihmana who is woll versod in tho moaning of tho Vedas, who 



is tranquil, who dosires Dharma alono, and who performs tho fire sacrifice, declares 
(as pr&yaschitta) that oven is tho highest law (Dharma). Where tho Br&hmanas do 
not koop tho sacred firo but are Dharma-dosirors and versed in tho sense of tho 
Vodas, th on what throo of such Brflhmanas say that is to bo known as dharma (and 
prayaschitta may bo dono accordingly). (Whore they are not dharma desirers but) 
know many Institutes of Sacred Law, and are dexterous in logical reasoning and 
argumentation and full discussion of a point, and have studied the Vedas, then 
seven such persons are necessary to declaro the law (of pr&yaschitta). (But where 
they do not possess tho other qualifications) but know the principles of exegetics 
(miinfims&) and logic (nyaya) and are versed in the Ved&nta, then twenty-one such 
Br&hmanas are necessary to declare the law of prayasehitta." 

A'ote.— Manu lays down the following rules as regards Sistas and Parsad (XII. 
108 to 114) 

mt (108). If it be asked how it should be with respect to (points of) the law 

which have not been specially mentioned, the (answer is), that which Br&hmanas 

(who are) Sistas propound, shall doubtlessly have legal (force). (109). Those Br4h- 

manas must be considered as Sistas who, in accordance with the sacred law, have 
• • • * 

studied the Veda together with its 'appendages* and are able to adduce proofs per- 
ceptible by the senses from the revealed texts. (110). Whatever an assembly, 
consisting either of at least ten, or of at least three persons who follow their 
prescribed occupations, declares to be law, the legal (force of) that one must not 
dispute. (111). Three persons who each know one of the three principal Vedas, a 
Logician, a Mim&msaka, one who knows the Nirukta, one who recites (the institutes 
of) the sacred law, and three Dien belonging to the first three orders shall constitute 
a legal assembly, consisting of at least ten members. (112). One who knows the Rig- 
veda, one who knows the Yajur-Veda, and one who knows the Sama-Veda shall be 
known (to form) an assembly consisting of at least three members (and competent) 
to decide doubtful points of law. (113). Even that which one Brahmaua versed in 
the Veda declares to be law must be considered (to have) supreme legal (force, but) 
not. that which is proclaimed by myriads of ignorant men. (114.) Even if thousands 
of Brahmanas, who have not fulfilled their sacred duties, are unacquainted with the 
Veda, and subsists only by the name of their caste, meet, they cannot (form) an 
assembly (for settling the sacred law)." 

Compare Manu, II. 12 with verse 7 : — 

" The Veda, the sacred tradition, the customs of virtuous men, and one's own 
pleasure, they declare to be visibly the four-fold means of defining the sacred law*" 


Chapter Second — Brahmachari or studentship. 

The four castes. 

By the above nine verses, having given a general view of the 
whole Institute, now the author, in (or before) explaining the duties 
of the various castes, etc., first enumerates all the castes. 


X. — The castes are the Brahmanas, the Ksatriyas, 

the Vaisyas and the Sudras. Only the first three (of 

these) are twice-born, the performance of the ceremonies 

beginning with the rite of impregnation and ending 

(with the funeral rites) in the cremation-ground, of these 

only, is prescribed with sacred formulas. — 10. 


The Br&hmanas, the Ksatriyas, the Vaijfyas and the Sudras are the 
four castes, whose qualifications will be described later on. " The first 
three of these, " namely, the Brahmanas, the Ksatriyas and the Vai^yas 
are twice-born. c< Dvi " means twice and " Jayante " are born. Hence 
they are called Dvija or twice-born. " Of these " of the twice-born, 
vai, " only " alone, that is, not of the ^udras. 

" Beginning with the rite of impregnation, &c," those ceremonies 
to be described later on, among which Garbhadhana (or the ceremony 
of impregnation) stands first and the ceremonies performed in 
^ma^ana or the cremation ground come at the end ; all these rites are 
performed with Mantras or sacred formulas. 


• • 

The word Upodgh&ta (general view or prefaco) is synonymous with udfthftra. 
The word " t&vad-varnftn " moans all castes; the foroo of t&vad being to denote 
14 all." The word tv&dy&h in the vorso is equal to 44 ridyuh tu " moaning 44 th© first 
(throo) only." The word 44 Brahma " in the verso moans 44 tho Brfthmana casto" and so 
the commentator explains it by tho word 44 Brahmana." Tho words 44 among these n 
should bo read in tho vorso to comploto tho sontonoe. Tho word 44 dvija " is a 
technical term retaining also its otymologioal moaning; namely they aro 44 twice- 
born M or regenerate : for tho investiture with tho sacred thread is the second birth. 
All corcmonios of tho three highor oastos aro performed by reciting sacred 
formulas : those of tho Sfidras aro porforraod in silenco without such recitation. 

Yuma on Sudras.— As says Yauia : 4< Tho SQdra also must bo similarly sanctified, 
by the porformanco of tho above ritos but without the utterance of the sacred 

CHAPTER n-1iTlAIinACTlAni, v. XI, XII. 


Tho word " pit ri vanam M (used by the commentator) moans the place where the 
corpso is placed. Tho Smasana cannot bo the name of a ceremony, so tho commenta- 
tor explains it by saying " the ceremonies appertaining to tho cremation ground." 
In other words, it moans tho Samskftra with regard to tho corpse .and tho preta or 
tho departed spirit ; consisting of Parfichistl coromony* 

A general rule— A general rule with regard to these rites is thus laid down: — 
"In Pumsavana, tho simantonnayana, tho tonsure, tho Upanayana, tho goddna, the 
tnarriago-bath, and in tho marriago ceremonies, tho N&ndi Sr&ddha should be 
performed on tho day previous. Therefore on tho occasion of thoso impurities, let 
the Sapimlas assemblo or dwell in the same house. Those who are joint in food 
perform together tho same rites and dine together. For ten days after tho death of 
father or mother, those kinsmen who do not perform bathing in cold water, or 
offering daily pinclas, &c, are considered as degraded, unfit to join in sacred (havya) 
and pious (kavya) works. 

Another text says :— " Those sapindas who are within three degrees, but who do 
not join in auspicious ceremonies, marriage, &c, and remain dwelling in separate 
houses, cook separately their food and perform separate Sraddha rites, &c, are 
thrown to the big serpents by Soma, the lord of the ancestors," 

Or the word Soma in the above text may mean " He who dwells with Umft 

^ — ^ — i.e., Siva or Rudra, the Destroyer, Such souls are given over to his 
snakes by Rudra, the Destroyer. 

[The same text then goes on to say] " Or he places it on the lap of Nirriti in front 
of Yarna.'* 

The Samgralia. — When owing to some unavoidable reason the sapindas cannot 
dine together and dwell under the same roof, then they should observe the following 
rule laid down in tho Samgraha :— " If owing to some difficulty it is not possible to 
dwell together, then they may remain in their own houses, but observe the impurity 
by cessation of Svadha rites, &c. If one is incapable of feeding all (through 
poverty, &c.) then all having prepared their own food (separately) should dine 

The Sacraments. 


Now the author recounts those sacraments. 


XI. — In season, the Garbhadhana; before the quick- 
ening, the Pumsavana ; in the sixth or the eighth month, 
the Simanta; on delivery, the Jatakarman. — 11. 

XII. — On the eleventh day, the Nama-ceremony ; 
in the fourth month, the Niskrama ; in the sixth month, 
the Annaprasana ; and the Chudakarana is to be per- 
formed according to family usage. — 12. 


The GarbMdhaaa.— The "Garbhadhana" is the appellation of a 
ceremony expressed by the meaning of the word itself (Garbha= 




embryo, Adh&na= placing or the ceremony of impregnation) and so 
also the other rites to be described later on. That Garbhadhana 
should be in "season," i.e., the time or season to be described 

The Purhsavana. — The ceremony called "Pumsavana" (must 
be performed) before the foetus begins to move. 

The Simantonnayana. — The "Simanta" ceremony (or parting 
the hair is to be performed) in the sixth or eighth month. 

The latter two ceremonies, the Pumsavana and the Simanton- 
nayana, being rites for the consecration of the field (womb) are to be 
performed only once, and not at each pregnancy ; as it has been said 
by Devala : — 

" A woman once properly consecrated is to be deemed conse- 
crated for all subsequent conceptions." 

The Jdtaharma. — q# " Ete " means ' delivery ' and is equal to 
which means 'coming out or being born.' Coming out of 
the child from the uterus. . 

On the child coming out of the womb, the ceremony of J&ta- 
karma or birth rite is to be performed. 

The Ndma-kar ana. —On the eleventh day of birth, the cere- 
mony of naming (takes place). That name must be indicative of 
paternal or maternal grandfather and the rest, or denote the family 
deity. As it has been said by ^afikha : — 

"The father should select the name denoting the family 

The Ni?krama. — In the fourth month the ceremony of Niskrama 
i.e., the ceremony of showing the child to the sun, should be 
perfprmed. • 

The Annaprasana. — In the sixth month the ceremony of Anna- 
pradana or feeding the child with boiled rice. 

The Chudclharana. — The ceremony of Chudakarana (or the first 
shaving of the head) should be done according to family custom. 

The phrase " is to be performed " should be joined to each of 
the above sentences. 


The Pumsavana and Sfmantonnayana. 

The names of tho various ceremonies montionod abovo, denoto etymologically the 
nature of those ceremonies. Thoy aro what is technically known as Yoga-rudhi 
words. Tn tho verse, tho name Pumsavana is broken up from metrical exigencies, 
into it* constituent parU Pumsah Savanim M begetting a male." The word spanda- 



n:\fc is oxplaincd by tho commentator by tho word 'chalanat/ ' moving/ The word 
'Simanta' in tho verso is tho abbreviated form of tho full namo Simantonnayana. 

Pdraskara.— Tho Simantonnayanah and Pumsavana are to bo performed onco 
Only, as is declared by Pdraskara: — " Now tho Simantonnayana (or tho parting of 
the pregnant wife's hair). It is porformcd like tho Pumsavana, in her first preg- 
nancy" (I. 15-2). Tho sense is that it is a ceremony for tho purification of the 

Tho authority of Dcvala, cited by tho commentator, applies however to all tho 
three ceremonies including tho Garbhddh ina. 

A purvapaksa.— Says an opponent : — " In tho case of Simanta rite, it is reason- 
able that it should be performed only once ; but why should not the Pumsavana be 
repeated at every conception, for a man may desire more than ono son?" In fact, 
the texts of Harita quoted in Hem&dri a The wives of the twice-born, if sanctified 
once by Simanta, are considered as sanctified for all future conceptions '* and Visnu 
"If a wife, without Simanta sanctification gives birth to a child she must be sancti- 
fied after delivery " show that the statement of performing once only applies to 
Simanta only and does not refer to Pumsavana. This is also the opinion of Sudar- 
san&charya. This rule cannot be applied to Pumsavana for Bahvricha k£rik4 says : — 
44 The rule is that the ceremonies should be repeated in every pregnancy 

Reply. — The begetting of a son is necessary in order to free one's self from tho 
ancestral debt. One son is only necessary : and so the rite of Pumsavana, by which 
a male child may be secured, is absolutely necessary only in the first conception. 
In subsequent conceptions, it may be performed, whenever a male child is desired, 
but not otherwise. But he who desires only a female child, need not perform it 
even once. Such is the sense of the Sutra quoted by the opponent. The same is 
the meaning of Sudarsandch&rya. 

Visnu quoted.— The text of Visnu u The Simanta itt for the sanctifying of tho 
female, some say it is for the consecration of the womb and so must be performed 
at every pregnancy/ 1 This is in apparent conflict, but not really so* The phrase 
" some say " shows that it is not an authoritative opinion. 

Asvaldyana.— So also the text of Asval&yana Smriti " The Bali offering and 
Simanta rite should be performed in each pregnancy." The Bali here refers to 
Visnu-Bali, which should be done in the eighth month of conception. Now-a-days 
this Bali offering has fallen into disuse. This may be performed in the third, 
fourth, fifth, or sixth month also or along with Simanta. 

Apastamba G. 8. — The Apastaraba Grihya lays down the following rule about 
Pumsavana u When the pregnant condition becomes visible the Pumsavana should 
bo performed, when the moon is in Tisya asterism." <4 The Simantonnayana in her 
first pregnancy in the fourth month (Ap 14. 9). So also K&rsn&jini «« The Siman- 
tonnayana should be performed during any time between the first quickening of the 
embryo till delivery : so says Sankha." 

Performance of many rites simultaneously.— The pregnant condition becomes 
visible in the third or fourth month, for such is declared in the Bahvrichas and 
other Smritis. If, therefore, the Pumsavana is done in the fourth month, then the 
Simanta should be performed immediately before it, and then the Pumsavana ; 
without losing the auspicious time. If both ceremonies are performed together, 
the Nandi Sr&ddha, <frc, need \)e performed only once (and not repeated for each 
ceremony), for the time, place and agent are the same. 

Chhandoga Pari§i$ta.—As in Chhandoga Parisista :-~ c< Where many ceremonies 
are performed together, then in the first of these only the M&tfi Ptija is done, and 


not in the others, and so also the Sraddha is performed in the first only and not 
repeated in each separately/' 

Vopadeva. — According to Vopadeva this rule applies only where the samskftras 
of several children take place together. According to others, it applies to the 
performance of several samskaras together, when they were not performed in due 

Smriti-arthu-Sara. — This is the opinion of the author of the Smriti-artha- 
Sara also. 


Apastamba G. S< — In the Apastamba Grihya Sutra the Pumsavana is the name 
of another ceremony also by which the child is quickly born, and the mother does 
not suffer the travails of child-birth for any length of time. It is a ceremony to 
shorten the period of travail and is called Ksipra Puinsavana :— " With a shallow 
cup that has not been used before, he draws water in the direction of the river's 
current ; at his wife's feet he lays down a Turyanti plant; he should then touch his 
wife, who is soon to be delivered, on the head with text Yajus (It. 11-14) and should 
sprinkle her with the water, with the next three verses (II. 11-15—- 17). 

The Anvdlovana. — The Anvalovana (the ceremony for preventing disturbances 
which could endanger the embryo) is necessary for those who follow Asvalayana, 
ancfnot for the Taittiriyas. (See As. GrL, I. 13-1). 

tiankha. — The second Simanta may be performed in the seventh and eighth 
months of pregnancy also. The second may be performed even up to delivery : asr 
says Sankha : "So long as there is not delivery." 

Satyavrata. — And also Satyavrata :— * If a woman delivers of a child, without 
Simanta being performed, the child should be placed in a basket, and the ceremony 
performed on the mother then and there." 

These two (Simanta. and Pumsavana) must be performed at the fixed time 
ordained for them, even though such time be otherwise inauspicious owing to Astadi 
(conjunction of a planet with the sun, &c). If, however, it can be avoided it is better. 


[After describing so far, Balambhatta enters into a digression and lays down 
certain rules to be observed by pregnant women and their husbands]. 

Kasyapa. — Says Kasyapa as quoted in Pari jata " A pregnant woman should 
avoid riding on elephants and horses, mountaineering or going up high staircase as 
woll as violent exercises, quick movements (or running), and driving in carriages. 
She should avoid grief, blood-letting, agitation and worry, cock-posture, much work, 
sleeping by day, or keeping awako at night. So also crossing rivers (by boats or 
swimming) and driving in a carriage. After Pumsavana sho must avoid pungont 
and strong drugs, alkalis, coition and raising or carrying heavy loads." 

Daurhrida.— The husband should supply the wifo during this period all that she 
takos a fancy to. If the fancy (daurhrida) is not supplied, thero is danger to the 
child in tho womb ; it may become ugly, or dio. 

After tho fifth month of pregnancy she should perform no sacred rites, daiva or 
pitrya, nor cook food for ancostral oblations or the Pivo Daily Sacrifices. 

Samvarta.—Jn Samvarta :— 44 Tho prognant woman should not cat in the ovon- 
ing twilight, nor should go or batho on tho roots of troos. Nor should sit on upas- 
kara or rubbish hoap, nor on pestlo or mortar, nor bathe in deep wator, nor 
frequent ompty rooms, nor remain near an ant-hill, nor should bo fluttorod in 
mind, nor mako linos on the earth with nails, nor with charcoalor ash. Nor should 




sho be addicted to much sloop and should avoid gymnastics : nor go whero 
thoro is an ash-hoap, or bones or skulls. She should avoid quarrel, and yawning 
and stretching of body. Her hair should not bo flowing, nor should she remain 
polluted. Sho should not sleep with head towards north nor towards south, nor 
should sho bo lightly dressed, nor agitated nor with wet feet. Sho should not utter 
inauspicious words nor laugh much. She must always servo the elders and seek 
thoro good will, Sho should bathe in water in which are immersed health-giving 
herbs and woods. She should be without jealousy, and eager in tho worship of the 
deity of tho Home. Sho should be always cheerful, intent on tho good of her hus- 
band, she should give alms, and observe the third night sacred to Parvati. A 
woman should always be peaceful, specially the pregnant woman. Tho son of such 
a woman would have good behaviour, long life, and intelligence, otherwise there is 
danger of abortion." 


Gdlava,— G&lava says " The husband should avoid burning, sowing, total 
shaving, mountaineering, and boating." 

The Samgraha. — In the Samgraha : — "He should avoid carrying a corpse, bath- 
ing in the sea, sowing, offering pindas, and going on foreign travel." 

Asvaldyana. — Asvalayana also says Sowing and coition, pilgrimage, and 
eating at Sraddhas after the seventh month, should be avoided by the husband of the 
pregnant woman." After the third month of pregnancy the husband should allow 
his hair to grow and not cut them. He should stop shaving except on ceremonial 

After marriage one should not cut his hair for a full year, for six months after 
Mounji, and for three months after Chud&karana : nor when one's wife is preg- 
nant.' ' 

Astrology.— The rules laid down in books of astrology are similar " When 
the pregnancy becomes manifest, the husband should avoid sea, carriage, carrying 
of a corpse, shaving, going to pligrimages like Gaya, &c, or public sacrifices, or 
household sacrifices/* 



Pdri'}dta.— U As soon as the father hears that a son is born to him, he must 
bathe with the dress he is in." 

(Pdri]&ta)Va$istha.-- "Before the navet string is cut the birth-rite must be 
performed " (Vasistha). 

Samvarta.— -So also Samvarta " After the birth, the birth-rite must be per- 
formed duly. If by chance the proper time passed away, without the rite being 
performed, then it should be done when the days of birth impurity come to an 

• Visnu Dliarma,— In the Visnu Dharma also we find :— " When the son is born 
the Sr&ddha must be performed before the navel string is cut." 

Samvarta.— This Sraddha is to be done with gold alone, as says Samvarta : 

"When a son is born, the wise father desiring auspicious things should perform the 
Sr&ddh* with gold alone, not with the cooked food nor with meat food," This should 
be done even if there is death impurity. 

Prajdpati.— As says Prajapati quoted by Hemadri "If a son is born in the 
period of impurity, the father becomes pure temporarily (in order to perform the 
birth-rite Sr&ddha) and he is purified from the prior impurity." 



Brihaspati.— If the above time is passed away without performing the Srdddha, 
then Brihaspati lay^ down the following rule : — " If the proper time is over, then 
the person, who knows the law, should carefully find out another time consulting 
the Naksatra (asterism), Tithi (lunar day) and Lagna (the rising constellation. )" 

Visnu Dhar mot tara.— This Sraddha must be performed " whether it is night or 
twilight or eclipse or there is some ofcher birth impurity" (by the previous birth of 
another son of his own or of his kinsmen.) In the case of death impurity, this 
Sr&ddha is to be performed in that period or after the expiry of that period ; as we 
find in the Visnu Dharmotfcara "or this may be performed by the self-regulated 
ones on the expiry of the period of Asaucha." 

The Ootrafa may perform it in the father's absence. — If the father be residing 
in a foreign country, then any gotraja kinsman of the child, such as uncles, etc., in 
the order of their seniority, should perform this ceremony. 

This is the rule with regard to the rite of naming the child also. But though 
the time for it is also fixed, yet it must not be performed on days when there is 
Visti Yoga, Vaidhriti Yoga, or Vyatip&da Yoga, eclipse, Samkr&nti and Sr&ddha. 
But there is no prohibition as regards Astadi (inauspicious time) because the time 
for this ceremony is fixed. But if the proper time is passed, then the Astadi prohi- 
biten should also apply, as will be mentioned further on. 

Mental Sandhyd. — Before performing this ceremony he should do mental San- 
dbya, without Pranayama ; up to the offering of Arghyah ; reciting fully the G&yatri 
he should give the Arghyah to the sun. 


Baudh&yana (Parisista VII. 5) lays down the following rule of adoption : — 

gy^R«5f^f^r Putra parigraha vidhim, the rule for the adoption of 
a son. 5qn?m^TH: Vyakhyasyamah, we shall explain. ^rfilia-SFS-SW: 
^onita-^ukrasambhavah, blood-seed-born, formed of virile seed and 
uterine blood. waT-foj-RlfiR!$: Mata-pitri-nimittakah, mother-father- 
as-cause. Man proceeds from his mother and father, as an effect 
from its cause, Tasya, of him. J*5R-qft?im-f%^3 Pradana-paritya- 
ga-vikrayesu, in giving, abandoning and selling. WUflfiraft Mata 
pitarau, the mother and the father, snraa: Prabhavatah, have power. 

1. We shall explain the rule for the adoption of a son. Man, 
formed of virile seed and uterine blood, proceeds from his mother 
and father (as an effect) from it cause. (Therefore), the father and 
the mother have power to give, to abandon or to sell their (son). 

3# 5^ srfcHI^maT SRTHW <$*TCRC II ^ II 

*T Na, not. 3 Tu, but. Ekam, one, only. 3^ Puttram, the 
son. ^l^Dadyat, let give. flf^rifr*U^ Pratigphriyat, let receive. W 
Vft, nor. Sah, he. ft Hi, because. SPcTHFl Santan&ya, for the 
continuance. Purvc$am, of the ancestors. 



2. But let him not give nor receive (in adoption) an only son. 
For be (must remain) to continue the line of the ancestors. 

T Na, not. g Tu, but. 5ft Stri, a woman, Puttram, son. 
?«H^ Dadyfit, let give, tffaq^r^ Pratigrihniy/it, let receive. ?r Va, 
or. sr*ra Aoyatra, except, flpi^ Anujrianat, with the permission. 
«cl : Bhartuh, of the husband. 

3. Let a woman neither give nor receive a son except with the 
permission of her husband. 

suTta^qq; Pratigrahisyan, who is desirous of adopting (a son.) 
37*^^ Upakalpayate, procures. f Dve, two. smtfi Vasasi, gar^ 
ments. §C Dve, two. $&S% Kundale, ear-rings. sig^fcl^ Afiguliya- 
kam, finger ring. ^ Cha, and. STT^T Acharyam, spiritual guide. 
^ Cha, and. 3?<mn Vedaparagam, who has studied the whole 
Veda. 3T£.* KmJamayam varhi, layer of kusa grass. q^JF? Par- 

namayam, made of leaves. 5^7^ ldhmam, fuel. Iti, thus. 

4. He who is desirous of adopting (a son) procures two 
garments, two ear-rings, and a finger-ring, a spiritual guide who has 
studied the whole V e da, a layer of kusa grass and fuel (of palaia 
wood) and so forth. 

sra ( fr^rc ) *rfc *nrft <sn^ qft*^ 3T<m7r£r 

sn^nm^* qftfw*9 wait ^f^r sjtfecfafa- grefccm W9 ^Vztirgism- 

Wl Atha, then. Bandhun, relations. «TT^ Ihuya, hav- 

ing called. ft^T* n$ Nivesiana madhye, in their presence. TT5i% 
Rnjani, to the king. ^ Cha, and. sntsr Avedya, having informed, 
qftqf^ Parisadi, in the assembly, m Va, or. winnir^ Agaramadhye, in 
the dwelling place, srnrqjl^ Brahmaoan, Brahmans. *ra* Annena, 
with food, qftfo«l Parivisya, placing before them. S^mt Punyaham, 
an auspicious day. ^f*cl Svasti, hail. sffflf Riddhim, prosperity. 

Iti, this, ^ndq^t Vachayitva, having made them utter. STO Atha, 
now. ^^l^qH^isngtaTO: Devayajanollekhana prabhrityapranita- 
bhyah from that place, where the gods are worshipped, and which. 




begin with the drawing of the lines on the altar and end with the 
placing of the water vessels, ^ig: Datuh, of the giver. *W^T Samaksam, 
in the front. I^r Gatva, having gone. S^r Puttram, son. £ Me, to 
me. t% Dehi, give. . S[fe Iti, thus, ffl^a Bhikseta, should request. 

5. Then he convenes his relations, informs the king (of hia 
intentions to adopt) in their presence* feeds the (invited) Brahmans 
in the assembly or in his dwelling, and makes them wish him " an 
auspicious day, hail, and prosperity/' Then he performs the cere-- 
monies which begin with the drawing of the lines from the altar (up 
to the end, from that place, where the devas are worshipped) and 
which end with the placing of the water vessels, goes to the giver (of 
the child) and should address (this) request (to him) " give ine thy 
son."— 6. 

(6) ^rftr Dadami, I give. %fe Iti, this, Itarah, other, TTf 
Aha, answers. 

5T Tarn, him. qf^Zl^flr Parigrihnati, receives. >wfcr Dbarmaya* 
for the fulfilment of my religious duties. Tva, thee. *ft*J^fo 
Parigrihnami, I take. H^d'A Santatyai, to continue the line. 

Tva, thee. ^f^fo Grihnami, I take, Tti, thus. 

6. The other answers " I give " (him). 

He receives (the child with these words) " I take thee for the 
fulfilment of Jjny) religious duties ; I take thee to continue the line 
(of my ancestors).'* 

•rtf Atha, then. S^J^sm^rf Vastrakundalabhyam, with gar- 
ments and ear-rings, *ffg<sfta$H Anguliyakena, with ' finger ring. ^ 
Cha, and. «r^9l Alaukritya, having adorned. ^f^r^m^STC Paridhana 
prabhritya, beginning with the rite of Paridhana, viz., placing of the 
pieces of woods called the Paridhis vfltJpn^ W» Agnimukhafe TCritvft % 
ending with the ceremony called Agnimukhx Pakvan, cooked 

(food), ^tlft Juhoti, offers. 

7. Then he adorns him with the (above-mentioned) two 
garments, the two ear-rings, and the finger ring, performs the ritea 
which begin with the placing of the (pieces of wood called) Pavidhia 

Chapter ii—BnAmiAcriAni, t. Xit. 2t 

(fences round the altar; and end with the Agnimukha and offer (a 
portion) of the cooked (food) in the fire. 

^ItSt II £ II 

m ITah, who. m Tva, thee, ftr'ida, with (grateful) heart, 
ttffaj! Kirina, with praises. JP^W: ManyamSnah, remembering. 
(Rig- Veda, 5-4-10.) 5% Iti, this. S^SFH^ Puronuvaky am, the verse 
fcuronuvakyam. Anuchya, having recited. Yasmai, to 

which. Tvam, thou. §f>3 Sukrite, of good deeds. m%k%i Jatave- 
dah, 0 Jatavedas (Rig-Veda, 5-4-11; 5% Iti, this. *nsw Yajyaya, 
with the Yajya (verse.) itlfo Juhoti, offers an oblation. 

8. Having recited the Puronuvaky a (verse) " As I remember- 
ing thee with grateful spirit/' &c, (Rv. V. 4. 10) he offers an obla- 
tion, reciting the Yajya (verse) " The pious man, 0 Jatavedas," &c. 
(Rv. V. 4. 11). 

Note.— As I, remembering thee with grateful spirit, a mortal call with might on 
the immortal, vouchsafe us high renown, O Jatavedas, and may I be immortal by 
my children. (Rv. V. 4. 10.) 

The pious man, O Jatavedas Agni, to Whom thou grantest ample room and 
pleasure, gaineth abundant wealth with sons and horses, and with kine for his well 
being.— Rev. V. 4. 11.) 

*W Atha, then. aiTpfti Vyahfitih, Vyahyiti (verse). Hutva, 
having offered. fNs?*SPjfo Svistakjitprabhriti, which begin with the oblation 
to Agni Svistakrit. Siddham, known A-dhenuvarapra» 
danat, end with the presentation of a cow. ^f^T** Daksinam, as a fee. 

5^1% Dadati, gives. 

9. Then he offers (oblations reciting) the Vyahritis :— (the 
ceremonies) which begin with the oblation to Agni Svistakrit and end 
with the presentation of a cow, as a fee (to the officiating priest are 

Ete, these two. 1^ Eva, also. Wisft Vasasi, two garments. 1^ Ete, 
these two. Hfr Eva, also, Kun<Jale, ear-rings (two). Etat, this, 

1 Cha, and. Anguliyakam, finger ring. 

10. And presents (to the spiritual guide) as a sacrificial fee 



those two dresses, those two ear-rings, and that finger-ring (with 
which he had addressed the child.) 

sreisr <J5T scTsret ^^cfrwreta ^trfcr^^n^ lten*w \\\\\\ 

if^ Yadi, if. Evamkritv&, after the performance of these 

(rites). ^TW Aurasah, legitimate. puttrah, son. 3cqg^ utpadyate, is 

born, ^ffaw^turiyabh&k, receiver of the fourth share. Esah, the 
adopted son. Bhavati, is. ^ Iti, this. 5 Ha, verily. Sraaha, 

Bays. (Baudhayanab\ so-named Risi. 

11. If after the performance of these (rites) a legitimate son of 
liis own body is borri (to the adopter, then the adopted son) receives 

* » 

a fourth (of the legitimate son's) share. 
Thus says Baudhayana. 


• # • 

Says Narada 

Narada. 1 — The sixth night should be specially guarded. Vigil should be kept 
in the night; and offering should be given to the ancestors. Men should keep 
awake the whole night armed, and women in dancing and singing : and so also on 
the tenth night of birth. 

Perform Sankalpa with the following Mantra : — 

Sankalpa. — To-day (in the year so and so, &c....) I shall worship with these 
hurriblo offerings, Ganapati, Durga, Ista devata, (the tutelary deity), Kula-devata 
(the family deity), Grama-devata (the village deity), the Sixteen Mothers, Gauri and 
the rest, the Six Krittikas, Kartikeya (the God of War), the Weapon, Visnu and 
Maha Sasthi, &c, desiring to obtain all kinds of prosperity, and in order to please 
the Supreme Isvara, and by the removal of calamities, to pray for the attainment 
of long life and health for the new born baby, for its mother, and for myself. For 
the successful performance of all ceremonies I shall worship first Ganapati also. 

Oanapati p«/a.— Having recited this Sankalpa, lot him worship Ganapati with 
Padya (water for washing the feet), Arghya, Achamaniya, &c. 
Then let him pray to Ganapati with the following Mantra 

" Om ! O Dova, destroyer of all obstacles ! Ono-tuskod, elephant-faced, thou 
art worshipped with devotion and lovo. Make this infant attain long life. O big- 
bellied ! O Groat One I O Destroyer of all misfortunes, may the child live long 
through thy Grace." 

The dispersion of goblins.— Having thus prayed to Ganapati, let him scatter 
mustard seeds all round, reciting : — " Fly away, ye ovil spirits and goblins that 
dwell in earth ; may all the ovil spirits that throw obstaclos, bo destroyed through 
the command of Siva.' 1 

Qhalja^sthdpana.— Then lot him place a jar full of water and recite on it the 
Mantra :— u May IJoaven and Earth, tho Mighty pair, bedew for us our sacrifice, 
and feed us full with nourishments. 1 '— (dig. Veda, I. 22. 13). Then lot him worship 
Varuna on this jar. Then place on this jar tho motal imago of tho goddess taken 
from tho furnace. Then let him worship, after invocation, Ganapati, Durga and 



the rest on the small heaps of rico or on betel-nuts. The first of these is the pGja 
of Ganapati* 

Durgd pujd.— The next is the Prtji of Durgft with Jayanti mantra, namely : — 

"Jayanti, Mangalfi, Kali, Bhadrakfili, Kapilini, Durgd, Ksamfi, fcivd, Dh&tri, 

Sv&hft, Svadhft, namastuto." " Salutation to Thee, O All-conquering, O Auspicious 

one! O Time! O Fortunate Time! O Destiny! O Difliculty-remover ! O Forgiving 

One! OGood! O Supporter ! O Svfiha ! OSvadha!" 

Then having worshipped the Ista-devata, the Kula-devatd, the GrSma-devatu, 

along with their respective vehicles, ho should invoke the Sixteen Mothers and 

worship them. Then ho should offer the following prayer:— "O Mothers of all 

creatures ! O Sources of all prosperity ! Being worshipped by me with faith, protect 

ye my child." 

Six Krittikds and Eight Siddhi \~Then the sixKrittik&s should be worshipped. 
The Six Krittikas are named Siva, Sambhflti, Priti, Sannati, AnasfiyS, and Ktama. 
The Eight Siddhis (Occult Powers) are Animd (becoming small like an atom), 
Mahiind (becoming big), Garima (becoming heavy), Laghima (becoming light), 
Prapti (power of attaining), Prakamya, isitva (lordliness), Vasitva (subjugating the 
will of another). 

Brahma Siva and Ndrayana.— These should be worshipped— Brahmft and his 
spouse Sarasvati, Sankara and his spouse Bhavani, and Narayana and his spouse 
Laksmi. In the same way the Loka-p&las (the Guardian angels of the planets) 
should be worshipped. 

The Mantras- -The pfijd mantras are, as for Siva, Sivayai namah, for Sambhfiti, 
Sambhfityai namah, &e. Each should be invoked and worshipped as above. 

Kdrtikeya Pujd. — Then invoking K&rtikeya, worship him ; and afterwards offer 
the following prayer : — 

"Om! OKartikeya! Mighty-armed! O Hearts-delight of Gauri ! O Deva ! pro- 
tect my son. Salutation to thee, O Kartikeya ! 

The Sioord Pujd.— Then let him worship the sword, after proper invocation. 
Then pray :— 

" The Sword, the Punisher, the Scimitar, the Sharp-edged, the difficult-of- 
attainment, the Womb-of Fortune, the Victory, and the Upholder-of-law. Salutation 
to thee. These are thy eight names, O Sword ! given to thee by the Creator himself, 
Thy asterism is Krittika thy Guru is Lord Mahadeva, thy body is golden (or Rohinya), 
thy protector is Lord Janardana. Thou art my father and grandfather. Protect 
thou me always. Thou art refulgent like a blue cloud, sharp-teethed and small- 
bellied (tiksija-danstra, krisodara). [Thou art pure of heart, without anger and 
full of great energy.] Through thy help the earth is maintained, through thee, the 
Demon Buffalo was killed, therefore salutation to thee, O Sword ! O sharp-edged I 
Pure-steel ! " (Durgotsava Ritual in Brihat Nandikesvara Purana.) 

" fealutation to Thee ! O Narayani ! O Killer of Mumla ! O Chamunda ! O 
Goddess of Destiny ! O Prosperity ! O destroyer of all evils ! ° 

This mode of ptij& is to be understood everywhere else also. 

T)ie Bamboo Pujd.— Then let him worship bamboo (vamsa.) There is [a pun on 
this word ; here it means " bamboo ,f primarily, and dynasty or family-tree second- 

" O auspicious One! Giver of all auspicious things! O the ever-beloved of 
Govinda ! O Vamsa (bamboo) ! increase my vamsa (dynasty). Salutation to thee, O 
Ever-merry ! " 

[Lute made of bamboo is the constant companion of Krisna.] 



The mace. — Then give pfija to musala (the mace). And salute reciting 
" O mace, grant to my son all that excellent strength which is possessed by Visnu 
of the Unbounded energy/' 

The conch shell.— Then conch must be worshipped and saluted thus Thou 
art the holiest of all holy things : the most auspicious of all auspicious things* 
Thou art held by Visnu. Vouchsafe peace to me. O conch, thou art white. Thou 
art destroyer of mortal sins. ,, 

The churning stick.— Then the churning stick should bs Worshipped and 
saluted thus " O churning stick, thou art Mandara Mountain, by thee the ocean 
was churned. Churn away all evils from this my son— salutation to thee." 

Yisnu Pu;d.— Then do puja to Visnu and salute with the following Adored 
of the three worlds, Lord of Sri ! O giver of victory ! Grant peace, O weilder of the 
mace ! O Narayana;! all hail to Thee ! Let there be peace, let there be auspicious- 
ness, let there be good of the child. Let the Lord Janardana himself protect this 
infant. " 

The plough.- Let him then worship the plough, and salute it " O thou 
plough-share ! O Great One ! O destroyer.of all evils ! O Rohineya ! protect always 
my chUd. Sulatation to thee. ,, [This verse may also be translated as applynig to 
Balar&ma, the wielder of the plough.] 


• • • 

Prdndydma and Nyasa.— Perform Pr&nayama with Om : and Nydsa of the 
fingers and limbs with the syllable s£sx &c : as Om am angusth&bhy&m namah; 
(salutation to the two thumbs) ; Om sim tarjanibhyam namah (index finger) ; Om sfim 
madhyamabhy&m namah (middle fingers) ; Om saim anamikabhyam namah (ring- 
fingers) ; Om saum kanistikabhyam namah (little fingers), Om sah karatala kara- 
pfisthabhyamnamah (palm and back of the hands). Then perform ny&sa of the limbs: 
— Om s&m hridayaya namah (heart): Om sim sirase svaha (Om sv&ha to head); Om sum 
sikh&yai vasat (vasat to tuft knot) : Om saim kavach&ya hum (Hum to the arms) ; 
Om saum netratraya Vausat (to the three eyes) ; Om aah astr&ya Phat (Pha£ to the 

Dhy&na.-— Then let him meditate and make the image of the goddess thus 
11 The goddess is seated on a full-blown lotus, in a semi-lotus posture (one foot 
crossed and the other pendant?), adorned with all ornaments, having full-developed 
breasts, always raining nectar, dressed in yellow silk, having four arms, in the 
right upper hand holding a thick sceptre, and in the left upper hand holding aw 
auspicious blue lotus, while holding various weapons in the other right and left 
arms." Having thus meditated on her, performing Pr&nayama, (imagine that you) 
bring her out (of your heart) through the right nostril and place it on the metal 
imago mentioned before, in the oight-potalled lotus, and invoke her with the follow- 
ing mantra :— " Come O boon-giving goddess! O famed as great Sasthi! protect 
my son with all thy powers, Hail to thee O Mah& Sasthi." 

Avdhana.— Then saying " O great Sasthi, como hero and stay hero," offer pflj 4 
to her. O Janmadd ! Hail, O Giver of birth ! I invoke the Birth-giver goddess 
Hail, O Jiv£ntikft, O Living One ! I invoke the life-giver. "Be this our praise, O 
Varuna and Mitra; may this be health and force to us. O Agni may we obtain firm 
ground and room for resting ; Glory fco heaven, the lofty habitation." (Rig Veda, 
V. 47 7). The pfija mantra is "Yarn jan&h pratinandanti, &c— (P&raskara Gfihya 
Sfttra, HI. 2. 2.) 

Mantra.— The night whom men wclcomo liko a cow that comos to them, that 



night which is tho consort of tho year, may that night bo auspicious to us. Svfiha i 
Tho night which is tho imago of tho year, that wo worship. May I roach old ago 
imparting strength to my offspring. Svftha ! To tho Samvatsara, to tho Parivatsara, 
to tho Idavatsara, to tho Idvatsara, to tho Vatsara bring yo great adoration, may 
wo undocayod, unbeaten, long enjoy the favour of these years which are worthy of 
sacrifices. Svfihfi ! May summor, wintor and spring, tho rains bo friendly and may 
autumn bo froo of danger to us. In tho safe protection of these seasons may wo 
dwoll, and may they last to us through a hundred years. Svaha. 

Glory to thco, O Goddess, O Mother of tho universe, O Giver of delight to tho 
universe ! Be gracious, O auspicious goddess ! Hail to thee, O Goddess Sasthi ! 
O Goddess Sasthi ! O powerful One ! O Giver of Son to all ! O Giver of Boons ! May 
my child live long through thy grace." 

Naivedya.— Having thus worshipped, let him offer Naivedya (cooked food) with 
tho mantra :— " Deign to accept this food (Naivedya) consisting of cooked sweet 
rice, milk porridge (payasa), cake (polika), and pistha golika cake." Then offer 
fruits :— " I present these many excellent delightful fruits, may they give satisfac- 
tion to Sasthi. Through fruit, everything become successful (fruitful) and all 
desires are accomplished (fructify)." Then salute with the following mantra :— 
O thou lover of thy devotees, and of mon and sages and angels, protect this my 
son ! O Maha Sasthi hail to thee/' 

Prayer to Sa.sthi.— Then offer the child to the goddess, reciting " As thou didst 
protect the infant Skanda, the son of Gauri, so protect this child of mine. Glory to 
thee, O Sasthikft. Glory to thee, O goddess Sasthi, lady of the confinement room ! Thou 
hast been worshipped with great devotion, protect the child along with its mother. 
Controller of all beings, increaser of all prosperity, instructor of all learnings, O 
mother ! we bow to Thee. Thou procreator of all worlds, especially of all children, 
protect always my son in thy Nar&yani form. O Destroyer of Obstacles ! O Maha 
Sasthi ! protect this baby always. Protect the child along with the mother, always 
residing in this family. O Mother ! thou doest always good to all creatures ! Thou 
art the benefactress of the whole world as Sasthi protect thou always my son. O 
SasthikS I O Illustrious ! O Giver of good and bad boons! May my child live long 
through Thy grace, free from all dangers. In this lying-in chamber, surrounded by 
all shining ones, protect O Glorious one I O Destroyer of all misfortunes ! I have 
brought this child, born in my family, to thy feet, craving thy protection, may the 
child live long. All hail to Thee, O Maha Sasthi! Protect this child. Thou art 
the energy of all the devas, thou art the well wisher of all children, protect like a 
mother, my son ; glory to thee, O Maha Sasthi. As Rudrani in thy awe-inspiring 
form, destroy all misfortunes. Giver o,f Life ! O Giver of strength, O goddess ! 
protect the child and be auspicious. Protect thou this child born in my family, from 
the Raksasas, the Bhutas, the Pisachas from the Dakinis and Yoginis. Protect like 
a mother my child from all beasts, and serpents. Thou art, O. goddess ! the Visnu 
force, thou art the Brahmdic force, thou the Rudra force, all glory to Thee, O Maha 
Sasthi. Thou art renowned as Maha Sasthi, the foster-mother of KSrtikeya, may 
my child live long, free from all calamities, through thy grace." 

Baptism.— u Then let him baptise the child reciting :— " Let that power be in 
my child, by which force Krisna upheld with one hand the uprooted hill. May 
there be peace and prosperity, may all calamities be destroyed, may the sin go back 
from whence it came." 

Kdrtikeya. -Then pray to.K&rtikeya " May the sun and Moon and the Lords 
q£ the Quarters, and also Yama and Bhava protect this my child, and take charge 



of it. Let all the Devas from Indra downwards protect this child in all conditions 
and times, by day and by night, whether it be alert or heedless." 

A Prayer. — Then let him recite the Protection hymn as given in the Ayur 
Veda:— "May Brahma always destroy all those N£gas, Pisachas, Gandharvas, 
Pitaras, and Rakeasas who want to injure thee. May the Lords of the Quarters 
and Intermediate Quarters protect thee from Night-wanderers of the earth and sky 
in all quarters. May the Risis, the Devas, the self-controlled Rajar^ is, the moun- 
tains, the rivers, and all seas and oceans protect thee. May Agni protect thy 
tongue, may Vayu protect thy breaths called Pr&nas, may Soma protect thy Vyana, 
and Parjanya thy Apana. May the lightnings protect thy Udana, and the thunders 
thy Samana. May Indra, the Lord of Force, protect thy strength and Brihaspati 
protect thy will and thoughts. May the Gandharvas protect thy desires, and may 
Indra guard thy goodness (Sattva). May the King Varuna protect thy intelligence 
and Ocean guard thy navel ; the Sun, thy eyes ; the Directions, thy ears, and 
may the Moon protect thy mind. May the Vayu protect thy nostrils, and the 
Herbs thy hair of the body. May the Ether protect thy ears; and the Earth thy 
body, the Fire thy head, Visnu thy prowess and manliness. Brahma, the best of all, 
protect thy hands and feet. May these deities preside over the various parts of 
thy body always. After destroying all diseases, by reciting the above mantras 
taught in the Vedas, be thou protected. Maysl thou attain long life. May Vi^nu 
say "Peace to thee," may the Narada and the others say " Peace to thee." May 
Agni say " Peace/' May Vayu say " Peace," may the Devas and mighty serpents say 
" Peace," may the Pitamaha say " Peace." May they all increase thy life." 

Rak§d thread, — "While reciting this stotra (of 11 verses) let him take eleven 
threads, and make eleven knots, and the nurse (or mother) should put these threads 
round the neck of the child. Then fumigate the room (of confinement) by burning 
whtie mustard seed, salt and the leaves of nim tree. 

K§etra-pdla.— Then do pfija to Ksetra-pala. The Sankalpa is :— " I, in such and 
such country, on such and such day, &c, will worship Ksetra-pala with all ,the 
worshipful concomitant Devas along with him, in order to procure all good fortune 
and remove all misfortunes, and to get long life and health for my new-born boy." 

Bhairava.—Then he should say :— Bhairavaya Namah, Bhairavam Avahayami, 
" Glory to the Terrible, I invoke the Terrible." " Glory to Ksetra-pala. I invoke 
Ksetra-pala. I invoke Gandharvas', I invoke Bhfitas, &c. 

Invocation.— I invoke Yoginis and the rest. I invoke the Mothers. I invoke 
the Adityas and the rest. I invoke the Wardons of the Quarters. 1 invoke the 
Mothers-of-the Door." 


Bali offering.— Then having worshipped the invoked Devas, let him give them 
Bali of fried mafia pulse (?), reciting the following :— " Peaceful (nirvana), free from 
agitation, peerless, free from taint, free from modification, awe-inspiring, holding a 
discus (or wheel), a sceptre, fiery mouthed, like a Rudra in splendour, making noise 
loud and continuous, with frowning brows, the Terrible, with a trident (&tila) in 
hand, and a leg of the bod post, myriad times torriblo, having a damaru in hand- 
such is the deva Ksotra-pfila-protcctor of the field. I salute him." 

Bhnirava. —Bhairavfiya namah, imfim sadlpam mnsa-bhokta-balim samarpa- 
yfirai :— " Salutation to Bhairava. This offering of fried mfisa pulse and the lamp I 
offer to him." 

Gandharvas— "May the semi-divine beings, the Gandharvfis, all of whom can 


assumo various forms at will, protect my son ; and being satisfied, accept thin bali 
offering." Then say Gandharvobhyo namah, Ac,, as above. 

Ksetra-p6la.— O Ksetra-pfila ! all glory to thoo, O givor of all fruits of peaco ! 
accept this bali and rcmovo all calamities from the child." Say 44 Ksctra-pdldya, 

Ghosts, Ac— " May all the Bhfltas, Daity&s, Pi.s4chft8 t and the rest, the Gan- 
dharvas and the hosts of Rdlcsasfts bo propitious to mo, and accept this bali." Say 
BhutAdibhyo nam ah. &c. 

Yoginis.— "Mary the Yogint, the DAkini, and the Mothers, wherever they may 
be dwelling, bo all peaceful, and accept .this bali of mine." Say Yoginyadibhyo, &c. 

The Mothers.— May the semi-divine Mothors, who at will assume many forms, 
themselves protect my son ; and being pleased accept this bali." Say Matribhyo 
namah, &c. 

The Adityas, &c— " May all the Grahas like the Adityas and the rest who 
always dwell in heaven, protect the child and accept this bali of mine.*' Say Aditya- 
dibhyo namah, &c. 

Tke Dikp&lds.—" May the Guardians of the Quarters and also Indra, cfcc, 
dwelling in their respective places become auspicious and accept this bali of mine. 0 
Say Dikpalebhyo namah, &c« 

Then salute Chamuntla by saying " Chamundayai namah : all glory to Chamunda. 

The Door Mothers.— The six Dvara-Mataras are Nanda, Nandini, Vasistha, 
V&sudeva, Bhargava, Jaya-Vijaya, May they accept this bali." Say Dvara-matri- 
bhyah, &c. 

Then recite the following Vaidic mantras : — 

Indra bali. — Of the Mantra :i Trataram Indram," the seer is Garga, the Devat& 
is Indra, the metre is Tristup, and it is employed in offering bali to Indra. 

Mantra. — Indra, the Saviour, Indra, the Helper, Indra, the Hero who listens 
at each invocation, 

Sakra I call, Indra invoked of many. May Indra Maghovan prosper and bless 


(Rig Veda, VI, 47. 11). 

Formula. — Then say:— u To Indra, to his dependents, i.e., family members, to 
his weapon, to his spouse (or Energy), I offer this masa-bali along with the candle. 
O Indra ! protect the quarters, eat the bali, and be the giver of long life to me and 
my family, be giver of prosperity, be giver of peace, be giver of increase, be giver 
of contentment, and be giver of welfare." 

This formula should be repeated, after the following verses also, substituting 
for Indra the appropriate name of the Devata. 

Agni bali.— Of the Mantra u Agnitn dyuttam," the seer is Kanva Medh&titbi, 
the Devata is Agni, the metre is Gayatri, and it is employed in offering bali to Agni, 

Mantra.— We choose Agni, the messenger, the herald, master of all wealth, 

Well skilled in this our sacrifice.— (Hig Veda, 1. 12. I). 

Then say : — " To Agni, to his dependents, &c," as above. 

Yama bali.—Ot the mantra " Yamaya Somam," the seer is Yama, the Devata is 
Yama, the metre is Anustup and it is employed in offering bali to Yama. 
Mantra. — To Yama pour the Soma, bring to Yama consecrated gifts. 
To Yama sacrifice prepared and heralded by Agni goes. — (Rig Veda, X. 14. 13) # 
Then, as above, say " To Yama, to his dependents, &c." 

Nirriti bali.— Of the mantra u Mo su nah," the seer is Ghora Kanva, the Devata 
is Nirriti, the metre is Gayatri, and it is employed in offering bali to Nirriti. 



Mantra. — Let not destructive plague or plague hard to be conquered, strike us. 

Let each, with drought, depart from us. — (Rig Veda, I. 38. 6), 
Say as above " Ta Nirriti &c. 

Varttna bali.—Ot the Mantra " Tat tva yami," the seer is Sunahsepa, the Devat4 
is Varuna, the metre is Tristupa : and it is employed to ofier bali to Varuna. 

M antra. — I ask this of thee with prayer adoring, thy worshipper craves this 
with his oblation. 

Varuna* stay thou here and be not angry; steal not our life from us, O thou 
Wide Ruler.— (Rig Veda, 1. 24. 11). 
Say as above " To Varuna, &c." 

Vdiju bali.—Ot the mantra " Tava Vayo," the seer is Angiras, the devata is 
Vayu, the metre is Gatyatri, and it is employed in offering bali to Vayu. 

Mantra.— Wonderful Vayu,. Lord of Right, thou who art Tvashtar's son-in-law. 
Thy saving succour we elect.— (Rig Veda, VIII, 26„ 21).. 
Then say, as above, " To Vayu, &c. w 

Soma bali.— Oi the mantra "Soma dhenum," the seer is Gautama, the Devata is 
Soma, the metre is Tristup, and it is employed in offering bali to Soma. 

Mantra.— To him who worships, Soma give the milch-cow* a fleet steed and 
a man of active knowledge. 

Skilled in home duties, meet for holy synod, for council meet> a glory to his 
father.— (Rig Veda, I, 91. 20). 

Then say, as above " To Soma, <&c. ,t 

liana bali. — Of the mantra " Tarn Isanam," the seer is Gautama, the Devata. is 
Isana, the metre -is Jagati and it is*emp}oyed in offering bali -to isana* 

Mantra.— Him we invoke for aid who reigns supreme, the Lord of all that 
stands or moves, inspirer of the souK 

That Pushan may promote the increase of our wealth, our keeper and ou^ 
guard infallible for our good.— (Rig Veda 1,89.5). 

Then say as above u To Is r 3na, &c" 

Ananta bali. — Of the mantra "Sahsra sirsa," the seer is Nar&yana, the DevaiS 
is Ananta, the metre is Anustup, and it is employed in, offering bali to Ananta,, 

Mantra. — A thousand heads hath Purusa, a thousand eyes, a thousand feet. 

On every side pervading earth he fills a space ten fingers wide.— (Rig Veda, X, 
90, 1). 

Brahma bali.—Ot the mantra " Brahma Yajiianam," the seer is Gautama, Vftma 
Dova, the Devata is Brahma, the metre is Tristup, and it is employed in offering bali 
to Brahma. 

* Mantra.— Eastward at first was Brahma generated. Vena overspread the 
Bright Ones from the summit. 

Discolsed his deepest nearest revelations, womb of existent and of non-exis^ 
tent— (Yajur Veda, XIII, 3). 

Then say as abovo " To Brahml, &c.'* 

Oanupati ball— Of the mantra " Ganftnam tva," the seer is Gritsamada, the 
Devata is Ganapati, the metre is Jagatl, and it is employed in offering ball to. 

iWcmtra.— We call thee, Lord and Loader of the heavenly hosts, the wise 
among the wise, the farnousost of all. 

Tho king, supreme of prayers, O Brahmanaspati, hoar us with help; sit dowik 
In f lace of sacritico,— (Rig Veda, 111, 28^ X). 



Then say, as before, " To Ganapati, &c." 

Then say> addressing Jan mad & : — " O Givor of birth, accept this bali, bo thou 
the giver of long life to mo and my family, bo givor of prosperity, bo giver of poaco, 
bo givor of increase, bo giver of contentment and welfare. O goddess Sasthi, 
accept this bali, bo thou givor of long life to mo and my family members, bo givor 
of prosperity, bo giver of poaco, bo givor of increase, bo givor of contentment and 
of welfare. 1 ' Thon say addressing Jivantikd the same " O Jivantika, &c." Simi- 
larly to IndrAdi Lokapalas, "O Indrddi Lokapftla, &c." 

Then offer bali to tho Sun, the Moon, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, Saturn, 
Rfthu and Kotu, and Durgfi, with the following ten mantras of tho Rig Veda. [For 
the sake of brevity we giye merely the names of Seor, Dcvatd and Motre without 
using any other words]. 

T-Jie Sun—U. Hiranya-stupa, D. Savita, Ch. Tristup. I. 35-2. 

Throughout the dusky firmament advancing, 
Laying to rest the immortal and the mortal, 
Borne in his golden chariot he coraeth, 
Savitar, God who looks on every creature. ^ 
Then say as above to the Sun, so and so, &c. 
'2t?ie Moon.— R. Gautama, D. Soma, Ch. G&yatri. I. 91-17. 

Wax, O most gladdening Soma great through all the rays of 

light, and be 
A friend of most illustrious fame to prosper us. 
Then say as above to the Moon, so and so, &c # 
Mars.-R. Virupa, D. Angaraka, Ch. G&yatri. VIII. 44-16. 

O Agni, Brother, made by strength, Lord of red steeds and 
brilliant sway, 

TTake pleasure in this laud of mine* 4 
Then say as above to Mars, so and so, &c. 
Mercury.— R. Somyafo, D. Budh, Ch. Tristup. X. 101-1. 

Wake with one mind, my friends, and kindle Agni, ye 

Who are many and dwell together* ~. 

Agni and Dadhikras and Dawn the Goddess, you, 

Gods with Indra, I call down to help us. 
Then say as above to Mercury, so and so, &c 
gnpiler. — R. Gritsamaudah, D. Brihaspati, Ch. Tristup. 11. 23-15. 

Brihaspati, that which the foe deserves not, 

Which shines among the folk effectual, splendid, 

That Son of Law ! which is with might, 

Refulgent— that treasure wonderful bestow thou on us* 
Then say to Brihaspati as above. 1. 
Venus.— R, Paraiara, D. Sukra,Ch. Dvipada Virat. I. 69-1. 

Victorious in the wood, Friend among men, 

Ever he claims obedience asking 

Gracious like peace, blessing like mental power, 

Priest was he, offering-bearer, full of thought. 
Saturn.— K. Ririmviti, D. Sani, Ch. Usnik. 8. 18-9 

May Agni bless us with his fires, and Silrya warm us pleasantly; 

May the pure wind breathe sweet on us, 

and chase our foes. 
Then say, " O Sani, &c. 

36 YAJNAVALKYA smriti. 

Rdhu.—R. Banadeva, D. Rahu, Ch. Gftyatri. 4. 31-1 

With what help will he come to us* 
Wonderful, ever-waxing Friend, 
With what most mighty company ? 

Keta.— R. Madhuchanda, D. Eetu, Ch. Gayatri. 1. 6-3 

Thou, making light where no light was, 
And form, O men ! where form was not, 
Wast born together with the Dawns. 
Then say *' O Ketu, &c. 

Diirgd—Jl. Kasyap, D. Durga, Ch. Tristup. 1. 99-1 

For Jatavedas let us press the Soma : 
May he consume the wealth of the malignant. 
May Agni carry us through all our troubles, 
Through grief as in a boat across the river. 
Then say " O Durg£, &c. • 

Then similarly offer 1 Bali 1 to K&rtikeya saying Bho K&rtikeya, &c, 

To Sword, Bho Kharga, &c, to Arrow, Bho Sara, (fee, 
To Churning Stick, Bho Mantha, 
To Ksetra-pal, Bho Ksetra-p&l. 

Then salute Ganesa, Durga, Istadevatd, Kuladevata, Grdmadevatd, Sat Krit- 
tik&s, Eight Siddhis, Brahma together with Sarasvati, Sankara together with 
Bhav&ni, Narayana together with Laksmi K&rtikeya, Sword, Bamboo, Pestle, 
Churning Stick* Yisnu, Sasthi Devi, Janmada, Jivantika. 

Thus having given Bali and offered Pfija, let him give fee to Brdhmanas, that 
the ceremony may be complete. The Sankalpa for giving fee is as follows :— 

Kritasya pujdvidheh Sangatasidhyartham n&nSn&magotrebhyo Brfthmanebhyo 
Kh&dyaphal t&mbuladaksina ksirapatyadidanain Karisyo. 

I shall give fee to these Brahmanas, belonging to various gotras and bearing 
many names, in order to completo the ceremony of puj&, the fee to be in the shape 
of food, fruits, betel, money, milk, etc. 

Then, let him offer the fruits of his karma to Iswara, and recite Yasya Smritya, 
&c., Mantrahinam, etc. 

Then let him perform the Arati of the God, of the mother and of the worshipper 
(Yajmana) with tho mantra Sriyijata, &c. 

Then the Br&hmanas should give benediction. 

Tho gift made in this Sastika puja is not tainted with tho impurity of birth. 
As says Vydsa : — 

Tho goddesses, presiding over the chamber of confinement and who aro called 
Janmadd, are worshipped during tho birth impurity becauso it has been said that in 
performing tho pujS. of those deities on tho occasion of birth there is purity instead 
impurity. Out of the poriod of birth impurity the following throe days aro not 
considered to bo impuro, viz*, tho 1st, tho Oth, and the 10th day of tho birth of a 

Lot him make tho tilak of the child with yollow pigment. Lot him tie a goat 
near tho lying-in room and men armed with weapons keep awake tho night according 
to tho custom of tho family. 



Garga.— Says Garga :— " Tho father alono of tho child should name it after the 
name of tho month (in which it is born) or that of tho guru or spiritual teacher." 
" Tho names of tho month arc thus given in tho Sangraha (1) Krisna, (2) Ananta, 
(S) Achyuta, (4) Chakri (5) Vaikuntha, (C) Jan&rdana, (7) Upendra, (8) Yajfia purusa, 
(9) Vfisudova, (10) Ilari, (11) Yoglsa and (12) Purularikaksa respectively. " 

By " respectively M is meant by tho oldors, beginning with M&rga Sirsar, 
According to others, beginning with Chaitra. [According to Garga, tho name of tho 
months should commonco with that of Marga Sirsa. Thus if a child bo born in tho 
month of Pausa, it will bo named Ananta ; if in Magha, Achyuta. If in Phdlguna, 
Chakri ; if in Chaitra, Vaikuntha, &c] 

Vasisthu.— If tho proper timo of naming is over [then the child should bo named] 
when the moon is in any one of tho following 'constellations, as says Vasistha : — 
Uttara, Revati, Hasta, Mul£, Pusya, Sravana, Visakha, Svati, Mrigasirsa, Bharani, 
and DhanisthS, are praiseworthy stars to name the child.' 9 

The Apastamba G. 8 — Says Apastamba in his Grihya Sfitra (XV. 8) :— " On 
tho tenth day, after the mother has risen and taken a bath, he gives a name to the 
son. The father and th^ mother should pronounce that name first. (9) It should be 
a name of two syllables or of four syllables ; the first part should be a noun ; the 
second a verb ; it should have a long vowel or the Visarga at the end, should begin 

with a sonant, and contain a semi-vowel. (10) Or it should contain the particle g 
su, for such a name has a firm foundation ; thus it is said in u Brahmana." 

Baudliayana. — Baudhayana gives the following alternatives : — " The names may 
be either after those of Ri§is, or of Devatas, or after one's ancestors." As Vasisthaor 
Narada (after sages), Visnu or Siva (after a deity), or Yajna-sarma orSoma-sarma &c, 
(after family ancestors). The names of girls should consist of uneven syllables, i.e., 
odd syllables : as : Sri, Gau, Bhfirati, &c. 

[The sense is this : A name given to a child in the vernacular of the country 
(should never be used) in a Sankalpa, &c, for Barbarians only entertain such a 
false notion that such vernacular names can be used in Sankalpa, &c. [Therefore 
it follows that a man must possess a proper Sanskrit name to entitle him to perform 
religious ceremonies]. 

Therefore the pious [Hindu] should give a name [to his child] as laid down in 
Aswal&yana Grihya Sutras And let them give him a name beginning with a 
sonant, with a semi- vowel in it, with the Visarga at its end, consisting of two 
syllables." Or of four syllables ; " Of two syllables, if he is desirous of firm 
possession. But the name should not consist of a Taddhita affix." [Aswal&yana, I. 
15. 4-6]. 

Moreover, Agni, &c, are said to be the names of deities presiding over constella- 
tions [and names may be given according to these constellation-devatas.] For, in 
all ceremonial works the name given to a person according to the constellation or 
the deity of the constellation is to be recited. The Vedanga Jyotisa also gives the 
above rules. The elders say, in giving a name regard should be had to the first 
syllable of the constellation. The same is mentioned in some Griya Parisisthas also. 

• * * • 


Apastamba further says : — " And he gives him a Naksatra name. 99 " That is 
secret." (Grihya-Sutra. 6 Patala, Sect. 15, verses 2 and 3). 
Aswalayana says : — 

"And let him also find out (for the child) a name to be used at respectful 



salutations (such as that due to the Acharya at the ceremony of the initiation) ; 
that his mother and father (alone) should know till his initiation/ 1 

This is the custom of the elders and the Sis^has in the matter of giving names. 
Therefore in the Jyotisa, it is said, that this secret name alone is to be used in all 
ceremonies. This secret name is formed, according to some, by adding a Taddhita 
affix to the name of the constellation. Thus a child born under Rohiui naksatra is 
called Rauhina, &c. [some constellations, such as Tisya,. Asles&, Hasta, Visakha* 
Anuradha, Asadha, Sravistha, remain unchanged in forming names. Such as a 
child born under Tisya would be called Tisya, &c] 

Note In the Hiranyakesin G. S. the following rule is laid down :— " He should 
give him two names. For it is understood fTaitt. Samhita, VI. 3. 1. 3.) Therefore 
a Brahmana who has two names, will have success. The second name should be a 
Naksatra name. The one name should be secret ; by the other they should call 
him." (II. 1. 4. 12-14). 

Manu lays down the'following rules II, 30-33. 

But let (the father perform or) cause to be performed the Namadheya (the rite of 
naming the child) on the tenth or twelfth (day after birth), or on a lucky lunar day 
in a lucky muhQrta, under an auspicious constellation. ^ 

Let (the first part of) a Br&hmana's name (denote something) auspicious, a 
Ksatriya's be connected with power, and a Vaisya's with wealth, but a feftdra's 
(express something) contemptible, 

(The second part of) a Brahman's (name) shall be (a word) implying happiness, of 
a Ksatriya's (a word) implying protection, of a Vaisya's (a term) expressive of 
thriving, and of a Sfidra's (an expression) denoting service. 

The names of women should be easy to pronounce, not imply anything dreadful, 
possess a plain meaning, be pleasing and auspicious, end in long vowels, and 
contain a word of benediction. 

The following are the names of the constellations together with their Devat&s 
and the first letter of the name which should be given to the boy. 

Name of the Star. Devai a. The first letter of child's name. 


... Asvini Kumara 

... Chfi, che, cho, la, \, % 3 ^T, mi. 



... Yama Raja 

... Li, lu, le, lo, 


... Agni ... 

... A, i, u, e, %9 3, <?. 



... Brahma 

... 0, va, vi, vfl, sr, ^t, ^. 


... Chandrama 

... Ve, vo, ka, Id, ^, *t, ^t. 


... £>iva ... 

... Ku, gha, fi, chha, 3, ^, ^. 


... Aditi... 

... Ke, ko, ha, hi, 3>, 3>T, £T, 


... Brihaspati 

... Hfi, he, ho, da, g, t, |r, ST. 



... Sarpa 

... Di, dfi, de, do, K> tr. 


... Pitar 

... Ma, mi, mfi, me, *?T* tft, % 3. 

PQrva Phalguni 

... Bhaga 

... Mo, tfi, tt, tfi, $r, 2T, 

Uttara Phalguni 

... Aryama 

... Ta, to, pa, pi, Zh §T, <H, <ft. 


... Stirya 

... Pfl, sa, na, dha, fy.q, HI, 


. . . Tvabta 

... Pe, po, ra, rf, ^ ir, tt. * 



Svati ... ... Pavana ... RQ, re, ro, ta, ^» ^> h, 3T. 

Vi&khfi ... Indragni ... Ti, ta to, to, <ft, *k 3l. 

Anuradha ... Mitra ... Na, nl, nfl, no, tf, ^, 

Jyestha ...India ... No, ya, yi, yd, ^T, 'ft, ^. 

Mula ... Rakflasa ... Ya, ye bha, bhi, ^, ^l, *U, 

PurvAsada v .. Jala ... ... Mfl, dha, pha, dha,^,*, <R, 

Uttarasadha ... VifSvedeva ... Bho,bho,bhti, bhl,3, 3r, 1%, *ft. 

i\ bhi jit ... Prajapati or Vidhi Jfl, je, jo, kha, \> 3i> 

Havana ... Visnu ... Khi, khu, khe, kho,',^Tj ^»^,^. 

Dhanistha ... Vasu ... Ga, gi, gu, ge, n, *ft, *[> *h 

S a t a t a r a k a (or 

Satabhisa) Varima ... Go, sa, si, su, ^TT, ST, 

Purva Bhadrapada Ajapada ... Se, so, da, di, tf, ST, ^t, ^t. 
Uttara Bhadrapada Ahirbadhnya ... Du, tha, jha, na, «r, *K, »T. 

Revati ... Pusa • ... De, do, cha, chi, ^, V, *a, ^r. 

Mitdksard explained. — Vijnanesvara uses the word * 6 m> J in the sentence ''^Kif^^TT 
m' || Here the word '^1'' is to be interpreted as i.e., 'and, so that the 


other names may be combined. (In western provinces the family name and tho 
father's name are generally combined with one's own name.) 


Though Vijnanesvara explains the Niskramana " ceremony as showing the sun 
to the child, yet it includes showing the moon also or bowing to a Devata as 
mentioned in other places. As says" Yama" in Jyotirnivadha in the third or the 
fourth month the Niskramana of the child should be performed, in the third month 
the sun should be shown to the child, and in the fourth month the moon should be 
shown to the child. 

According to Garga this ceremony may be performed along with that of 
Annaprasana, first feeding the child with rice. 

According to Skanda Pur&na the twelfth day is also the time for performing 

this rite ; — " O King, on the twelfth day the Niskramana of the child from the 

house should be performed and in the fifth month he should be made to sit on the 

earth. (In that month all planets become auspicious specially the son of earth 

(Mars). It should be done in the following Naksatras). The three Uttara-naksatras 

are benedictory, so also Pusya» Jyestha, Abhijit, Hasta, Asvini and Anuradhft. 

According to ParijSta it includes the Upavesana ceremony mentioned in the Padma- 



First reciting Svasti-vachana, and after worshipping Vardha, the Earth, Devas 
and Gurus and Brahmanas, seat the child on the mandala (the pandal). Then recite 
tho following mantras " O Earth ! O Bright one I Protect this child always in all 
conditions, O Auspicious one ! O Beloved of Hari I Give him the full term of his 
life.. Destroy (consume) all enemies who intend to shorten his life, or injure bis 



health or wealth. O Mother ! Thou art the upholder of all beings, and Great. O 
Mother ! protect this boy ; and may Brahma also give sanction to it." 
Then make the priests to recite benediction. 


Vijnanesvara says : " In the sixth month the annapr&sana should take place." 
In the Apastamba G. S., the same is mentioned " In the sixth month after the 
child's birth." (Ap, 16. 1.) When, however, the proper time for Annaprasana (the 
first feeding the child with solid food, such as boiled rice, &c.) is past, then the 
inauspicious time owing to Astadi should be observed, (The Astadi dosa does not 
apply if the ceremony is done in due time). Yama says :— H It may be performed in 
the eighth month also." Laug&ksi says : " The Annaprasana may take place in the 
sixth month or when the child has cut its first teeth," S'ankha says " The 
Annaprasana should be performed on the expiry of one year, or half a year." 
M&dhavasays: u It may be done according to the rule laid down in one's own 
Grihya Sutra." 


Garga says :— " The ceremony of boring the ear is performed in . the sixth* 
seventh, eighth or twelfth month, in order to secure prosperity, long life and 
health." Brihaspati says : " The following tithis are auspicious for boring cere- 
mony the second, the tenth, the sixth, the seventh, the thirteenth, the twelfth, 
the ninth and the third days of the moon." 

The ear-boring ceremony includes the ceremony quoted in the Hemadri from 
Jyotisa :— u In the bright half of the moon the ear-boring ceremony is auspicious 
on an auspicious day in the months of Kartika, Pausa, Chaitra or Phalguna, A tailor 
should pierce the ear of the child whose teeth have not yet come out, and who is 
placed on the lap of its mother, with a needle having in it two threads. The boring 
ceremony should be done in a pure lagna, on Thursday or Friday, when the moon is 
propitious, and in any one 6f the following Naksatras, viz., HastS, Asvini, Svati, 
Punarvasu, Tisya, Mrigasiras, Ohitra, Sravana, Revati." 


So also must be observed by every one his birth-day annual ceremony. As in. 
the Bhavisya : (i Having bathed with auspicious water, every one on his birth-day 
should wear a new dress, and worship the Long-lived ones, such as, M&rkandeya> 
the longlived Vyasa, Parasu Rama, Asvatthaman, Kripacharya, Bali R&j&, Prahlada, 
Hanumanta, Bibhisana. Let every man worship these (human immortals in flesh) 
with devotion and faith, on the day of his birth {i.e.) when the tithi and the 
naksatra are the same. He should worship Sasthi also with curd-offering every 
year on his birth-day." . In the Tithi— tattva, tila (sesamun) homa is ordained to be 
offered to those personages reciting their names. Says the Aditya Purana :— " All 
should bathe in holy waters on the day of their birth anniversary, and should 
worship with great care the spiritual Teacher, the Fire, and Br&hmanas. Ho should 
celebrate that day as a festival every year in honour of his star, the parents and 
Lord Prajftpati." 

Bhavis\\a quoted in Kritya Chint&mani says: — " Ho should worship the Sun 
and Ganosa with sugar, milk, scsanfum, incense, nim, rice, Durba grass and yellow 
pigment, and tie a Raksfi thread on his both arms : and then say u lot me be as long 
lived as thou art : let me bo always handsome, wealthy, and lucky and fortunate. O 
M&rkaiuleyi 1 O thou who livest upto tho end of seven kalpas ! Salutation to thee- 



O Lord ! O Sago 1 bo gracious and givo success, health and long lifo. As thou, O 
Sago, art long-lived among sagos, so mako mo long-lived among raon. I drink this 
milk containing sosamum ami sugar, which has boon offered to Markandeya, in order 
to got incroaso of lifo." Thus reciting ho should drink tho milk to tho oxtont of 
half afijali (handful). In tho Skanda quoted in tho Tithi-Tattva there is this 
ospocial rulo laid down :— " On tho Birth-day anniversary one should avoid tho 
cutting of nails and tho shaving of hair, soxual intercourse, journoy, meat-food, 
quarrol, and injuring any croaturo." 

This may bo done ovory year in order to get increase of lifo. The ritual is as 



First rub tila-oil (sosamum oil) on tho body, put curd and durv& (tilaka) on tho 
forehead, and |lct him batho in hot water. After that, having bathed in water in 
which Kesara (Saffron) has been thrown,' and wearing a white dhoti and a whito 
chadar, and having made dchamana and pranay&ma, let him recite the mantra :— 
" Sumukhas chaikadantas " &c, and taking water containing rice, flower, fruit and 
a copper pice (or any other metal to bo given as daksinS) let him utter the follow- 
ing Sankalpa :-" On such and such day, in country. I on my birth-day, in 

order to get life, fame, sons and grandsons and prosperity, and to please 
M&rkancleya and the rest, will worship Markandeya and others." 

.Then worship Ganesa to remove all obstacles, and utter Svastivachana, let 
him invoke the devata on the seat on which are placed small heaps of unhusked 
rice The Puja mantras are :— Markandeyaya Namah, Asvathamno Namah, Balaye 
Namah Vyasaya Namah, Hanumate Namah, Vibhlsanaya Namah, Kripaya Namah, 
Paras'uRamaya Namali. These eight should be invoked also; as.Markandeyam 
Avahayami, &c, before offering puja to them. Then offer the following prayer :- 

Mdrkandeya.-0 mighty armed Markandeya ! who livest up to the end of seven 
Kalpas ' Let me be as long-lived as thou, O great sage. Through great penance 
and austerity of yore performed by thee, O sage ! thou didst obtain life of seven 
Kalpas on thy birth-day. Give me long life and fame, fortune and wealth, O great 
sage Markandeya ! Give mesons, grandsons and great-grandsons. 

AsvatMman.-O son of Drona ! O Great One born of lunar energy ! Be thou 
giver of strength and good luck. Salutation to thee, O Asvathaman ! 

Bali— O King, born in the Daitya Race ! O Giver of everything to Hari in 
ancient times ! I have come to thee seeking thy aid and help. Give me long life. 

Vydsa.--0 sage! Who knowest the past, present and future! O born of 
Nar&yana's portion ! Give me long life, O Vyasa ! 

Eanumant.-O son of An jana ! O King of monkeys ! O most powerful One ! 
O Beloved of Rama ! Salutation to thee, O Hanuman ! protect me always. 

Bibhtsana -O Bibhisana, salutation to thee ! O thou messenger of Rama in 
difficulty ' O son of Paulastya ! Give me long life, health and prosperity. 

KripacKanja.-O king of twice-born! O Teacher of the Bharata People! O 
Skilled in all sciences >nd arts ! I have come to thy refuge ! O merciful One ! 
Have mercy on me. 

Paraiu Rama.-0 son of Rermka ! O thou of great energy! O destroyer of 
Ksatriya race ! Give me long life, O King, Salutation to thee, O son of Jamadagm ! 

' Then taking in the hollow of his palm, milk in which have been thrown guda 
(sugar) and sesamum, and reciting the following mantras, let him drink three 
times that milk. This is the mantra :-" O Markandeya ! 0 mighty armed ! I drink 



this milk containing sesamum and guda (sugar) to the extent of half an an jali fl in 
order to get increase of life." 

Then recite " Yasya Smrity& &c." And" Pramadat Kurvatam," &c. and by 
" Uttistha Brahmanaspate, &c." Let him make visarjana and bid farewell ! Offer the 
fruit of the karma to Lord. 

[Note. — The Mantras are given below : — 

^tp^t ^nfcr sreit ^ ^jt^ct^ u 

I praise that Eternal Lord by remembering \rhom and utter- 
ing whose name all deficiences are supplied in every sacrifice and 

^PC^TT^ cTf^^TJ ST*^ ^fT^fcT ^Pjfo: H 

" Whatever defects occur in any ceremony through oversight 
or carelessness, they all become rectified by remembering Visnu" — 
so declare the Scriptures.] 


The ChuclSkarana or tonsure should be performed according to family usage. 
The manner of doing it is according to family usage. The Mitaksara uses the words 
Chud&karanara tu yathakulam k&ryam iti. The force of " tu" is that of 'cha' or 
and : and that iti=eva. Though the word Karyam is in the Neuter gender, it is 
illustrative of the masculine nouns also, [All ceremonies whether denoted by 
masculine or feminine nouns mentioned in verses 11 and 12 must be performed, 
and the method of their performance may be according to one's own family usage. 
In the case of tonsure, no time is fixed by Yajnavalkya, The time depends 
upon the family usage.] By using the words yathdkulam 'according to family 
custom/ all alternatives are included. 

As says Apastamba G. S. (XVI. 8.) " In the third year after his birth, the chaula 
or tonsure is performed under the Naksatra of the two Punarvasus. 

So also say Garga, N&rada, and Vaijavapa. But Asvalayanas make a distinc- 
tion, on the authority of this text of As'valSyana :— " The tonsure rite is ordained 
praiseworthy when performed in the third or fifth year, or before that in an un-even 
year, or along with Upanayana (investiture with sacred thread)." So also the 
K6rik& : — " The tonsure should be performed before the end of the first year or 
the second year or the third year, or such is tho authority. But some say according 
to one's family custom or along with Upanayana." 

In another place : — " It is middling, if performed in tho fifth op seventh year 
from birth, it is worst, if dono in tho tenth or eleventh year of conception." A 
special rulo is laid down in N&radiya :— Tho tonsure should not bo performed, if tho 
mother of the boy is pregnant ; but oven if pregnant, it may be performed if the boy 
is above five years of ago. If there bo an abortion, or tho child die after birth, or 
when dono along with upanayana, there is iricurred no guilt." 

So says Brihaspati :— " The tonsuro should not bo performed, if the mother of 
tho boy bo pregnant ; but it may be done oven in pregnancy, if it is below five 
months, but never if abovo that." 



In tho Dharma Prak&sa, in tho chapter on Tonsure, a prohibition is doclared 
with regard to upanayana also, by showing its danger to tho husband of tho pregnant 
wifo :— " Marriage, upanayana and bathing in milk shorten the lives of tho husbands 
of tho prognant womon." Tho marriage horo moans one's own marriage or of one's 
children. The upanayana rofors to tho upanayana of tho children alono (of course, 
it cannot rofor to tho upanayana of tho husband). [In other words, a husband 


incurs tho danger of shortening his life, if ho performs tho marriage of his chil- 
dren or his own, when his wife is prognant ; so also if ho performs tho upanayana 
of any one of his children]. This prohibition does not apply to tonsure however : 
for tho prohibition is stated only whon the mother of tho child to bo invested with 
thread is prognant (and not when step-mothers are pregnant). This prohibition 
does not apply if any other wife of the father is pregnant. As says a toxt "When 
the mother of the child is pregnant, ono should not perform the initiation or tonsure 
of that child. If it is done after tho fifth month of pregnancy, there is death of 
the mother, &e." 

on the day of Abhyudaya Sraddha which is to be performed on the occa- 
sion of any sacrament relating to the son, the wife gets monthly course, the father 
should not perform the Sraddha." But in the Sangraha : — " The tonsure, the initia- 
tion, the marriage, the installation of sacred image, &c. may be done during such" 
impurity, or impurity arising from birth or death, by performing homo, with ghee f 
&c, and making gifts of milch cows." 

The Visnu Purana lays down this special rule : -"So long as there is no initia-r 
tion, no guilt is incurred by eating prohibited food or drink or uttering untrue and 
abusive speech." So also Vasistha : — "He can perform no karma so long as there 
is no tying the girdle (initiation) ; he exists like a Stidra so long as he is not born 
again in the Vedas," (cf. Baudh., I. 2-3. 6.,) A special rule is laid down by Vriddha> 
Sat&tapa as quoted by Apararka : — " Even the Sisu must perform abhyuksana 
(sprinkling purification) ; even the bala must do the achamana, even the kumara 
must bathe when touching a woman in courses. A child is called bala so long, as- 
tonsure is not performed, he is a Sisu so long as feeding with rice (Annapr&sana) 

ceremony is not performed ; and he is called kumaraka so long as he is not invested, 
with maunji (sacred girdle)." 

Prdyaschitta for omission,— If the rites of Garbhadhana, &c, have cot been- 5 
performed with regard to a child, then prayaschitta should be done for such omis^ 
sion : and homu or fire-offering should be done as a prayaschitta- for letting pass the 
proper time : and afterwards the tonsure and its appropriate lioma should be done. 
As says Saunaka " If the proper rites of Garbhadhana upto tonsure have not 
been done then fire-sacrifice should be performed with ghee and uttering: the; 
vy&hritis as a penance ; and then the other rite should be performed. Eor-the omis- 
sion of each ceremony a quarter krichhra penance should be observed, for the onus* 
sion of tonsure half a krichhra. This is the law when the^ omission ia due to 
some calamity. But if the omission is voluntary, then the penance is double/' 
In the Trik&ndi we read: — "When the rites have beei* omitted and the time 
for performing has gone, and the time for performing another rite has come, 
then the rites omitted must be performed first (though out of time), and then tha 
rite in question should be performed," 


Now we shall say something about the mode of keeping the head-tuft. Eaugaksi 
quoted by Madhava declares " The persons belonging to Vasistha Gotra should 



keep the tuft towards the right part of the hair ; those of Atri and Kasyapa, on both 
sides ; of Bhrigu, shaven ; of Angiras, five-tufts, for the sake of auspiciousness ; 
others according to the custom of their family. 1 ' The word * Kamuja ' or tuft means 
Kesapankti or arrangement of hair or sikha, i.e., lock of hair. This different 
arrangement of hair for different gotras depends upon the particular Sakha to which 
one belongs. For the Taittiriyas, however, the number of tufts is according to the 
number of their Pravara. In the Grihya Sutras " Having combed the hair in 
silence, he arranges the locks which are left over, according to the fashion of his 
ancestral Risi or^according to what family he belongs. " (cf. Hiranyakesin, II, 6, 12). 

In the Prayoga Ratna of the author of Nirnaya Sindhu " The tuft should be 
in the middle of the head, but of the Vasisthas towards right, and of Atri and 
Kasyapa clans, on both sides. ,, So also in the Madhaviya. But Apastamba says : — 
"He combs the hair silently, and arranges the locks in the fashion of his ancestral 
Risis." (Ap. G. S. VI. 16. 6). According to the number of Pravara and Risi at the 
time of initiation all these locks except the middle one are cut, from all different 
directions. " He shaves his hair with the different Mantras, towards the different 
(four) directions.' ' (Ap. IV. 10. 6.) 

The middle lock (called Sikha par excellence) should however be never cut for 
Sruti prohibits it, and so also the Smriti :— " He is as if naked and uncovered who is 
totally shaven, this Sikha is his covering," 

" A person without sikha and without sacred thread cannot perform any sacred 
rite, for all that he does is unf ructuous." 

An exception to this is mentioned in Sudarsana Bhasya on Ap. G. S. where the 
shaving of the sikha also is ordained when a person is engaged in a Sattra. 

The saying that "the Kumaras are as if without sikh as, 1 * is according to the 

The Sudras.— The above rules do not apply to the Sudras. For says Vasistha,— 
" For a SGdra there is no rule as to the arrangement of hair." In the Padma Purana 
it is said that a Sfidra should keep no sikha, nor wear sacred thread, nor utter 
refined (Sanskrit) speech. This prohibition applies only to low caste (asat) Sfidras 
and not to high caste (sat) Stidra, according to some. Others say it is optional for 
a Stidra to keep sikha. Therefore says Harita " If a woman or a Sfidra, through 
anger or Vairagya, cut off their sikhd, they should perform the Prajapatya penance. 
Otherwise they do not get release from their sin." The keeping of sikhS, by a Sfidra 
depends npon the custom of the country. 

The Summary. — The conclusion of all the above texts is this. For the Apas- 
tambas it is laid down that at the time of Chfidakarnam they should keep or make 
sikh&s— one lock if the Risi be one, two sikh&s or locks if the Risis be two and so on. 
They may keep these locks throughout their life, or cut them all except the middle 
one, at the time of upanayana. Thus it is established that the middle lock should 
never bo cut at the time of upanayana, all the other locks may be cut. Of course, 
tho ascetics, the persons engaged in performing any priyaschitta, or a big sattra 
cut off oven the middle lock and become totally shavon. 

Now wo shall give horo tho SAtras of Apastamba on this subject oxplained 
according to the commentary of Sudarafmach&rya, so far as necessary (Ap. G., 
S. III. 10. 1 to 8.) 

1. Wo shall explain tho upanayana or initiation of tho student. 2. Let him 
initiate a Br&hmana in tho oighth year after the conception. 8. A Rfijanya in the 
eleventh, a Vaisya in tho twelfth year after tho conception. 4. Spring, summor, 
autumn : these aro tho lit seasons, for the upanayana, corresponding to the order 


_ , , 


of the castes. 5. Tho boy's fathor sorvos food to Brfthmanas and causes them to 
pronounce auspicious wishes, and sorvos food to tho boy. Tho teacher pours to- 
gether, with tho first Yajug of tho next AnuvAka warm and cold water, pouring tho 
warm wator into tho cold, and moistons tho boy's head with tho noxt verso (M. II. 


1. 2). C. Ilaving put three darbhfl, blades into his hair towards each of the four 
diroctions, tho toachor (?) shavos his hair with tho noxt four verses (M. II. 1. 3-6) 
with tho different mantras, towards tho four different directions. 7. With tho 
following vorso (M. II. 1-7) somobody addrossos him while ho is shaving. 8. Towards 
tho south, his mother or a Brahmach&rin strows barley grains on a lump of bull's 
dung ; with this dung sho catches up tho hair that is cut off and puts it down with 
tho noxt vorso (M. II. 1. 8) at the root of an Udumbara tree or in a tuft of darbha 
grass." (Ap. G. S., IV. 10 1-8). Then further on Apastamba mentions that in tho 
sam&vartana also |tho rites arc the same, so far as tho Glutting of the hair is 
cencerned. " The rites beginning with the pouring together of warm and cold 
water down to the burying of the hair are the same as above." (Ap. 6. S. V. 12. 3). 
[As regards tonsure ho says :— ] "In the third year after his birth, the chaula or 
tonsuro is performed, under the Naksatra of the two Punarvasus. Brahmanas are 
entertained with food as at the initiation. The putting of wood on the fire, &c, is 
performed as at the Simantonnayana. He makes the boy sit down to the west of the 
fire, facing the east, combs his hair silently with a porcupine's quill that has three 
white spots, with three darbha blades, and with a bunch of unripe Udumbara fruits ; 
and he makes as many locks as are the number of the Risis in his Pravara or 
according to their family custom. The ceremonies beginning with the pouring 
together of warm and cold water and ending with the putting down of the hair are 
the same." (Ap. G. S., VI. 16-3 to 6). Thus if there is only one Risi in his Pravara, 
he makes one lock ; 'if there are two Risis, then two locks and so on, or the number 
and the fashion of sikhas may depend upon their family custom. 

" The God&na is performed in the sixteenth year, in exactly the same way, or 

* optionally under another constellation. ,, (Ibid, VI. 16. 12.) The Godana is the 
name of a ceremony. It is the rite of shaving two particular portions of the head. 
The author next declares an option :— 

"Or he may perform the Godana sacred to Agni." (Ibid, VI. 16. 13.) That is, 
he should become a Brahmacharin. " The difference between the chaula and the 
Godana is that at the God&na the whole hair is shaven, without leaving the locks.'* 
(Ibid, VI. 16. 15). The sikha also is removed in this ceremony. The Acharya or 
the Teacher should shave the boy in Godana ceremony : and the gift should be 
given to the Teacher only. From this text " the difference between the Chaula and 
Godana, &c," we infer that even the sikha lock is cut in this Godana ceremony, 
as it is cut when one engages in a Sattra. This is the opinion of Sudaraanacharya, 
the commentator on the Apastambya Grihya Sutras. While others differ from him 
and say on the authority of toxts already quoted, that except in sattra, &c, the 
sikha should never be cut, and as Godana is not mentioned among those exceptions, 
the sikha should not be cut in the Godana ceremony. 

• Baudhayana lays down a similar rule 41 In the sixteenth year, the Godana is 
performed : and like the tonsure, silently. The difference between the two is that 
at tho Godana, the whole hair is shaven and he gives a cow to the teacher ; or 
becomes an Agni-Godana (a Brahmacharin), &c. t% 

So also Hiranyeke3in (II. 6. 16) : — " In the same way the Godana karman is per- 
formed in the sixteenth year. He has bim shaven including the top-lock, Some declare 


that he leaves there the top-lock, or he performs Godiua sacred to Agni. He gives 

a cow to his Guru." 

[ Then Balambhatta gives a summary of all the above opinions.] 

[Tying the top-lock.] The sikhS, is tied by giving it two turns and a half and 

reciting the GSyatrl. 


The following selections from the Grihya Sfitras show how the Pumsavana, and 
Bimantonnayana ceremonies were performed in ancient times : — 


The Pumsavana, i.e., the ceremony to secure the birth of a male child. 

SaNKHaYANA, I. 20. 

(1) In the third month, the Pumsavana, i.e., the ceremony to secure the birth of 

a male child. 

(2) Under (the Naksatra) Pusya or Sravand. 

(3) Having pounded a Soma stalk, or a Kusa-needle, or the last shoot of a Nya- 
grodha trunk or the part of a sacrificial post which is exposed to the fire. 

(4) Or (having taken) after the completion of a sacrifice the remnants from the 
Juhfi ladle. 

(5) Let him sprinkle it into her right nostril with the four verses, "By Agni may 
good " (Rig-veda, I. 1. 3), " Thut sperm to us (III. 4. 9), " May he succeed who lights 
fire/' (V. 37. 2.) a Of tawny shape" (II 3. 9), with Svahd at the end (of each verse.) 


1. The TJpanisad (treats of) the Garbh&lambhana, the Pumsavana and the 
Anavalobhana, (i.e., the ceremonies for securing the conception of a child, the 
male gender of the child, and for preventing disturbances which could endanger 
the embryo.) 

2. If he does not study (that TJpanisad) he should in the third month of her 
pregnancy, under (the Naksatra) Tisya,give to eat (to the wife), after she has fasted, 
in curds from a cow which has a calf of the same colour (with herself) two beans and 
one barley grain for each handful of curds. 

3. To this question, 4 What dost thou drink?' 'What dost thou drink ? ' she 
should thrice reply, " Generatien of a male child ! Generation of a male child." 

4. Thus three handfuls (of curds.) 

5. He then inserts into her right nostril, in the shadow of a round apartment, 

(the sap of) an herb which is not faded. 

8. According to some (teachers) with the Praj&vat, and Jivaputra hymns. 

7. Having sacrificed of a mess of cooked food sacred to Praj&pati, he should 
touch the place of her heart with the (verse.) " What is hidden, O thou whose hair 
is well parted, in thy heart, in Praj&pati, that I know ; such is my belief. May I not 
fall into distress that comes from sons. M 


1. Now the Pumsavana, i.e., the ceremony to secure the birth of a male child. 

2. Before (the child in his mother's womb) moves, in the second or third month 
(of pregnancy.) 

3. On a day on which the moon stands in conjunction with a Naksatra (that has 
a name; of masculine gender, on that day, after having caused (his wife) to fast, to 


bathe, and to put on two garments which havo not yot boon washed, and after having 
in tho night-timo crushed in water descending roots and Hhoots of a Nyagrodha tree, 
ho inserts (that into her right nostril) as above, with tho two (verses). 'The gold 
child, (Vaj.Samh., XIII, 4) and " formod of water 99 (I bid, XXXI, 17) ; 

4. A Kusa nocdlo and a Soma stalk, according to some (teachers). 

5. And ho puts gall of a tortoiso on her lap. If ho desires* May (tho son) 
become valiant 'ho recites over him (i.e., over tho embryo) modifying tho rito (?) 

* Tho Suparua art thou ' (Vuj-8amh., XII. 4) (tho Yajus) boforo (tho formulas called) 
"Stops of Vispu." 

khAdira grihya-sOtra. II. 2. 

17. In tho third month of tho first pregnancy (of the sacrifices wife ho should 
perform) tho Purasavana the ceremony to secure the birth of a (male child), son.] 

18. After she has bathed, her husband should put on her a (new) garment that 
has not yet been washed, and after having sacrificed he should stand behind her, 

19. Grasping down over her right shoulder he should touch the uncovered place 
of her navel with (the verse) * tho two men,' (M. B. I. 4. 8,) 

20. Then another (ceremony). Having bought for three times seven barley 
corns or beans, a Nyagrodha-shoot which has fruits on both sides, which is not dry, 
and touched by worms, he should set that up with (the formula), " Ye herbs every- 
where, being well-minded, bestow strength on this (shoot) ; for it will do its work." 

21. He then should take it and place it in the open air, 

22. A girl, or a (wife) devoted (to her husband), or a student, or a Br&hmani 
should pound (that Nyagrodha-shoot) withouttaoving backward (the stone with which 

. she pounds it.) 

23. (The husband) should make (the wife) who has bathed, lie down, and should 
insert (that pounded substance) into her right nostril with (the verse), ' A man is Agni* 
(M.B.L 4. 9). 


1. The beginning of the third month of pregnancy is the time for the Pumsavana 
(i.e., the ceremony to secure the birth of a son). 

2. In the morning, after she has been washed, sitting on northward-pointed 
Darbha grass, (all over her body) including her head, she sits down to the west of the 
fire on northward-pointed Darbha grass, facing the east. 

3. Her husband, standing behind her, should grasp down with his right hand 
over her right shoulder, and should touch the uncovered place of her navel with the 
verse, 4 The two men, Mitra and Varuna ' (M. B. 1. 4, 8). 

4. Then they may do what they like. 

5. Then afterwards (the following ceremony should be performed.) 

<J. In a north-easterly direction, having bought for three times seven barley 
corns or beans a Nyagrodha-shoot which has fruits on both sides, which is not dry 
and not touched by worms, he should set that up. 

7. (He buys it with the Mantras) :— 

a If thou belongest to Soma, I buy thee for the King Soma. 

" If thou belongest to Varuna, I buy thee for the King Varuna. 

" If thou belongest to the Vasus, I buy thee for the Vasus. 

#l If thou belongest to the Rudras, I buy thee for the Rudras. 

u If thou belongest to the ^dityas, I buy thee for the Adityas. 

" If thou belongest to the Maruts, I buy thee for the Maruts. 

" If thou belongest to tho Visve-devas, I buy thee for the Visve-devas. 


- ■ - ■ ■ — 

8. He should set it up with (the mantras), ' Ye herbs, being well-minded, bestow 
strength on this (shoot) ; for it will do its work/ Then he should put grass around it, 
should take it, and place it in the open air. 

9. Having washed a nether millstone, a student or a (wife) devoted (to her 
husband), a person who is a Brahma na by birth (only and not by learning), or a 
girl, pounds (that Nyagrodha-shoot) without moving backward (the stone with 
which she pounds it). 

10. In the morning, after she has been washed, sitting on north ward-pointed 
Darbha grass, (all over her body) including her head, she lies down to the west 
oS the fire on northward-pointed Darbha grass, with her head to the east. 

11. Her husband, standing behind her, should seize (the pounded Nyagrodha- 
shoot) with the thumb and the fourth finger of his right hand, and should insert it 
into her right nostril with the verse 'A man is Agni, a man is Indra' (M. B. 1. 4. 9.). 

12. Then they should do what they like. 

Praina II, Patala I, Sec. 2. 

1. Now (follows) the Pumsavana (i.e., the ceremony for securing fche birth of a 
male child). 

2. In the third month, in the fortnight of the increasing moon, under an aus- 
picious constellation, in a round apartment, he gives her a barley-grain in her right 
hand with (the formula), " A man art thou 

3. With (the formula) " The two testicles are ye n two mustard seeds or two 
beans, on both sides of that barley-grain. 

4. With (the formula) " Svavritat " ? (he pours) a drop of curds (on those 
grains). That he gives her to eat. 

5. After she has sipped water, he touches her belly with (the mantra) * with 
my ten (fingers) I touch thee that thou mayest give birth to a child after ten 

6. (He pounds) the last shoot of a Nyagrodha trunk (and mixes the powder) 
with ghee, or a silk worm (and mixes the powder) with a pap prepared of panick 
seeds, or a splinter of a sacrificial post taken from the north-easterly part (of that 
post) exposed to the fire, or he takes ashes or soot, of a fire that has been kindled 
by attrition, and inserts that into the right nostril of the (the wife) whose head 
rests on the widely spread root (of an udambara tree). 

7. If she miscarries, he should three times stroke (her body), from the navel 
upwards with her wet hand, with (the mantra) " Thitherwards, not hitherwards, 
may Tvastri bind thee in his bonds. Making (the mother) enter upon the seasons, 
live ton months (in thy mother's womb) ; do not bring death to men." 

8. When her labour comes on he performs the ksipraprasavana (i.e., tho cere- 
mony for accelerating tho delivery). Having placed a water pot near her head and 
a TQryantI plant near her feet, he touches her belly. 


9. Tho Pumsavana (i. c., tho ceremony to secure tho birth of a male child) iff 
performed when tho pregnancy has bocomo visiblo, under the constollation Tisya. 

10. From branch of a Nyagrodha tree which points eastward or northward, 
he takes a shoot with two (fruits that look liko) tosticlos. The putting (of wood) 
on the fire, etc., is performed as at tho Simantonnayana. 

11. Ho causes a girl who has not yot attained maturity to pound (the 



Nyagrodha shoot) on an upper millstone with another upper millstone and to pour 
water on it ; then ho makes his wife lio down on her back to the wost of the Are, 
facing the oast and inserts (the pounded substance) with his thuml> into her right 
nostril, with the next yajus (II. 11. 13.) N. P. t*.. Then she will givo birth to a son. 


SaNKIIAYANA guniya-sOtra, I. 22. 

t. In the seventh month at her first pregnancy, the Sjmantonnayana (or 
parting of the hair). 

2. Ho causes hor after she has bathed and put on a new garment which has 
not yet been washed, to sit down behind the fire. 

8. He sacrifices, while she takos hold of him with the Mah&vy&hp itis. 

4. Ho cooks a mess of food. 

5. According tosomo (teachers) boiled rice with Mudga beans. 

6. The implements used and the Naksatra should be of male gender. 

7. (He then sacrifices with the following texts) " May Dhfitar give to his 
worshipper further life and safety ; may we obtain the favour of the God whose 
laws are truthful." 

" Dhatar disposes of offspring and wealth; Dh&tar has created this whole 
world ; Dhitar will give a son to the sacrifices to Him you shall sacrifice, an offering 
rich in ghee." 

(Besides) with the three verses, Nejamesa, 'fly away * (Rig-veda Khailika 
SQkta, after X, 18*) and in the sixth place the verse, 1 Prajapati * (Rig-veda X. 
121. 10). 

8. (The husband then) parts her hair upwards, beginning from the middle, 
with a porcupine's quill that has three white spots, or with a Darbha needle 
together with unripe udumbara fruit, with the words, ' Bhfirj Bhuvahj Svah.' 

9. He lays down (the thing he has used) in her lap. 

10. Ties (the fruits) to a string of three twisted threads and fastens them to 
her neck with the words, 'Rich in sag. is this tree; like the sappy one be thou 

11. (The husband) then says to lute players, ' sing ye the king.' — 

12. ' Or if any body else is still more valiant.' 

18» Having poured fried grain into a water pot, let him cause her to drink 
it with the six verses, "May Vis nu take care of thy womb." " I call Rak& " 
(Rigveda X. 184. 1. II, 32. 4-8), 

14. Let him then touch her (with the words). 

15. * The winged one art thou, the garutmat ; the Trivjut (stoma) is thy head, 
the G&yatra thy eye,, the metres thy limbs>the Yajus thy name, the Setman thy 

16. Let him cause her to sing merrily. 

17. Wearing if she likes, many gold ornaments.. 

18. A bull is the fee for the sacrifice. 


1. In the fourth month of pregnancy, the Simantonnayana (or parting of the 
hair, is performed.) 

2. In. the fortnight of. the* increasing moon, when the moon stands in con- 
junction with a Naksatra (that has a name) of masculine gender. 

3. Then he gives its place to the fire^and having spread to the west of it a 




■ i 

bull's hide with the neck to the east, with the hair outside, (he makes oblations) 
-while (his wife) is sitting on that (hide) and takes hold of him, with the two (verses), 
4 May Dh&tri give to his worshipper,' with the two verses, ' I invoke Rak&' (Rig- 
veda II. 32. 4 seq.) and with (the texts), *Nejamesa/ and, 'Praj4pati, no other one 
than thou* (Rig-veda 121. 10.) 

4. He then three times parts her hair upwards (t.e., beginning from the front) 
with a bunch containing an even number of unripe fruits, and with a porcupine's 
quill that has three white spots, and with three bunches of kusa grass, with (the 
words), 4 Bhiir, bhuvah, Svar, Om." 

5. Or four times. 

6. He gives orders to two lute-players, * Sing King Soma/ 

7. (TJiey sing) ' May Soma, our King, bless the human race. Settled is the 
wheel of N. N.' (here they name) the river near which they dwell. 

8. And whatever aged Br^hmani womeu, whose husbands and children are 
alive, tell them, that let them do. 

9. A bull is the fee for the sacrifice? 

PARASKARA G. 8., I. 15. 

1. Now the Simantonnayana (or parting of the pregnant wife's hair,) 

2. It is performed like the Pumsavana. 

3. In her first pregnancy, in the sixth or eighth month. 

4. After he has cooked a mess of sacrificial food, containing sesamum ancl 
mudga beans ^nd has sacrificed to Praj&pati, he parts fop the wife who is seated to 
the west of the fire on a, soft chair, her bair upwards (i.e., beginning from the front) 
with a bunch containing an even number of unripe Udumhara fruits, and with three 
bunches of Darbha grass, with a porcupine's quill that has three white spots, with 
a stick of ViratarS, wood, and witji a fnll spindle, with the worfls, * Bhfir, bbuvah, 


5. Qr (he parts the hair once) with each of the (three) Mah&vyahritis. 

6. He ties (the Udumbara fruits, &c.) to a string of tbree twisted threads 
with (the words) ' Rich in sap, is this tree ; like the tree, rich in sap, be thou fruitful,* 

7. (The husband) then says to two lute^players, 4 Sing Ye t>he King, qr if any 
body else is still more valiant.* 

8. Here some also prescribe a certain stanza (to be sung by the lute-players) : 
4 Soma alone is our King. May these human tribes dwell on thy banks, O (river) 
whose dominion is unbroken, N. N. V here he names the name of tbe riyer near 
which they dwell. 

9. Then (follows) feeding of the Brahmanas. 


24. Then in the fourth or sixth month (of her pregnancy) the Simantonnayana 
(or parting of the hair is performed) for her. 

25. After she has bathed, her husband shoixld put on her a garment that has not 
yet been washed, and after having sacrificed, he should stand behind her and should 
part her hair once withsa well-proportioned (?) branch of a tree, on which there are 
fruits (and) with a porcupine's quill that has three white spots, with (the verse), 
•Rich in sap is this tree (M B. I. 5., 'l) t 

26. While she looks at a mess of boiled rice with sesamum seeds, covered with 
ghee, he should ask her i What dost thou seo ? 9 

27. Ho should make her reply 4 Offspring ! 9 



■ • 

28. When tho child is appearing, the sacrifice for the woman in labor (is to 
bo performed). 

29. With tho two versos * Sho who athwart'— (M B. I. 5, 6, soq.) 

80. He should give a name to tho child, N. N. 1 

81. That (is his) secrot (namo). 

82. Beforo the navel string is cut oil and tho broast is given (to the child ; tho 
father) should havo rice and barloy grains pounded in the way prescribed for the 
Nyagrodha— shoot. 

33. Ho should take thereof with his (right) thumb and fourth finger and give it 
to tho child to oat, with (tho mantra), ' This order ' (M B. I. 5, 8). 

34. And butter with (the verse), * May intelligence to thee 9 (M B. I, 5, 9). 

grihya-sOtra of gobhila. 

II Prapdthaka Kandika 7. 

1. Now (follows) the Simantakarana (or parting of the hair) in her first preg- 

2. In the fourth, or sixth, or eighth month (of her pregnancy). 

3. In the morning after she has been washed, sitting on northward-pointed 
Darbha grass, (all over her body), including her head, she sits down to the west of 
the fire on northward-pointed Darbha grass, facing the east. 

4. Her husband standing behind her, ties (to her neck) an Udumbara branch 
with an even number of unripe fruits on it, with (the verse) ' Rich in sap is this 
tree' (M B. I. 5, 1). 

5. He then parts her hair upwards (i.e., beginning from ithe front), the first 
time with Darbha blades, with (the word) ' Bhuh ! the second time with (the word) 
'Bhuvah,' the third time with the word Svah ' 

6. Then with (a splint of) Viratara (wood) with this verse, 'With which 
Aditis' (Ibid, 2). 

7. Then with a full spindle, with this verse, ' 1 invoke Rak& ' (Ibid, 3—4) ; 

8. And with a porcupine's quill that has three white spots, with (the verse), 
1 Which are thy blessings, O Raka (Ibid, 6). 

9. (There should be prepared) a mess of boiled rice with sesamum seeds, 
covered with ghee; at that he should make her look. 

10. Let him say to her, 'What dost thou see?' and make her answer, 'Off- 
spring I ' 

11. That (food) she should eat herself, 

12. Brahinapa woman should sit by her side, pronouncing auspicious words 
(such as), 1 A mother of valiant sons ! A mother of living sons ! A living husband's 
wife !' 

13. Now (follows) the sacrifice for the woman in labour. 

14. When the child is appearing, he strews (Darbha grass) round the fire and 
sacrifices, two Ajya oblations with this verse. 'She who athwart.' (M B. I. 5. 6.) 
and with (the verse) ' Vipaschit has taken away/ (Ibid f 7). 

15. 'A male he will be born, N. N. by name/— (in this passage of the last 
verse) he pronounces a name. 

16. What that (name is) is kept secret. 

17 Whence they announce to him that a son has been born, he should say 
1 Delay still cutting off the navel-string, and giving him the breast/ 


18. Let him have rice and barley-grains pounded in the same way as the 
(Nyagrodha) shoot. 

19. Seizing (the pounded substance) with the thumb and fourth finger of his 
right hand, he smears it on the tongue of the boy, with the mantra, 4 This order. 9 
(M B. I. 5. 8.). 

20. In the same way the production of intelligence (is performed). He should 
give to eat (to the child) clarified butter. 

21. Or he takes it with gold, (i. e., with a golden spoon) and sacrifices it on the 
face of tho boy with this verse, 'May Mitra and Varuna bestow intelligence on 
thee (M. B. I. 5. 9.) and with (the verse). 'The lord of the seat, the wonderful.' 
(S&ma-Veda, I. 171), 

22. Let him say 4 Cut off tho navel string, ' and 4 Give the breast (to the child)/ 

23. From that time let him not touch (his wife) until ten nights have passed. 

grihya-sOtra of hirannyakesin. 

Prasna II, Patala I, Section I. 

1. Now (follows) the Simantonnayana (or parting of the pregnant wife's hair). 

2. In the fourth month of her first pregnancy, in the fortnight of the increasing 
moon, under an auspicious constellation, he puts wood on the fire, performs the rites 
down to the Vy&hriti oblations, and makes four oblations to Dh&tri with (the verse), . 
" May Dhatri give us wealth " (and the following three verses, Taitt, Samh. Ill, 3, 
11.2. 3). 

3. ' This, O Varuna 1 (&c, Sec. I, Chap. 27, S&tra 2. down to ) ; 4t Hail ! Good 
luck ! 91 

He then makes the wife who has taken a bath, who wears a clean dress and 
ornaments, and has spoken with a Brahmana, sit down to the west of the fire, facing 
the east, in a round apartment. Standing to the east (of the wife) facing the west, 
he parts her hair upward (i.e., beginning from the front) with, porcupine's quill that 
has three white spots, holding (also) a bunch of unripe fruits, with the Vy&hritis 
(and) with the two (verses), " I invoke R&ka," (and), lt Thy graces, O Raka." 
(Taitt. Samh. III. 3. 11. 5). Then he recites over (his wife the mantras) " Soma 
alone is our king, thus say the Brahmana tribes, sitting near thy banks, O Gangd, 
whose wheel does not roll back (?) ! " (and), " May we find our way with thco 
through all hostile powers, as through streams of water " (above I. 20. 5). 

grihya-sOtra OF APASTAMBA. 

Fatal 6, Section 14. 

1. Tho Simantonnayana (or parting of the pregnant wife's hair, is performed) 
in her first prognancy, in tho fourth month. 

2. (Tho husband) sorvos food to Br&hmanas and causes thorn to pronounco 
auspicious wishes ; thon after (tho coromonios) from tho putting (of wood) on the 
firo down to tho Ajyabhfiga oblations (havo boon performed), he offors tho oblations 
(indicated in tho) noxt (mantras, M. II. 11. 1-8), whilo (the wifo) takes hold of him 
and enters upon tho (porformanco) of tho Jaya and following oblations. 

3. Having porformod (tho rites) down to the sprinkling (of water) round (tho 
fire), ho makos her sit down to tho west of tho fire, facing tho east, and parts hor 
hair upwards (i.e., boginning from tho front) with a porcupine's quill that has throo 
whito spots, with throo Darbha blados, and with a bunch of unripe Uduuibara fruits, 
with the Vy&hfitis or with tho two noxt (vorscs, II. 11. 0. 10). 


4. Ho says to two luto players, 1 Sing.' 

5. Of the next two (vorsos II. 11. 11. 12), the Orst (is to bo sung on this occa- 
sion) among the (people of the) Sfilvas. 

0. Tho second (is to bo usod) for Brfihmanas ; and tho rivor near which they 
dwoll, is to bo named, 

7. Ho tics barloy-grains with young shoots (to the head of tho wifo) ; theso 
sho kcops until tho stars appoar. 

8. Whon tho stars havo appeared, he goes (with his wife) towards the east or 
north, touches a calf, and murmurs the VyAhritis ; then sho breaks her silence. 


Now wo shall say something about the commencement of study and tho first 
learning of alphabots. The Markancleya quoted in Madhaviyam : — 

"When the child has attained tho fifth year, and when Hari is not asloep, avoid- 
ing the sixth and the first day of the moon, the Rikta, and the fifteenth as well, 
the Sunday and the Tuesday : let him make the child commence his first study in a 
well-ascertained, auspicious time. Spreading a white cloth, on which are heaps of 
rice, let him write on those heaps the fifty letters, in their due order, with a golden 
stylus. Lot him worship with tho Vyahritis Bhfihu, &c, the presiding deities of 
letters as well as Sarasvati, Ganesa, Hari, Laksmi, Guru, the sun, the author of the 
Grihya-Stltra to which he belongs, his own branch of learning, Siva, and the six 
letters. Let him offer Homa in fire with ghee, reciting the names of these and with 
Naivedyaof Guda, Laddoo, &c. (sweetmcnts) separately. The Brahmanas should be 
honored with fee. The teacher should sit facing east and the boy facing west. 
First should be recited the six-syllable Mantra :— " Om ! Namah s'ivaya," and tho 
child should be taught the fifty letters beginning with ^ and ending with Then 
having the child sit facing east, cause him to write three times and speak out the 
letters. Let him cease reading on the days which are holidays, namely the eighth 
and the second days of the moon, and the full and the new moon days, &c. 


Sahkalpa.— I, NN, on such and such day, &c, am going to make the child com- 
mence the learning of the alphabet, so that he may become master of all sciences, 
and so attain the four-fold end of man. 

Mdtrikd Pujd.—Then let him perform Matrika Ptija, and Abhyudayika Sraddha, 
make the Brahmanas recite the auspicious day, &c„ spread out a white cloth and 
place small heaps of rice on it, and on such heaps let him do pfija to Ganesa, Hari x 
Laksmi, Devi, Sarasvati, Vyasa, Gautama, Jaimini, Manu, Panini, Katyayana, 
Patanjali, Yaska, Ping^la, Garga, Kan&da, Kapila, V&lmiki, Vamana, Dhanvantari, 
Krisasva, Bharata, Visvakarman, Panikapya, and Nakula ; as well as the Vedas, the 
Pur&nas, the Nyaya, the Mimamsa, the Pharma-Sastra, Phonetics, Ritual, Grammar, 
the Nirukta, Prosody, Astronomy, the Vaisesika, the Vedanta, the Sankhya, the 
Patanjala, Poetry, Rhetoric, Medicine, Archery, Music, the Arts, the Science of 
elephants, the Science of horses, the Science of falcons. He should invoke these in 
tho vocative case with the mantras of their names. The invocation of Sarasvati is 
somewhat different. Her Mantra is : "O mother of the world ! O whose form is 
all-speech ! Come here in thy all-speech form. Come hither." Then salute all 
these in the dative case, beginning with Om and ending with namah. (As, Om 
Ganes&ya namah ; Om Haraye namah, &c.) and offer them each the Upacharas, such 
as, p&clya (water to wash the feet), arghya, Achamaniya, sandal, flowers, rice, in- 


cense, candle, sweet-pudding, <&c. Then give one homa to each with ghee in the 
fire. Then give cloth and ornaments to the teacher and feast the Br&hmanas, and 
the nurse. Then anointing the boy and giving him a bath and dressing him in n£w 
garments, adorned with scents and ornaments, make him go and perambulate thrice 
the devas like Ganesa, &c, and the teacher, and let him sit facing west. Then let 
him salute the Guru reciting : — 

Ajnana timirandhasya Jnananjana ^alakaya. 
Chaksurunmilitam yena Tasmai Srigurave namah. 

Salutations to that glorious Guru who, when my sight was blinded by the 
darkness of ignorance, restored to it the light of knowledge and truth. 
Then let him salute Sarasvati, saying:— 

" Salutations to thee, 0 Sarasvati ! Oboon-giver ! 0 all-desired ! 
0 thou of many forms ! 0 thou of broad eyes ! Give me knowledge, 
0 lady of all devas ! " 

Making the boy recite the above two verseg, and causing the Br&hmanas and 
the teacher to bless him, make him learn the letters : and commence study. Then 
bid farewell to the teacher and the devas. Let fee be given to all. Then establish 
fire and offer sacrifice to it. (The details are omitted). 


Though these ceremonies are nitya or permanent (producing 
chiefly spiritual benefits) the author now shows their secondary bene- 
fits or fruits also. 


XIII. — By this the taint (derived from both parents, 
literally) produced from the seed and the embryo is 
destroyed. These ceremonies, in cases of women, are 
(to be) performed in silence, but however their marriage 
is with (the recitation of) Mantra. — 13. 


" By this," i.e., the said method, i.e., by the performance of the 
consecratory ceremonies of Garbhadhana, &c. 

" The taint " or the sin, is destroyed. What kind of taint ? 
Produced from seed and embryo, and relating to semen and ovum, 
and occasioned by the contagion of some bodily or hereditary disease 
and not the sin of being born of an outcaste, &c. 

* The author propounds a special rule for women. "These," 
the ceremonies of birth, &c, of women are to be performed, at the' 
proper time, " in silence/' without reciting sacred formulas. Their 
marriage, (however), again is (performed) with the Mantras, i.e., by 
reciting the sacred formulas. 



Tho word garbha moans tho utorino blood, i.e., tho ovum. Thcso corcmonics 
aro useful especially in destroying any dofeeb of hereditary diseaso. Instead of 
the words gfitra vyadhi another reading is gotra vyftdhi, i.e., any disease belonging 
to heredity. Those coromonics in tho caso of women aro also to bo performed in 
tho proper timo. Tho word tu 5 of tho verse moans "again." 

The Upanayana. 
[The author now mentions the time of Qpanaj'ana.] 


XIV.— In the eighth year of conception or in the 
eighth (year of) birth, the Upanayana ceremony of the 
Brahmanas, of the Ksatriyas in the eleventh ; of the 
Vaisyas in eleven plus one. Some say according to 
family custom.^— 14. 



Calculating either from the starting point of the day of the 
conception ceremony (garbhadhana) or from that of birth, in the 
eighth year, the Upanayana of the Brahmana should' be performed. 
The forms Upanayana and Upanayana are the same. The affix *W 
added to 3<T*Prar does not cause any change of sense. Or the length- 
ening of V in to SIT is an archaic form due to the exigencies of metre. 

Here the (selection of any one of the two) alternatives depends 
on one's wish, (i.e., one may perform the ceremony in either of the 
two years as he wishes). 

Of the Ksatriyas, in the eleventh. Of the Vaisyas, plus one, 
i.e., add 1 to 11, i.e., in the twelfth year. The word " conception " 
is understood after all these. Though the word a conception," 
occurring in a compound (in the original) is an adjective or 
secondary word and consequently grammatically incapable of 
separation from the word it qualifies (namely, from the word astama 
or eighth), yet it must be logically considered to have been so 
separated and should be applied to the other two words too (the 
eleventh and the twelfth), Because of the text in another Smriti 
(Manu II. 36.) 

" Of a Ksatriya in the eleventh year after conception, of a • 
Vaisya in the twelfth." 

For example, in the sentence atha ^abdanutiasanam, " Now an 
exposition of words." " Of what words ? Of the profane and sacred 


YAJftAVALKYA smbiti. 

words." Here also the compound term " Exposition-of-words " has 
been broken up and the term, sis^ word, has been added to the words, 
profane and the sacred. 

In this verse also the words " must be performed* " are taken to 
be understood. 

Some want to perform the Upanayana ceremony according to 
family custom. 

balambhatta's gloss. 

As it is impossible to know when the conception really takes place, so the 
commentator us£s the word " Garbhadhana," which is a fixed period of time to 
calculate the starting point. Another reading is "janmatah 01 instead of "janmanab." 
Thus in the Naradiya Samhita " In the eighth year from Garbhadh&na or in the 
eighth year from birth (janmatah) should be performed the ceremony of tying the 
sacred girdle of theBrahmana, of the Ksatriyas, in the eleventh year, of the Vaisyas* 
in the twelfth." 

The word in the verse is " Upanayanam" with a long & ; the usual form is 
Upanayana" with a short 31 a : a third form is found in Manu, according to Me- 
dhatithi's reading, namely, " Aupanayanam SlPFreT^ " " with the Vriddhi of 3 and 
the lengthening of si n Both Upanayana and Aupanayana are variants of the one 
and the same word upanayana. See Manu (II. 36). 

Though it is optional to count either from the day of Garbhadhana rite or from 
the day of birth, yet the first is more praiseworthy as it is the principal ; the other 
is secondary. 

The ditties of the Guru. 


XV. — The Guru having initiated the pupil, should ins- 
truct him in the Vedas together with the great Vyahf itis, 
and must teach him the purificatory practices — 15. 


To the pupil initiated in accordance with the rules laid down 
in one's own Grihya-Sutra, the preceptor must teach the Vedas, 
preceded by the great Vyahritis. The Mahavyahritis are seven 
beginning with Bhuh find ending with Satya, or according to the 
opinion of Gautama, they are five. Moreover he ought to teach him 
the purificatory rites to be mentioned below. 

From the text " being initiated, let him be taught the purifi- 
catory practices" it is inferentially declared that before Upanayana 
one may act as he likes. Excepting the (special) duties of (special) 
castes. This (acting as one likes, &c) is common even to women 
before Jbhey are married. For marriage stands to them in the place 
of Upanayana* 




• • 

Tho Upanayana should bo performed according to the particular Grihya-SQtra 
rules, by which tho family is governed. It is blamcablc, if performed by other rito. 
Honco, tho commentator says "according to tho rites taught in one's own Grihya- 

Tho seven Vyfihritis aro Bhnh, Bhuvah, Svah or Suvah, Mahah, Janah, Tapah, 
and Satyam. According to Gautama, tho five Vydhritis aro : Om Bhuh, Om JJhuvah, 
Oin Svah, Om Purusah,Om Satyam. 

As says Gautama: — "Before Upanayana tho child is free to act as he likes, 
speak as he likos and oat as ho likes/' By " act as ho likes" is meant that his move- 
ments depend on his wish only. By i( speak as ho likes" is meant that he may utter 
obsccno words, &c.' (without incurring sin). By * eating as ho likes' is meant that 
ho may eat stalo food, or garlic, ocions, &c. 

But he must not transgress the particular rules of his caste, for ho is a Brah- 
manii, &c, even before initiation. Therefore ho must not commit a mortal sin 

Even if he touches a chanrlala, &e., he need not bathe with his clothes on, &c. 
If he touches water unbathed that water does not become impure. After six years 
of age, however, he also should bathe. 

Also to that effect says Manu (II. 171) They call tho teacher (the pupil's) 
father because he gives the Veda ; for nobody can perform a (sacred) rite before 
the investiture with the girdle of munja grass. 

If a child before being initiated into reading and writing, loses his father, he 
can perform the funeral of his father and can utter the sacred " Svadha." - 

A female child has the same liberty as the uninitiated boy, so long as she is not 
married. Compare Manu II. 69. 

[The author now explains the purificatory practices.] 


XVI. — Let him, placing the sacred thread on the 
right ear, void urine and fasces, facing the north, during 
the day time and the twilights ; and facing south during 
the night. — 16. 


He who has placed the sacred thread on the ear is being spoken of 
as karnastha-brahma-sutrah. The ear means the right ear. Because 
it is said in Lifiga (Purana) : /'Having placed the sacred thread on 
the right ear, let him void urine and faeces." 

He should void urine and faeces during the day time and the two 

twilights facing the north. By the word ' cha' (and) in the text, is 

meant a place free from ashes, etc. During the night, however, he 

should face the south. 




Says Marichi : " He who eats or voids urine or excrements without the sacred 
thread is purified by Pranayama (regulation of breath) with eight thousand Gdyatri/' 

The word diva-sandhyasu is a Dvandva, compound of diva+sandhy a (the day 
time and two twilights). The word * cha 9 in the second line of the verse is not 
redundant. It serves to include all other rules, such as, the place must be free 
from ashes, etc. See Manu (V. 136.) 


XVII. — Moreover rising with the organ in one hand, 
purification, sufficient to remove the stink sticking to 
the body, is to be attentively made, with earth and up- 
lifted water. — 17. 



Moreover afterwards taking hold of the organ, he should rise and 
perform the ablution, in order to destroy the stink and remove the 
faecal matter sticking to the body, with uplifted waters, which would 
be described further on, and with earth. " Attentively " means 
without idleness. By the use of the word " uplifted," purification 
within the waters is prohibited. 

u Destructive of stink and sticking " is the rule of purification in 
general for all the a^ramas (orders). 0 The rule relating to the 
number of times earth should be used is for the purpose of produc- 
ing invisible result. 


"Afterwards" means after voiding these. The word "Grihitasisna" is a 
Bahuvrthi compound, meaning ' he who has taken hold of the organ.' 

The compulsory dchnmana. 


XVIII. — With hands between the knees, in a clean 
spot, being seated facing the north or the east, a twice- 
born ought daily to perform achamana by sipping water, 
through the Brahmatfrtha (Brahma-ford) — 18. 


" Clean " — without being defiled by the contact of impure ob- 
jects. The expression " clean spot " by implication prohibits shoes, 
beds, stools, &c. " Being seated " neither standing "nor lying down, 

* This is attributed to Pit&maha in ParAa'ara M&dhava (B. S. &.wYol. I. pt. 1. 
p. 231). 



nor being bent forward, nor walking. u Facing the north or the 
east" excludes all other directions. " In a clean spot" indicates 
that the feet also should bo washed. " <( Through the Brahma-ford. " 
This will be described later on. " The twice-born, " not the ^fidras 
and" others. "Daily," at all times, though he may have entered 
another order (than that of studentship). " Let him rinse the 
mouth, " let him make achamana. How ? " Between the knees," 
having placed the hands between the knees, and with the right hand 
performing the achamana. 


. . 

The * pure spot ' necessary for this ordinary achamana need not bo the spot 
swept and cleansed, &c, or sanctified otherwise. It only means a spot not unclean 
by reason of contact with unclean substances like shoes. The word " asana M used 
in the commentary refers to the ordinary seats of daily use, and not sacred seats. 

According to Harita, ono may sifc facing the Isana-corner. This achamana is 
compulsory in all stages of life and for all orders. Sitting with knees up and the 
two hands between the knees, the right should be in the palm of the right hand and 
sipped through the Brahma-tirtha. 

[Now the author describes the fords or the tirthas. J 


XIX. — The beginning of the little finger is the 
Prajapati-tirtha, that of the index-finger is the pitri- 
tirtha, that of the great finger (or thumb) is the Brahma- 
tirtha, and the end of the hand is the deva-tirtha — 19. 


The roots of the little finger, of the index-finger, and of the 
thumb, and the end of the hand are respectively known as the Pra- 
japati, Brahma and the Deva tirthas. 

Compare Manu II. 58 and 59. 

Let a Brahmana always sip water out of the part of hand (tirtha) sacred to 
Br&hmana, or out of that sacred to Ka (Prajapati) or out of (that) sacred to the 
gods, never out of that, sacred to the manes. 

They call (the part) at the root of the thumb the tirtha sacred to Brahmana, 
that at the root of the (little) finger (the tirtha) sacred to Ka (Prajapati), (that) at 
the tips (of fingers, the tirfcha) sacred to the gods, and that below (between the 
index and the thumb, the tirtha) sacred to the manes. 

According to some, there is option as to the sipping of water from any one of 
these three tirthas. For example, if owing to boil or ulcer the Brahma tirtha is 
incapable of being used then the Prajapati or the Deva tirtha may be employed in 
Achamana. If all the tirthas are unfit, then the water may be sipped from a spoon 
as ordained. If one cannot do it himself, another may help him in giving the water, 
i.e., by pouring it into his mouth. 



[Now the method of Acliamana is described. "\ 


XX. — Water should be thrice drunk, the mouth 
should be twice rubbed, the holes should be touched with 
water (once). The waters should also be in the natural 
pure state, free from froth and bubbles. — 20. 


Having drunk water three times, the mouth (lips) should be 
twice rubbed with the root of the thumb ; he should then touch 
with water, the " holes " or the cavities in the upper portion 
of the body, such as nostrils, &c, " with water," i.e, y with pure 
water unmixed with any other thing. By mentioning the word 
" water " twice, it is meant that every cavity should be touched with 

The author further qualifies such waters, by saying " in the 
natural state," that have not undergone any modification in smell, 
colour, taste or such, and are free from froth and bubbles. 

By using the word " tu,' ? " also," there is the prohibition of 
the waters brought by the ^udras and of the rain-water. 



The seven upper cavities should be touched with water : and not the lower 
ones, nor the navel. The dchamana water is thus described in another text : — 
" Let him sip that water which has been taken out (of a tank, well, river, &c.) which 
is free from froth and bubbles, and which has not been heated by fire." Yama says : 
" The twice-born who sips the water in which hand or fingers have been placed, 
drinks wine (commits the sin of drinking wine)." Prachetas says : " Let him sip 
thrice or four times the water which is not hot, which is not frothy, which is pure 
to eye (or strained through a cloth), and which reaches up to the heart." The 
general rule is to sip thrice; to sip /our times is optional. The sick, however, 
according to Yama, may use warm water. 


XXI. — The twice-born become pure by waters reach- 
ing the heart, the throat and the palate, respectively. 
Women and Sudras become pure directly the waters 
once reach the palate. — 21. 


The twico-born classes are purified by waters respectively reach- 
ing the heart, the throat and the palate. The women and the 


dras arc purified when waters touch the last of these, namely, the 

" Once " is used to distinguish the ^udras and women from the 
VaitJyas (who sip thrice ; their waters also reach the end of the palate). 
By the word " cha " in the text the uninitiated persons are also in- 

Manu lays clown the following (II. G2) : — 

" A Br&hmana is purified by water that reaches his heart, a Ksatriya by reaching 
his throat, a Vaisya by water taken into his mouth, (and) a Sftdra by water touched 
with the extremity (of his lips)." The word antatah has been differently explained. 

According to Kalpataru, the Sudras should also drink water but only once. But 
Sridatta holds that he should only touch the water with the extremity (antah) of the 
lips and not drink it. 

The following rules are laid down in Agasta Samhita, Gautama Tantra, etc :— 
44 The twice-born should first wash his hands and feet, tie the top lock, and then 

perform Achaniana according to the rules of his own school or according to Pauranik 


With the three words Kesava, NSrayana, Madhava, he should drink water ; with 
the two words Govinda and Yisnu he should wash his hands ; with the two words 
Madhusudana and Trivikrama he should touch his both lips ; and with the two 
words Varaana and Sridhara he should rub the lips; with the one word Hrisikesa 
he should wash the hands ; then with the word Padmanabha he should wash his feet ; 
with Damodara, he should sprinkle the head ; with Sankarsana, the mouth ; with 
Vasudeva and Pradyumna, the two nostrils ; with Aniruddha and Purusottama, the 
two eyes ; with Adoksaja and Nrisimha, the two ears ; with Achyuta, the navel ; with 
Jauardana, the heart; with Upendra, the head; with Hari and Krisna, the two 


[After the ceremony of the celebration of the first commencement of alphabets, 
Balambhatta gives a collection of various Sakkalpa mantras employed in different 


ceremonies such as Garbhadhana, Pumsavana, Simantonnayana, Jatakarman, Nama- 
karma, NiskrAman, Upavesana, Annaprasana, Choula, &c. These Sankalpa mantras 
are omitted here. The Sankalpa mantras of other ceremonies, not yet described, 
such as Savitripujfi, Godana, Samavartana, Marriage, &c., are also collected here. 
The Sanklapas, according to Tantras, are also shown : so aho the Tantric form of 
some ceremonies. The mantras of Suryavalokana, Niskraman, Upavesana and 
Annaprasana are also given there.] 

[Balambhatta then enters into a long discussion as to the auspicious time for 
performing Upanayana. A summary of it is herein given.] 

According to Vas r istha the following asterisms are auspicious, i.e., when the moon 
is in these constellations the Upanayana may be performed 

(1) Hasta, (2) Chitra, (3) Svati, (4) Sravana, (5) Dhanistha, (6) Satabhisa, (7) 
Uttara-sadha, (8) Abhijit, (9), Anuradha, (10) Visakha, (11) Jyestha, (12) Uttara- 
phalguni, (13) Revati, (14) Punarvasu, (15) Pusya. These are good for tying the 
acred girdle Uttaraphalguni, Uttarasadha, Uttara Bhadrapada, Hasta, Anuradha, 



Mrigasirah, Rohini, Chitra, Revati, and Punarvasu. These are good for Upanayana : — 
Asvini, Pusya, Dhanistha, Satabhisa, Svati, Sravana. These are middling. 
Kasyapa says :■ - 

Anuradha, Sravana, Dhanistha, Satabhisa, Hasta, Chitra, Svati, UttaraphalgunJ, 
Uttarasadha, Uttarabhadrapada, Abhijit, Punarvasu, Pusya, Asvini, Yisakha. These 
are good stars for Upanayana. 
Guru says : — 

Uttara Phalguai, Uttarasndha, Uttara Bhadrapada, Rohini, Hasta, Anuradha, 
Jyestha, Chitra, Punarvasu, Mrigasirah are good for Upanayana. 
Narada also: — 

Uttaraphalguni, Uttarasadha, lUttara Bhadrapada, Jyestha, Mrigasira, Punar- 
vasu. Sravana, Dhanistha, Satabhisa, Asvini, Anuradha, Rohini, are good for 

According to Kalyana Kalpadruma, the Rig-vedins should observe the following 
constellations : — 

Mula, Hasta, Chitra, Svati, As : lesa, Ardra, Pu rva Phalguni, Purvasadha, Purva- 
Bhadrapada. These are good for girdle ceremony for the Rig-vedins. 
The Yajur-Yedins, the following : — 

Pusya, Punarvasu, Revati, Hasta, Anuradha, Mrigas'irah, Rohini. These are 
best for Yajur-vedins, for Upanayana. 
The Sama-vedins, the following 

Pusya, Svati, Hasta, Asvini, Ardra, Sravana. Uttara Phalguni, Uttarasadha, 
Uttara Bhadrapada. These are good for Sama-vedin for tying girdle. 
The Atharva-vedins, the following : — 

Mrigasirah, Anuradha, Asvini, Hasta, Chitra, Svati, Punarvasu, Jyestha. These 
are good for Atharva-vedins for Upanayana. 

These sixteen asterisms are auspicious for the Upanayana of a Brahmana. Some 
reject Punarvasu. See Raja Martanda. Balambhatta, however, is of different opinion. 

The Ksatri3 r as and Yaisyas, have twenty-two asterisms, the Brahmanas have 

[Then Balambhatta gives a short method of Upanayana to bo observed in cases 
of penance. There are certain sins for which the penance is initiation de novo. This 
penitential Upanayana is not done with full rites of the original Upanayana.] 

Infirm may be initiated.— According to Baudhayana, the idiot, deaf and dumb may 
also be initiated. For their Upanayana, any season may be chosen : the asterism 
should be auspicious*. After feeding the Brahmanas, and causing them to pronounce 
blessing, the hair must bo shaven : and the boy should have a bath. He should be 
dressed in pure clothes, the top-lock should be tied. All rites are gone through, 
but in silence, i.e., without the utterance of the sacred formulas, as the boy , through 
infirmity, cannot recite the mantras, the achfirya does it for him. 

[The method of Sandhycl Updsand, Bathing and Tilaka,]® 


XXII. — Bathing, sprinkling the body with Mantras 
addressed to the Waters, retention of breath, adoration 

* For a detailed account of these, see " The daily practice of the Hindus " third 
edition, revised and enlarged, published as Yol. XX in the Sacred Books of the Hindus, 



of the Sun and the daily repetition of the Gayatri should 
be performed. — 22. 


Bathing early in the morning according to the rules ; sprink- 
ling the body with appropriate scriptural Mantras, such as begin 
with u Apo-histha Sec addressed to the Waters. 

The retention of breath is Pranayama to be described later on. 

Then the adoration or Upasthana or coming in the presence of 
the Sun with solar Mantras, and the daily repetition or muttering 
inaudibly the Gayatri, " TatSavitur Varenyam, etc., " be performed. 

The phrase " must be performed " is to be added to every one 
of the above clauses, by reason of its occurring in a previous 

Note. — The mantras addressed to waters are these : — 

Om ; Apo histha mayobhuvah, tana firje dadhatana, mahe 
ranaya chaksase. 

Om ; Yo vah ^ivatamo rasah, tasya bhajayatelia nah ; usatir 
iva matarah. 

Om ; Tasma arafr gamama vah yasya ksayaya jinvatha ; Apo 
janayatha cha nah. 

• (Rig. X. 9. 1 to 3.) 

O ye Apas (All-pervading Divine Currents) since you are the sources of plea- 
sure, help us therefore by giving us energy, so that we may feel the Mighty Sound. 

That essence of yours which is most auspicious, of that a share give us here. 
As loving mothers (suck the babe). 

O Waters ! we approach thee all for our sins to be destroyed, Give us strength 
to cope with sin. 

Om, Drupadadiva mumuchanah svinnah snato maladiva ; 
putam pavitrenev ajyam apah standhantu mainasah. (Yajur Veda. 
XX. 20.) 

Om, even as the perspiring gets relief from the shade of the tree, as bathing 
removes the impurities of the body, as the ghee becomes purified by its purifying 
agent, — se let the Waters purify me from all sins. 

Then offer Arghya to the Sun. The mantras addressed to the Sun are these. 

Om ! Udvayam tamasas pari, Svah. pa^yantauttaram ; 
Devam Devatra Suryam, aganma jyotir nttamam. 

We have gone out of the encircling darkness, and have seen the high heaven, 
and the Divine Sun full of great light in the sky. (Big. Veda I. 50. 10.) 

Om, Udutyam Jatavedasam Devam vahanti ketavah ; Dritfo 
Vi^vaya Sriryam. 

His heralds bear Him up aloft, the God who knoweth all that lives ; Stirya that 
all may look on him. (Rig Veda I. 50. 1.) 




Om ! Chitram Devanam udagad anikam ; Chaksur Mitrasya, 
Varunasyagneh ; 

Apra-Dyava Prithivi antariksam ; Surya atma jagatas tasthusasJ 

The brilliant Presence of the Gods hath risen, the eye of Mitra, Yaruna and 


The soul of all that moveth not or inoveth, the Sun hath filled the air, earth 
and heaven. 

Om ! Tach chaksur devahitam purastach chhukram uchcharat. 

Pai^yema ^aradah s$atam, Jivema ^aradah j^atam, ifrinuyam 
i^aradah ^atam, Prabravama ^aradah ^atam, Adinah syama s'aradoh 
sfotam, Bhuya^cha saradah satat. (Rig Veda VII. 66. 16.) 

That Eye (of the universe), the beloved of the Gods, the Brilliant (Sun) arises in 
the East. May we see for a hundred years, live for a hundred years, hear for a 
hundred years, speak for a hundred years, be rich for a hundred years — yea, more 
than hundred years. 

The Tilaka or mark on the Forehead. 

After Acharaana, the proper caste mark (tilaka) should be painted on the fore- 
head. The mark may be made either with the thumb, or the middle finger or the ring 
finger or the index finger, according to the desire to be accomplished. 

The mark should be made on various parts of the body, uttering the different 
names of Hari, as given in the following list : — 

Forehead (lalata) ... ... ... ... Kesava. 

Stomach ... ... ... ... Narayana. 

Heart ... ... ... ••• Madhava. 

Throat ... 

... Govmda. 

Right side of the stomach ... ... ... Visnu. 

On the right arm ... ... ... ... MadhusQdana. 

Ear (right) ... * ... ... Trivikrama. 

Left of the stomach ... ... ... Vamana. 

Left arm ... ... ... Sridhara. 

Left ear 

Back ... ... — ••• Padman&bha. 

Shoulder ... ... ••• ••• Damodara. 

Head (with Mtila Mantra) ... ... ... V&sudeva. 

The forehead mark may be frrdhapundra for Siva : or for Visnu. On the head, 
the mark is to be made with the Mula Mantra. In other places with the above 
twelve names. The mantras are : Om Kesav&ya namah (forehead), Om IVarayan&ya 
namah (stomach), &c. 

Tho forms of tho mark aro difforont in different parts of the body. In some 
places, it is a horizontal line, and in others vortical, &c. Thus near the ears it is 
vertical, near tho heart like a lotus, on tho stomacli liko a candle flame, liko the bam- 
boo leaf of tho arms, liko jarabu fruit, under the shoulder, &c. 

Tho forehead mark should be ton angulas (quarter inches) in length. This is 
tho best of all. The middling in nine angulas, next is eight angulas or seven, six or 
five angulas : from tho beginning of tho nose to tho beginning of tho hair. 

Tho sacred ash also may bo similarly used. [Tho details of it are omitted]. 






1*110 author no\V describes tho nature (method) of tho Reten- 
tion of Breath. 


XXltl. — He should repeat inaudibly the Grayatrt 
with its head and preceded by the Vyahritis, to each of 
Which the syllable Om should be added ; doing this 
thrice is known as the retention of breath. — 23. 


The above-mentioned GUyatri coupled with its &ras, namely 
the Mantras " Apojyotih, &c." and being preceded by the already 
mentioned Vyahritis; while to each Vyahriti is prefixed the syllable 
Om, as Om Bhuh, Om Bhuvah, Om Svar, Om, Mahah, &c., should be 
recited three times mentally, having restrained the breath flowing 
through the mouth and the nose. Such repetition is always called 


• • 

The Pran&yama consists of three processes, first breathing in slowly through 
one nostril. It is technically named Pflraka. The second is retaining the breath by 
closing both nostrils, for a period more or less prolonged. It is called Kumbhaka, 
The third is breathing out slowly through the other nostril. It is called Ptechaka* 
In Sandhya, the period of time for each process is of the same duration, namely, the 
time taken in reciting the whole Gayatri and Siras* 

In performing Pranayama, the left nostril should be closed by pressing ifc with 
the ring and little fingers of the right hand, and air drawn in through the right 
nostril. Then the right nostril should also be closed by tho thumb; and the air re- 
tained. Then the ring and little fingers should be raised and the air expelled from 
the lett nostril. 


XXIV. — Having restrained the breath and sprinkled 
water with the three richas (hymns) addressed to the 
Waters, let him sit, reciting- the Savitri, westward, till 
the stars rise. — 24. 

XXV (a).— In the morning twilight in the same 
manner, he should sit eastward till the sun is seen. — 
25 (a). 





Having performed the Pranayama as described above, and having 
sprinkled water on his body with the above-mentioned three Mantras 
addressed to the Waters, and reciting the Savitri, " he should sit 
westwards in the twilight," meaning that the face should be towards 
the west. " Till the stars rise," so long as the stars do not rise. 

" In the morning twilight," i.e., at the time of dawn, he should 
sit facing the east, till the rising of the sun, observing the above- 
mentioned rules. That prayer or ceremony which is ordained to be 
performed at the junction (Sandhi) of day and night is called San- 
dhya. The day is that period of time during which the total disc of 
the sun is capable of being seen. The reverse of this is night. That 
time during which the solar disc is partially visible is called Sandhi 
or twilight. 


[Balambhatta gives here the method of the SandhyS prayer. We summarise it 
below. For fuller details, see our " Daily Practice of the Hindus."} 

After Pranayama, one should perform japa both morning and evening. In the 
morning one should sit facing east, in the evening facing west. 

[The various portions of the Sandhya are] : — 

Mantra Achamana.— This is done by reciting the mantras Suryaseha raa manyus 
Cha, &c, in the morning ; Apah punantu, &c, at midday, and Sfiryascha, &c, again 
in the evening (with a slight change.) See the *• Daily Practice of the Hindus/ 1 

Second Mar jam.— After Achamana, let him have marjana, with Ora, Vy&hritte 
Savitri, and the mantras Apo histha, &c, and Gayatri .with kirasa (for details see 
the " Daily Practice"). 


This is done by taking water in the hollow of the palm of the right hand, and 
thinking of the sin as personified and as coming out of the nostril and entering inta 
this water. The verses Hifcam cha, Satyam cha, &c, should be recited. Drive out the 
person of sin from the right nostril into this water, and without looking at it throw this 
water towards one's left on the ground. The Vajasaneyins read also Drupaditdiva, 
"While reciting the mantras the Pranas must be restrained. The sin is personified as 
having its head consisting of the sin of killing a Brahmana, the arms consist of the 
sin of stealing gold, the heart is made up of the sin of drinking wine, the loin is the 
sin of defiling the bed of one's spiritual precoptor ; all the limbs are of sin, the hairs 
of the body are small sins, the beard and eyes are blood rod, and he holds as word 
and shield, and is of black color and residing in one's heart. See the "Daily 

Offering Arghya. — Then Arghya should bo given, as laid down in the Grihya- 
SQtras, Aftor Achamana tako a handful (Anjali) of water with durbha rice, (Towers, 
samlal paste in it, stand facing the sun, recite the Sfivitri preceded by the Vyfihritis 
and the Pranava, and offer throo such handfuls. This ofToring is called Arghya* 
offering. Then porambulato saying *' Asau Aditya Brahma," and then sip water. 
For details see tho " Daily Practice" 



Jopu,— In the morning, mid-day and evening, ono should recito thoC&yatri, 
silently. Ho should think of tho Devi, cither in the heart, or in the solar orb. Ho 
should meditate on tho sense of the mantra, calmly and quietly, without hurry or 
worry. Tho mind should be contented, and pure and under control. He may recite it 
either 108 times or 28 times or at least 10 times, nfc each Sandhyfi. The counting 
should be made on tho right hand which should bo covered up with a cloth Ono 
should not make jap a while going or standing or doing somo work or in an impure 
state, or keeping no count. Ho should not touch any portion of the body below 
tho navel. 


The Asana. — The seat should bo of silk or blanket or skin or flax or wood or 
leaves. The skin of black antelope givos knowledge, that of tiger emancipation and 
all desires, so also a spotted blanket gives all desires. The bamboo seat causes 
poverty, tho stone causes disease ; the earth, causes sorrow, the painted wooden 
seat, causes ill-luck ; straw seat causes loss of wealth and fame, a seat made of 
leaves causes delusion or mental hallucination. The dsantf mantra is given in 
" Daily Practice of the Hindus/' 

The rosary. — It may be of conch shells of silver-like lustre or of lotus beads or 
rudraksa or crystal or gem or pearl or silver or golden beads or the phalanges of 
one's lingers. The fruit is one hundred, if the beads are of conch or goms ; thousand, 
if made of coral ; ten thousand, if made of crystal; a lac, if made of pearl; ten lacs, if 
made of padmaksa ; koti, if made of gold ; and infinite, if of rudraksa. 

The rosary may consist of 108 beads or 54 beads or 27 beads. 

After japa one should bid farewell to the Gayatri with certain mantras. See 
the " Daily Practice of the Hindus. 0 

If owing to some accident, the morning or mid-day Sandhya be not performed, 
then it should be' done in the early part of the night, within three hours of the 
sunset, in which no bath .or Brahmayajna or solar hymns are necessary. 

ACHAMANA mantras. 

[The explanation of Achamana and the Gayatri Mantra is thus given in Balara- 

May the Supreme Brahman called Agni, and may the presiding Deva of anger 
and may the Great Souls, who have conquered anger, protect me from the sins corn- 
mi ted by my spirit of anger (manyu). Whatever sin I have committed by night 
through my mind, speech, or hands or feet, or stomach or the organ, may Day destroy 

all that sin and its author (my egoism). I throw it (to be consumed) into this Agni, 


the luminous cause of Immortality, the Supreme Brahman. T. A. X. 24.1. 

May the Ail-pervading purify this clod (my physical body), may my physical 
body thus purified, in its turn purify my subtle body. May the Lord of the Devas— 
the Supreme Self— purify me. May the sacred and the ever-pure Veda purify me,* 
may the pas purify all sins, such as, eating the leavings of another, or improper 
food, or evil conduct or accepting gift from sinners. Svaha. Tait. A. X. 23. L 

the gayatri with its vyahiteis and siras. 
H ll *ft U ^ ugi ll ?rt sre: ii srf crq: II srf 

iff Om, this syllable is the name of Param Brahman. Bhiih, 
that in which all beings exist (bhavanti) is called Bhuh. gq: Bhuvah, 

£8 YAJNAVALKYA smrttt. 

he who sustains (bhavayati) and maintains the universe is called 
Bhuvah, §3: Suvah, that which is easily attained. It is compound 
of g well or easily and Vfi to go, iryati susthuh. The affix is f^Ul 
H^: Mahah, the adored : honored, or adorable. It is derived from 
the Jxtiaha, to honor, and the affix %t%^ I sr.- Janah, the creator : from 
the Jm* to create and the affix sr§^ I Tapah, the Punisher or 
Remorse-giver from the sj^ to heat, with the affix srfp; II Satyam, 
the true : that which remains unchanged in all the three times, past, 
present and future, who is not conditioned by time. Savituh, 
of the Inciter : the inner compeller, the conscience. Varenyam, 
adorable. *?f: Bhargah, the burning form, the form by which the 
bondage of Samsara is consumed : the Sach-chid-ananda form : the 
Bliss-form. \4ifj% Dhimahi, we meditate. sr%^?i^ Prachodayat, may 

* * 

he stimulate. ^T"?: Apal}, all-pervading, Jyotih, the Light, In- 

telligence. Rasam, happiness. SflJtT Amritam, the Immortality, 
the Release. Thus is Brahman. Qm, I acknowledge him : a 

particle of assent. T^at is, I meditate. 


Vydhritis.— The Supreme Brahman (Oip) is the support of all beings, and their 
Sustainer. He is easily attained : and is th,e Adorable, the Creator, the Punisher or 
Remorse-giver, and the Ever-true. 

Gdyatri.— : We meditate on the ^dorq,ble blissful form of QocJ, the Cousciencp. 
May He stimulate all our faculties. 

Siras.— I acknowledge brahman to be Allrperyadiug, All-intelligence, All- 
happiness and Immortality. He is BhQh (the all-support), Bhuvah (^he all-nourish" 
pr), and Svah (the all-approachable). 

Another meaning of this Gayatri is : — 

1 meditate (with my three-fold consciousness) on the adorable divine Fire of 
the unchangeable Creator : who is called Tat. May Laksm} and Narayana stimulatp 
xny cognitions. 

Another meaning of the Gayatri is :- - 
» I mpditate on God (who creates as) Brahma, sustains as Visnu, and destroys as. 
Siva : and who as Tqriya is all these three, &c. 

Or the word " Bharga" may mean * food/ and " Dhiyah mean " actions." 

Through tho grace of that God Savita, who stimulates our activities, may wo 
bo capable of upholding food : (i.e., wo got our daily food through the grace of God) 

Sandhyd.—A porson is uncleq^, and incapable of performing any religious work 
if he does not perform thp daily .Sandhya. (Daksa). So also says Chhandoga 
Parirfista. The conjunction of day and night— that time when there are neither 
stars nor sun— the twilight is called Sandhya. Tho timet, however, of performing 
tho evening prayer is just when tho disc of tho sun has gono half down the horizon : 
till the stars appear. In Vriddha Yajfiavalkya, tl^o tiuio is whon tho sun has npt 
risen (in the morning) and when it has not fully sot (in the evening). 


Tho word Sandhya, therefore, secondarily means all those acts, such as Pra- 
iiftyftuia, &c , prayers, &c, to be performed at that particular time. Others (Vriddha 
Yajfiavalkya) mean l)y Saudhyi, a particular Devi, presiding over these portions of 
tho day. Tho morning is called Gayatrf, tho mid-day Is S/ivitrj, the evening is 
named Sarasvabi, tho Goddess of morning is whito, of tho noon, red; and of tho 
evening, black or dark blue. 

According to Madhava, it is called Sandhya, because this is performed at the 
timo called Sandhya. 

According to Nrisimha, it is called Sandhya because it is complete (sum)-medi* 
tation, (dhya=to meditate). 

6omo say that by Sandhyd, Upasana meditation, is meant which is tho principal 
part. Others say that Jnpa of the Gayatri is the principal part : and dh} r ana is 
merely a subordinate part. According to Asvalayana and Manu, Japa is the main 
part of Sandhya. (Manu IV. 94). 

" By prolonging the Sandhya, the sages obtained long life, wisdom, honor, fame 
and excellence in Vedic knowledge." 

This extract from Manu, regarding the Sandhya, shows that Japa is meant 
here by the word Sandhya : for Japa alone can be prolonged by reciting the mantra 
a thousand times or more; and not Pranayama or others; the time of which is 
strictly limited. 

For detailed accounts of Achamana, Sandhya and Gayatri, consult. "The 
Daily Practice of the Hindus," 3rd edition (revised and enlarged), published as Vol. . 
XX " The Sacred Books of the Hindus." 


XXV (b). — Then the fire sacrifice should be per- 
formed, at both the twilights also. — 25 (6). 


"Then" after performing the twilight prayers, he sliould per- 
form at both twilights (morning and evening) the fire ceremony, i.e., 
the ceremony or work done in fire, such as, throwing fuel, &c, into 
it. This should be done according to the rules of one's own 


The force of the word "api," "also," in the verse is to ordain that the fire- 
sacrifice should be done at both twilights, and not in only one of them (either in 
the morning or evening). So also Manu (II. 186 :— u Having brought sacred fuel 
from a distance, let him place it anywhere but on the ground, and let him, un- 
wearied, make with it burnt oblations to the sacred Are, both evening and morning." 
cf. Manu II. 176 also. 

In omitting to perform this, there is sin. as declared by Harita. Some say 
that this Homa should be done in the evening alone (Laugaksz). 

Tho sacrificial wood should be as described by Katyayana. It should not 
bo thicker than one's thumb ; nor bark-less, nor worm-eaten, not more than a span 
in length, nor branching. In the Vayaviya it is said that the fuel should be of 
Palasa; in its absence, Khadira, or San^i, or Rohitaka, or Asvattha, may be used 
as Samidh. 


If this fire-rite is omitted, one incurs guilt : and prayaschitta must be per- 
formed. The time of its performance is before or after begging. 

The tiahkalpa.— Restraining the breaths, let him utter the Sankalpa "Pra- 
nanayamya (.Pratar or Sayam) Agni Karyam Karisye." Then taking the Samidh 
in hand recite : — 

Agnaye samidham aharsam, brihate jatavedase 

Taya tvani agne vardhasva sarnidha Brahmanavayam. 

" To Agni I have brought a piece of wood, to the great Jatavedas. 
Through that piece of wood increase thou, O Agni ; through the 
Brahman, may we increase. Svaha." (A^valayana. G.-S., I., 21. 1). 

Om : tej?samasamanajmi. 

Mayi medham mayi prajam mayy agnis tejo dadhatu. 
Mayi medham mayi prajam mayi Indra indriyam dadhatu. 
Mayi medham mayi prajam mayi Suryo bhrajo dadhatu. 
Yat te agne tejas tena/ham tejasvi bhuyasam. 
Yat te agne varchas tena'ham varchasvi bhuyasam. 
Yat te agne haras tena'ham harasvi bhuyasam. 

[The above is from the Asvalayana G.-S. We give the translation of the whole 
. passage here.] 

Having put the fuel (on the fire) and having touched the fire, he three times 
wipes off his face with (the words) 44 With splendour I anoint myself." 

8. "For with splendour does he anoint myself " — this is understood (in the 
Sruti.) ' * *J 

4. " On me may Agni bestow insight, on me offspring, on me splendour, 

44 On me may Indra bestow insight, on me offspring, on me strength (indriya)* 

44 On me may Surya bestow insight, on me offspring, on me radiance." 

44 What thy splendour is, Agni, may I thereby become resplendent." 

44 What thy vigour is, Agni, may I thereby become vigorous." 

44 What thy consuming power is, Agni, may I thereby obtain consuming power J 1, 

Then taking the sacred ash (vibhfitim), let him recite : — 

Ma nas toke, tanaye, ma na ayau, ma no gosu, ma no as'vesu 

Viran ma no Rudra bhamino vadhir, havismantah sadamitva 

BIG VEDA I. 114. 8. 
Harm us not, Rudra, in our seed and progency, harm us not in the living, nor 
in cows or steeds. 

Slay not our heroes in the fury of thy wrath. Bringing oblations evermore 
we call to thee. 

Tryfiyusam Jamadagneh, Kaiyapasya tryayusam> Agastyasya 


tryayusam, yad Devanftm tryayusam tan me astu tryayusam 

4< The three-fold age of Jamadagni, Kasyapa's three-fold age, the three-fold 
ago of Agasbya, tho threo-fold ago that bolongs to tho dovas ; may that three-fold 
ago be tiiino, may that hundred-fold ago be mine. Svahu. M (VS. 3. 0. 2, H.G. 1. 9.6.) 



Orp cha mo Svara&ha mo, Yajfiopa cha to namasi cha. Yat te 
nyOnairi taamai ta upayato ti riktam tastnai te namah. (.A^valayana 
^rauta Stitra 1. 11. 15). 


Thon recito the following Svasti Mantra : — 

^raddham mcdhum Yasiah prajfifim vidynm buddhim sJriyam 

Ayufjyam teja arogyam dehi me hayyavahana : dchi me havya 
vahana Om namo namah. 

44 O Havyavfl liana ! Give nio faith, memory, fame, wisdom, learning, intelli- 
gence, prosperity, strength, long life, vigour, health. Give these to me O Havya- 
vflliana ! Om, namo namah." 

[Agni, of course, here means the Supreme God. Then recite any Agni-stotra.] 
Then recite (the following names of God in the vocative) Kesava ! Narayana ! 

Madhava ! Govinda ! Visno ! MadhusOdana ! Trivikrama ! Vamana ! Sridhara ! Hrisi- 

• • • • 

kesa! Padman&bha! Damodara ! Samkarsana ! V&sudeva ! Pradyumna ; Aniruddha 5 
Purusottama : Adhoksaja ! N&rasimba I Achyuta ! Janardana ! Upendra ! Hare ! Sri 
Krisnaya namah. 

The method of abhivddana. 


XXVI (a). — 'Then he should bow to the elders saying 
I am so and so. — 26 (a). 


Afterwards he should hambly salute the 1 elders/ the Guru,' 
etc., How ? By saying I am Deva Datta Sarma, i.e., he should 
mention his name. 


• • 

The saluting of the elders is of universal application and not confined to 
Sandhya only. This verse lays down the method of such salutation whenever occasion 
may arise to salute the elders. So also Mann (II. 122 and 124) " After the word 
of salutation, a Brahmana who greets an elder must pronounce his name, saying, 
44 1 am N. N." In saluting he should pronounce after his name the word bhoh ; for the 
sages have declared that the nature of bhoh is the same as that of all proper names.' 7 

After the word salutation, one should add the word 44 abhivadaye," 44 1 greet 17 
(Parijata kara). 

The word 4 vipra ' * Brahmana 1 in the above text is illustrative of all twice- 
born castes. The formula of abhivadana is 44 Abhivadaye amuka Sarma namaham 
asmi Bhoh/' " I N. N. Sarma byname greet." As to upasamgrahana or feet-clasping, 
Manu further says (II. 72) :— 44 With crossed hands he must clasp the feet of the 
teacher, always unwearied, must say : Ho, recite I He shall leave off when the 
teacher says : Let a stoppage take place," 

Thus saying 44 Belonging to so and so gotra, I, Deva I7atta Sarma, bho abhi- 
vadaye." He should touch his both ears, and holding the feet of his Guru by his 
right and left hands respectively, he should bow down his head. This is Upasam- 
grahana. In abhivadana there is no clasping of feet; mere touching the feet is 
enough ; or even not that. In Gayatri abhivadana, the word abhivadaye comes last ; 



as " amuka gotra Deva Datta Sarmaham bho abhivadaye/ 1 In ordinary abhiv&dana, 
the formula is "abhivadaye Deva Datta namSham asmi bhoh." There is, however, 
this speciality about twilight deVotidn abhivadana that the elders may do it to the 
youngers also ; as says Yama :— u In the Sandhya, the elder may greet with abhi- 
vadana the younger also— with the exception of the son, the pupil, the daughter's 
son, and the husband of the daughter/' 

Manu lays down this specific rule of abhivadana (II. l23) :— « To those persons 
who, when a name is pronounced, do not understand the meaning of the salutation, 
a Wiseman should say, 'It is I;' and he should address in the same manner all 

That is, those who through their ignorance of Samskrita or the Sacred Law, do 
not know the proper formula of abhivadana, should be addressed as mentioned 
above. In returning the abhivadana of an ignorant person, Manu lays down this 
rule (I, 126) "A Brahmana who does not know the form of returning a salutation, 
must not be saluted by a learned man ; as a Sudra, even so is he." 

The proper method of returning an abhivadana greeting is thus laid down by 
Manu (II. 125). "A Brahmana should thus be saluted in return, 'may'st thou be 
long lived, 0 gentle one !' and the vowel ^ must be added at the end of the 
name of the person, addressed, the syllable preceding it being drawn out to the 
length of three moras (matras).° 

Panini also gives this rule. 

Vasistha also says thus (XIII. 46) " When a salute is returned, the last vowel 
of the noun standing in the Vocative is produced to the length of three moras, and 

if it is a diphthong or ^) changeable according to the Sandhi rules, it becomes 

6y or &v (wra) e.g., bho, bhav." This text, indirectly shows that the 

conjunction of letters is not compulsory in every case. (The Sandhi is optional). 

Says Manu (II. 134) " Srotriyas, though three years intervene between their 
ages, but blood-relations only if the difference of age be very small." Among 
Srotriyas (not related by blood), the elder is he who is older at least by three years, 
and deserves abhivadana. Among blood-relations, agnates or cognates, one who is 
older by a day even is to be so greeted. For a Vayasya " is defined as those born 
on the same day. Those who are not older by three years, Manu lays down the 
following rule (II. 127):— "Let him ask a Brahmana, on meeting him, after his 
health, (with the word) kus r ala, Ksatriya with the word anamaya, a Vaisya (with the 
word) ksema, and a Sfldra (with the word) arogya." This* of course, applies when a 
person of one caste meets with another of his own caste or a lower caste, but not 
when a person of a lower caste addresses one of a higher caste. Manu further says 
(11. 128) He who has been initiated (to perform a Srauta sacrifice) must not bo 
addressed by his name, even though he be a younger man ; he who knows the sacred 
law must use in speaking to such (a man the particlo) bhoh and (tho pronoun) bhavat 
* your worship," (II. 129). For a female, who is tho wifo of anothor man, and not a 
blood-relation, ho most say, 1 Lady ' (bhavati) or I " Beloved sister." 

After tho sacrifico is over, tho name should bo taken. These rules apply to 
married stage also, and not confined to studonts. 

Tho Visnu Pur&ua lays down tho rulo that ho should study tho Vcdas also. A 
Brahmana should learn tho particular branch (Sikhft of tho Veda, special to his 
family ; and then learn tho other Vcdas. Ho should know tho moanings also. Mere 
learning by roto is almost useless. Vasistha also insists on ono's studying his own 
bakhd with its appendages, and following the ritual of his own school, otherwise ho 


incurs tho guilt of Brahma-slaying. So also Manu (II. 1A8) : — " A twico-born man 
who, not having studied tho Voda, applies himself to other and worldly study, soon 
falls, oven whilo living, to tho condition of a bOdra and his decendants after him." 

And Manu (IV. 01)) :— Let him not recite tho texts indistinctly, nor in the 
prosenco of S'ftdraa ; nor lot him, if in the latter part of tho night he is tired with 
reciting tho Voda, go again to sleep. (100.) According to tho rule declared above, 
lot him recite tho daily portion of tho Mantras, and a zealous BrAhmana, who is not 
in distress, shall study tho BrAhmana and tho Mantra Samhit&." So tho study of 
tho Samliita or Mantra portion is absolutely necessary and can never bo dispensed 
with, whilo tho Brfihmana portion may bo dispensed with. 

A Sfidrci also, belonging to a respectable family and having good qualities 
should be taught, though not initiated with Upanayana ^fi j^^w^^i^Tuq^ 
Susruta states this opinion. 


v XXVI (b). — He should serve or worship the pre- 
ceptor for the sake of learning and should be attentive. 
—26 (6). 


Then he should worship the " Guru " or the preceptor to be 

described later on ; " worship, " i.e., he should be devoted to his 

service and remain obedient to him. " For the sake of learning, " 

i.e., in order to get perfection in study : or to complete his studies. 

" Be attentive " — He should not have his mind wandering about. 


The force of * in the verse is to denote « then, ' i so also.' That is, some* 
thing more should be done in the case of the Guru, than mere greeting, to which as 
an elder he is, of course, entitled. One must even go the length of 44 worshipping " 
him. That is to say, he must serve the Guru while a student, and be always 
obedient, to him when the period of studentship is over, of. Manu II. 71, 72, 191. 


XXVII. — And also lie should study when invited. 
Whatever he obtains, he should present it to him. He 
should always promote his interest by all acts of mind, 
speech and body. — 27. 


" Invited he should study, " when he is invited by the Guru, he 
should not himself urge the Guru to teach him. Whatever he ob- 
tains, he should offer all that to the Guru. Moreover he should 
promote " his " (the Gum's) interest. " Always," constantly with 
all acts of mind, speech, and body. He should not do anything to 
his disadvantage. By the use of the word <4 also " it is meant that 

10 • 


when he is in the presence of his Guru, he should avoid u covering 
his throat, " " crossing his legs, " " leaning, " etc., as described by 
Gautama (Chap. II. 14). 


The force of the word " api" in the verse is thatof'eva' or "only," and sq 
the commentator explains it as " ahuta eva," cf . Manu II. 191, 73, 74. 

The proper pupils, 


XXVIIL— Grateful, non-hating, intelligent, pure, 
healthy, non-envious, honest, energetic, kindred, one 
who imparts knowledge or makes present of money, 
such a student should be taught according to Dharma — 


" Grateful," one who does not forget the benefits received. 
" Non-hating," merciful. " Intelligent," apt in understanding and 
retaining instruction- " Pure," clean in mind and body. " Healthy," 
free from mental and bodily disease. " Non-envious," he who does 
not expose the fault and publishes the good work of others, " Viiv 
tuous," bearing good character and conduct. " Energetic," capable 
of doinc service. " Kindred/' Bandhus or cognates. " Giver of 
knowledge," one who teaches any science. " Giver of money," one 
who gives money as an offering, (not as a salary). 

These qualities, whether existing in full or in part, must be 


looked after, as far as possible and such students should he taught 
according to Dharma," i.e., in accordance with- the scriptures. Of. 
Manu II. 109. 

The staff,, ete. 


XXIX. — He should also keep the staff, the skin, 
the sacred thread and the girdle. He should beg from 
blameless Brahmanas for supporting the body. — 29. 


Then according to the well-known directions laid down in other 
Smritis (Manu Chap. II, Verse, 41, &g.,) the student belonging to the 
Brahmana class, Ac, shall keep a staff of palasa wood (Butea fron- 
dosa), &c., skin of black antelope, &c t , the sacred thread made of 


«■ — - — , , 

cotton, &c, and tho girdle made of Moonja (Saccbarum moonja), &c. 
Tlio aforesaid Brahmachari, wearing the staff, etc., should beg from 
"Brfihmanas who are blameless," i.e., free from the faults of being - 
an abhi&isfta (one accused of a mortal sin,) &c, and who are devoted 
to their proper duties. " For self support/' for maintaining his own 
self, and not others (strangers) with the exception of his guru, and 
guru's wife and son ; because of the following rule (of Gautama If. 

" Having offered it to the Guru, he should eat having got his 
permission, or, in liis absence, with the permission of his sons, &c. ,) 

The specification of Brahmana here is, in case when it is 
possible to get one of that class, and is not an imperative rule. As 
to the text "from all classes, the asking of alms," it means the first 
three classes only. As to the text " he 'may beg from the four 
classes," it refers to cases of distress only* 


The staff. -The Dharma siltra says The staff of a Brahmana should be of 
Palasa wood." So also Manu (II. 45) « A Brahmana shall carry, according to the 
sacred law, a staff of Bilva or Palasa ; a Ksatriya, of Vata or Khadira ; and a Vaisya, 
of Pippala or Udumbara." 

Yama quoted in the Madhavjya lays down an optional rule ;— " If these woods 
are not procurable, then all may use the woods of all sacrificial trees for their 

Mauu lays the length of the staff (II 46).—" The staff of a Brahmana shall be. 
made of such length as to reach the end of his hair ; that of a Ksatriya, to reach 
his forehead ; and that of a Vaisya, to reach the tip of his nose." 

Gautama also lays down the length as reaching the top of the head, the 
forehead, and the tip of the nose, respectively. 

Manu gives the following marks of the staff (II. 47) " Let all the staves be 
straight, without a blemish, handsome to look at, not likely to terrify men, with 
their bark perfect, unhurt by fire." 


As regards the skier, Manu says (II. 41):— "Let students, according to the 
order of their castes, wear as upper dresses the skins of black antelopes, spotted 
deer, and he-goats, and lower garments made of hemp, flax or wool." 

So also Vasistha (XI. 61-63) as quoted in the Madhaviya :— - "The upper dress 
of a Brahmana shall be the skin of black antelopes ; that of a Ksatriya, the skin of 
a spotted deer ; of a Vaisya, a cow skin, or the hide of a he-goat." 

Paraskara lays down the following (II. 5. 17-20) :— " The upper garment of 
Brahmana should be an antelope skin ; that of a Ksatriya, the skin of a spotted 
deer ; that of a Vaisya, a goat's or a cow's skin. Or if the prescribed sort of 
garment is not to be had, a cow's hide should be worn by all. 

In the Agni Purana The skins of antelopes, of tigers, and of goats* res- 
pectively, for the Brahmacharins of each caste.'' So also the Dharma sutra. Yama 


YA JNa v alky a smriti. 

gives an option :— " Or all may use the skin of the antelope." Gautama lays down 
the following rule about the inner garment :— " The garments of hemp, flax, grass 
(chira) and wool (kutapa) are for alL ,, 

Gautama (I. 17-18) gives an alternative " Or undyed cotton garment for all. 
Some say it may be dyed yellow. The garment of the Brahmanas should be 
without any colour or dyed with colour exuding from a tree, of the Ksatriya dyed 
with madder and of the Vaisya, dyed with turmeric." 

Vasistha says (XI. 64) :— * The lower garment of a Br&hmana shall be white 
and unblemished. (65) That of a Ksatriya, dyed with madder. (66) That of a 
Vaisya, dyed with turmeric or made of raw silk. (67) . Or a dress made of undyed 
cotton cloth may be worn by students of all castes." [The reading of Balambhatta 
is somewhat different from that of the S. B. E.] 


Manu says (II. 44):— "The sacrificial string of a Brahmana shall be made of 
cotton, shall be twisted to the right, and consist of three threads, that of a Ksatriya 
of hempen threads, and that of a Vaisya of woollen threads." 

If this cannot be got, then Devaia lays down :— " The twice-born should keep 
the sacred thread made of cotton flax, govala (cow's hair), hempeu (sana), bark of 
tree, or straw, as he can get." This should be of new thread, as laid down by 
Devaia. The thread should be spun in a pure place, and by pure persons. 

[Baudh&yana says (I 5. 5.)*— "The sacrificial thread shall be made of kus& 
grass, or cotton, and consist of thrice three strings. (6) It shall hang down to 
the navel. (7) In putting it on he shall raise the right arm, lower the left, and 
lower the head. (8) The contrary is done at sacrifices to manes. (9) If the 
thread is suspended round the neck, it is called nivita. (10) If it is suspended 
below the navel it is called adhopavita."] 

When the sacrificial thread becomes damaged a new one should be taken. 
Manu (II. 64) " His girdle, the skin which serves as his upper garment, his staff, 
his sacrificial thread, and his waterpot he must throw into the water, when they 
have been damaged, and take others, reciting mantras.' ' 

The number of the strings depends upon the particular desire that may be 
entertained. As says Para&ara :— " He who desires long life, should have many 
sacrificial strings in his sacred thread ; he who desires sons, should have five such 
strings, similarly he who wants dharma, ten or eight ; the house-holder, four 
strings, the hermit, the ascetics and the BrahniachSrins should have one sacred 
thread each." So also in another Smriti : — " Two sacred threads should be worn 
in Srauta and Sm&rta rites ; a third for the sake of garment (uttariya), one desiring 
long life should have many." 

The mode of wearing the sacrificial string differs according to the nature of 
the rite that has to bo performed. It can be worn in throe ways (1): Passing 
under the right arm pit, (2) Passing under the left arm pit, (3) Or in the neck. 

5. The sacrificial thread (shall bo made) of kusa grass, or cotton (and 
consists) of thrice throe strings. 

6. (It shall hang down) to the navel. 

7. (In putting it on) he shall raise tho right arm, lower the loft, and lower 
the head. 

8. Tho contrary (is done at sacrifices) to the manes. 

ft. (If the thread is) suspended round tho nock, (it is callod) nivita. 
10. (If it is) suspended below (the navel it is called) adhopavita. 


11. Lot him perform (tho rito of personal) purification, facing the east or tho 
north, (and) seated in a pure place; (lot him) place his right arm between his 
knees and wash both hands up to the wrist and both feet (up to tho ankles). 

Apastamba gives tho following rulos as to tho mode of wearing it (As. G.-S. f 
I. 1. 1.) 

1. Now (follow) tho ccromonios (tho knowledgo of) which is derived from 
practice (and not from tho felruti). 

2. They should bo performed during the northorn course of tho sun, on daytf 
of tho first fortnight (of tho month) on auspicious days. 

8. With tho sacrifical cord suspended over (the sacrificed) left shoulder. 

4. (The rites should bo performed) from left to right. 

5. The beginning should be made on the east side or on the north side. 

6. And also the end. 

7. Ceremonies belonging to the father's (are performed) in the second fort- 
night (of the month). 

8. With tho sacrificial cord suspended over the right shoulder. 

9. Prom right to left. 

10. Ending the south. , 


Thus in the Chapter on Five great sacrifices As'valayana lays down the follow- 
ing rules as to Vedic study (As. G.-S., III. 2) :— 

1. Now the rules how one should recite (the Vedic texts) for one f s self. 

2. He should go out of the village to the east or to the north, bathe in water, 
sip water in a clean spot, clad with the sacrificial cord ; he should spread out hte 
garment being not wet, great quantity of I>arbha grass, tufts of which are directed 
toward the east, and should sit down thereon with his face turned to the east, 
making a lap, putting together his hands in which he holds purifiers (i.e., Kuss 
blades), so that the right hand lies uppermost. 

It is understood (in the Sruti) * This is what Darbha grass is : it is the essence 
of waters and herbs. He thus makes the Brahman provided with essence/ 

Looking at the point where heaven and earth touch each other, or shutting his 
eyes, or in whatever way he may deem himself apt (for reciting the Veda), thus 
adapting himself he should recite (the sacred texts) for himself. 

3. The Vyahritis preceded by (the syllable) Om (are pronounced first), 

4. He (then) repeats the Savitri (Rig- Veda III, 62, 10), (firstly) Pada by, Pads, 
(then) hemistich, by hemistich, thirdly the whole, 

BaudhAyanalays down the following on the Five great sacrifices (III. 11. 1) 

1. 'Now these five great sacrifices, which are also called the great sacrificial 
sessions, are the sacrifice to be offered to the gods, the sacrifice to be offered to the 
manes, the sacrifice to be offered to all beings r the sacrifice to be offered to men, 
(and) the sacrifice to be offered to Brahman. 

2. Let him daily offer (something to the gods with the exclamation) Svaha 7 
be it only a piece of fuel. Thereby he performs that sacrifice to the gods. 

3. Let him daily offer (something to the manes with the exclamation) Svadha, 
be it only a vessel filled with water. Thereby he performs that sacrifice to the 

4. Let him daily pay reverence to (all beings) endowed with life. Thereby 
he performs that sacrifice to the beings. 



5. Let him give food to Brahmanas, be it only roots, fruits, or vegetables. 
Thereby he performs that sacrifice to inem 

6. Let him daily recite the Veda privately, be it only the syllable Om or the 
Vyahritis. Thereby he performs that sacrifice to be offered to Brahma. 

Eating alms.— So also Manu (II, 48, 51) : — " Having collected as much food as 
is required from several persons, and having announced it without guile to his 
teacher, let him eat, turning his face towards the east, and having purified himself 
by sipping water. ,T 

As regards the persons from whom one should beg, Manu lays down (II. 
183. 1 84, 185) : — " A student, being pure, shall daily bring food from the houses of 
men who are not deficient in the knowledge of the Veda and in performing sacri- 
fices, and who are famous for following their lawful occupations. (184.) Let him 
not beg from the relatives of his teacher, nor from his own or his mother's blood- 
relations ; but if there are no houses belonging to strangers, let him go to one of 
those named above, taking the last named first (185.) Or if there are no virtuous 
men of the kind mentioned above, he may go to each house in the village, being 
pure and remaining silent ; but let him avoid abhi3astas (those accused of mortal 

According to Yama he should not collect more food than is required for eat- 
ing : if he collects more, he incurs the sin of theft, 

As a rule, one should beg from one's own caste : and from the best among 
them. In cases of distress, he may beg from other castes : but seldom from a 
Sfidra, exeept uncooked dry food. 

The mode of begging. 


XXX. — In requesting food, the Brahmana, Ksatriya 
and Vaisya should use the word "Lady" in the begin- 
ning, middle and the end, respectively.— 30. 


How is the begging to be performed ? In the beginning, the 
middle and the end, the word " Lady " is to be used. " Lady, give 
alms," "give, lady, alms," "give alms, lady," is to be used res- 
pectively, according to the order of classes, while begging. 


The Brahmana student should bog with the formula " Lady, givo alms : " (the 
Ksatriya student should say "give, Lady, alms " and the Vaisya student should say . 
" givo alms, Lady"). As says Manu (II. 49, and 50) e— " An initiated Brahmana should 
beg, .beginning his request with the word lady (bhavati) ; a Ksatriya, placing the - 
word * Lady' in the middle ; but a Vaisya, placing it at the end of tlio formula. 50. 
Let him first beg food of his mother, or of his sister, or of his own maternal aunt, or 
of some othor female, who will not disgraco him by a refusal." 



The method of eating. 

XXXT. — Having performed the fire sacrifice and 
obtained the permission of his Guru, and after having 
done the aposana work, let him eat, with speech-con- 
trolled, honoring the food and not abusing it. — 31. 


Having collected alms, according to the above-mentioned rule, 
presenting it to the Guru, he should eat with his permission, after 
having performed the fire sacrifice and " speech-controlled," being 
silent, " honoring" or worshipping the food, and not " abusing" 
or disparaging it. The eating should be preceded by the Aposana 
ceremony i.e., repeating the mantra Amrii6 i pastarartamasiy &e. 

The mentioning of the fire-sacrifice again in this place is to 
declare an alternative period ; in case if the morning (or evening) 
twilight sacrifice has been inadvertently omitted, of its being now 
performed ; but does not prescribe a third period. 


He who has controlled or restrained his speech is called vag-yata or speech 
controlled. It is a Bahuvrihi compound. The word aposana is an onomatopoeia 
word : as one drinking water (ganclusa) before eating, this sibilant sound is 
emitted, the ceremony itself is called aposna. The method of showing puja to 
food is thus given by H&rita :— " He looks at the food, shows it to the sun, warms 
it before fire, presents it to his teacher, gets his permission, and then eats. (See 
the " Daily Practice of the Hindus.") 

The third period means the noon. The fire-sacrifice is to be done in the 
morning and evening sandhyas, and not at noon (apparently). Says Manu (II. 
54-55) : — " Let him always show reverence to his food, and eat it without contempt ; 
when he sees it, let him rejoice, show a pleased face, and pray that he may always 
obtain it, (55.) Pood, that is always respected, gives strength and manly vigour, 
but eaten irreverently, it destroys them both." 


XXXII. — Performing the duties of a student, he 
should not eat, otherwise than in distress, the food 
begged from one person only. A Brahmana may, at his 
pleasure, eat such food, in a sraddha (at a funeral meal), 
but without breaking the conditions of his vow (as 
regards the kind of food).— -32. 




While remaining a Brahmachari, he should not eat the food 
(collected from begging) from one person. " When not in distress," 
i.e., when he is not sick, &o. A Brahmana, however, being invited 
to a Sraddha (funeral feast ) may eat, at his pleasure. 

" Without breaking the ruleb of his vow," avoiding honey and 
meat. I , • • • y 

The word " Brahmana" is specified in order .to exclude the 
Ksatriyas, &c, from taking food in ^raddhas. As it is said in a 
Smriti (Manu II, 190) " This duty is prescribed by the wise for a 
Brahmana only ; but no such duty is ordained for a Ksatriya and a 


The words 'ekam annam ' do not mean ' one food ' &c, (or one kind of food), 
but the food obtained from begging from one person only : as says Mann (II. 188) :— 
" He who performs the vow of studentship shall constantly subsist on alms, but not 
eat the food of one person only." An exception to this is declared by Manu 
(IT. 189) At his pleasure he may eat, when invited, the food of one man at a rite 
in honor of the Devas, observing however the conditions of his vow, or at a funeral 
meal in honor of the manes, behaving however like a hermit. This duty is 
prescribed by the wise for a Brahmana only," 

[Balambhatta reads 'pr&rthita ' instead of ' abhyarthita ' in the Vijn&nes- 
vara's commentary]. 

The word i madhu' here means i honey ' and not ' wine/ 

The foods to be avoided* 


XXXIII. — He should renounce honey, meat, oint- 
ments, orts, sourness, women, harming animals, looking 
at the sun, vulgar speech and slander and the rest. — 33. 


$t Honey," the bee-made honey, and not wine (that being also 
the meaning of the word Madhu). The wine being totally prohibited 
by the text, " a Brahmana should avoid wine." "Meat," even that 
of goat, etc., "ointment," such as clarified butter, &c. for anointing 
the body, and the collyrium, &c, for the eye. " Orts " except those of 
his Guru. " Sourness " means rude speech and not food turned sour, 
for the latter is prohibited in the chapter on non-eatables (forbidden 
food), " Women," in matters relating to enjoyment. " Harming 
animals," killing living creatures. " Looking " at the rising and 


setting sun. " Vulgar speech," false speaking. " Slander/' pub- 
lishing another's faults, whether true or untrue. 

By "and the rest" are included sweet scents, garlands, sandal 
paste, &c, as mentioned in other Sinptis. A Brahmachari must 
avoid all these. 


The wines arc of twelve kinds as described by Pulastya and Visnu. Says 
Manu (II v. 177) " Let him abstain from honey, meat, perfumes, garlands, exces- 
sive exhilaration, women, all substances turned acid, and from doing injury to living 
creatures." (178) From anointing his body, applying collyrium to his eyes, from 
the use of shoes and of an umbrella or parasol, from sensual desire, anger, cove- 
tousness, dancing, singing and playing musical instruments. (179) From gambling, 
idle disputes, back-biting, lying, from looking at and touching women, and from 
hurting others. (180) Let him always sleep alone, let him never wastes his manhood* 
for he who voluntarily wastes his manhood, breaks his vow," The word rasa 
means exhilaration and not 'substances used for flavouring food. 1 By 'shoes,' 
the riding on carriage is prohibited: see Gautama. (II. 13. ) According to Nara- 
yana, the word rasa means strong sweets like molasses, &c, as well as poetical 
rasas or sentiments r such as erotic lyrics, &c. 

The word 1 Sukta ' explained as rude speech, by Vijnanesvara, is explained by 
the commentator of Manu, as " things turned acid, a thing which was not acid be- 
fore, but which through lapse of time or by admixture of other substances has fer- 
mented and become acid : such as curds &c. 

He should avoid looking in mirrors : or rubbing teeth, chewing betel, or using 
bellmetal dishes. He should take his food in an iron or earthen vessel. " A student 
must not shampoo the limbs of his teacher's son, nor assist him in bathing, nor eat 
the remnants of his food, nor wash his feet. Let him not perform for a wife of his 
teacher the offices of anointing her, assisting her in. the bach, shampooing her limbs 
or arranging her hair." — (Manu II, 209, 211). 

Definitions of Guru and Achavya.. 


XXXIV. — He is called the Gum who after per- 
forming (all) the ceremonies, (on the child from before 
its birth) gives him the Vedas ; and he is. called the 
Acharya, who having performed Upanayana, gives him 
the Vedas. — 34. 


He who performing all the rites, according to rule, beginning 

with the Garbhadhana (conception) ceremony and ending with 

Upanayana (investiture with the sacred thread), teaches the Vedas to 

" him " the Brahmachari, is called a Guru. He again who only 

performing Upanayana, teaches the Vedas is an Acharya. 




+ • 

Says Manu (II. 142) :— " That Brahmana, who performs in accordance with the 
rules of the Veda the rites, the Garbhadhana, and so forth, and gives food to 
the child, is called the Guru. The pupil must know that, that man also who 
benefits him by instruction in the Veda, be it little or much, is called in these instil 
tutes his Guru, in consequence of that benefit conferred by instruction in the Veda, 
He who, being dulj chosen for the purpose, performs the Agnadheya, the Pakayajnas 
and the Srauta sacrifices, such as the AgnLtoma for another man, is called his 
officiating priest." 

The Kalpas and Rahasyas are also included in the Vedas (Manu II, 140) :— " They 
call that Brahmana who initiates a pupil and teaches the Veda together with the 
Kalpa and Rahasyas, the teacher (Aeharya of the latter)/' 

Says Manu (II 141) M But he who for his livelihood teaches a portion only of 
the Veda, or also the Angas of the Veda is called an Upadhyaya." 

The Pakayajnas are seven, namely, (1) Aupasanahomah, (2) Vaisvadevam, (3) 
Parvanam Sthalipaka, (4) A^taka., (5) Masisraddham, (6.) Sarpabalih, (7) is ana balih. 


Definitions of Upadhyaya and Ritrik. 

XXXV.— He who teaches a portion is an Upadhyaya* 
and the performer of sacrifices is called Ritvij. These 
are to be respected in their order. Of these, the mother 
is most to be honored. — 35, 


He who teaches one " portion " of the Vedas or one Ahga or part 
of the Mantras (hymns) or Brahmanas (the Vedic commentary) is 
called an Upadhyaya. He again, who performs (the daily household) 
sacrifices (like) the .Pakayajnas, etc., after being chosen thereto is a 

" These," viz., the Guru, the Aeharya, the Upadhyaya, and the 
Ritvij, are to be respected," (honored) u in their order," i.e., in the 
order of the enumeration. " Among these," out of them all, the 
mother is the highest, '-most to be be honored," 

Thus says Manu (IT. 145 seq) 

M The teacher is ten times more vonerablo than a sub- teacher, (Up&dhyftya), the 
father, a hundred times moro than the teacher, but the mother a thousand times 
more than tho father. 

"Of him who gives natural birth and him who gives (tho knowlcdgo of) the 
Veda, tho giver of tho Veda is tho moro vonorablo father ; for tho birth for tho sako 
of tho Veda (Insures) eternal (rewards) both in this (lifo) and after death, 

c< A maternal aunt, tho wife of matornal uncle, a mother-in-law, and a paternal 
Wilt must bo honoured liko tho wife of one's toacbor. 


" (Tho fcofc of the) wife of ono's brother, if hIio bo of the sarao casto (varna) must 
bo clasped ovory day, but (tho foot of) wives of (other) patomal and maternal 
rolatives need only bo embraced on ono's return from a journoy. 

[The period of studentship.] 

The author now propounds the limit of Brahmaclmrya or student- 
ship, whilo learning the Vedas. 


XXXVI. — For each Veda, the Brahmacharya should 
be twelve years or five. Some say it should be till they 
are completely acquired. The shaving of the hair should 
take place in the sixteenth year. — 36. 


When marriage is not possible (owing to poverty, &c) and the 
rule (Manu III. 2) " one should have studied all the Vedas or the 
two Vedas or one Veda " comes into operation, then for " each Veda," 
i.e., for every Veda separately, the above-mentioned Brahmacharya 
(studentship) must be performed for twelve years. In case of in- 
ability, five years (for each Veda) : some say till the Vedas are not 
completely mastered. 

" The shaving of the hair " also called the " godana " ceremony 
is to be performed in the sixteenth year of conception, for the Brah- 
mana. This is to be understood as the rule, in the case of one, who 
has taken the vow of studying the Vedas for twelve years. In the 
other case, (the shaving ceremony might be performed) at any time 
which is convenient. 

For the Ksatriyas and Vaisyas this period of shaving is twenty- 
second and twenty-fourth years, respectively, on the analogy to their 
periods of Upanayana, or at any period that might be convenient- 


Manu says (III. 2) :— " A student who has studied in due order the three Vedas 
or two, or even one only, without breaking the rules of studentship, shall enter the 
order of house-holders. " [In III. 1., he says, " The vow of studying the three Vedas 
under a teacher must be kept for thirty-six years, or for half that time, or for a 
quarter, or until the student has perfectly learnt them."] 

Manu II. 65 :— " The ceremony called Kesanta (clipping the hair) is ordained 
for a Brahmana in the sixteenth year from conception, for Ksatriya in the twenty- 
second, and for a Vaisya two years later than that." 

[The author now declares the maximum period for Upanayana.] 





XXXVII. — Up to sixteenth, twenty-second and 
twenty-fourth year is the maximum period of Up an a- 
yana for the Brahmanas, Ksatriyas and the Vaisyas 
respectively. — 37 . 

XXXVIII. Above that they fall, being excluded 
from all Dharma. Having fallen from Savitrithey be- 
come Vratyas or outcastes, so long as they do not perform 
the sacrifice called Vratyastoma. — 38. 


Up to the sixteenth year, up to the twenty-second year and up 
to the twenty-fourth year are the maximum periods of Upanayana for 
the Brahmanas, the Ksatriyas, and the Vaisyas, respectively. Beyond 
these, there are no periods of Upanayana, but " above " these, they 
fall and " are excluded from all Dharmas," i.e., they become incom- 
petent to perform any ceremony and become fallen from Savitri, i.e., 
become unfit for receiving Savitri initiation. 

" Vratyas " or " outcastes " are devoid of all sacraments ; so 
long as they do not perform the Vratyastoma ; performing which they 
again become entitled to Upanayana. 


Manu (II. 39) " The time for the Savitri initiation of a Br&hmana does not 
pass until the completion of sixteenth year after conception, of aKsatriya until the 
completion of the twenty-second, and of a Vaisya until the completion of the twenty- 
fourth. (40.) After those periods men of these three castes who have not received the 
sacrament at the proper time, become Vr&tyas (outcastes) excluded from Savitri 
initiation, and despised by the Aryans.' ' 

The author now gives the reason of his text " the first three are 



XXXIX. — Because they are first born from the 
mother and the second time from the binding of sacred 
girdle, therefore, the Brahmanas, Ksatriyas and the 
Vaisyas are called Dvijas or the twice-born. — 39. 


Their first birth is from the womb of the mother, the second 
birth takes place when the sacred girdle is bound round them at 



the time of initiation,. Therefore, these Brahmanas, Ksatriyas and 
Vai4yas are called twice-born. 

Notes Cf. Maim (II. 169)) : — " According to tho injunction of tho revealed 
texts, tho first birth of an Aryan is from his natural mother, the second happens on 
tho tying of the girdle of mufija grass, and tho third on tho initiation to the per- 
formance of a Srauta sacrifice, 

(11.170). Among theso three tho birth which is symbolized by tho investiture 
with the girdle of munja grass, is his birth for the sake of tho Veda ; they declare 
that in that birth, tho Savitri verse is his mother and tho teacher is his father. 

The reward of the study of the Veda. 

The Author now tells the fruit of studying and acquiring the 
knowledge of the Vedas. 


XL. — To the twice-born, the Vedas are the highest 

» — 

agent of benefaction (the means of attaining salvation) 
because (they all teach) sacrifices, austerities and good 
works. — 40. 


Because the Vedas are the expounders of " sacrifices," Vedic and 
Smarta, of penances like Chandrayana, &c, which are the (repent- 
ance or) torturing of the flesh, and of " good works" like the 
sacrament of Upanayana, &c, therefore they alone (and nothing 
else) are the highest agents of benefaction or the road to emancipa- 
tion, for the twice-born classes. The Vedas being the source of 
Smritis, this applies to the Smritis, by reason of analogy or meto- 
nomy. / 

Having stated the fruits of studying and mastering the Vedas, 
ihe author now declares the fruits of that study which constitutes the 
optional duty called Brahmayajna. 

Note.-— Compare Manu II. 166 and 167. " Let a Brahmana who desires to perform 
austerties constantly repeat the Veda for the study of the Veda is declared to be in 
this world the highest austerity for a Brahmana. Verily that twice-born man 
performs the highest austerity up to the extremities of his nails, who, though 
wearing a garland, daily recites tho Veda in private with the utmost of his ability." 


XLL — That twice-born who daily reads the riks 
(hymns of the Rig- Veda), satisfies the Devas with honey 
and milk and the pitris with honey and clarified butter. 



Having stated the fruits of studying and mastering the Vedas, 
the author now declares the fruits of study which constitutes the 
optional duty called Brahmayajna. 


XLII. — He, who daily studies to the best of his 
ability the Yajus (hymns of the Yajurveda), pleases the 
Devas with clarified butter and nectar and the pitris 
with clarified butter and honey. — 42. 

XLIIL — He, who daily reads the Saman, satisfies the 

Devas with Soma juice and clarified butter and pleases 

his pitris with honey and clarified butter. — 43. 



He who daily studies the riks, satisfies the Devas with honey and 
milk and the manes with honey and clarified butter. He who daily 
reads the Yajus, so far as he can, satisfies the Devas with clarified 
butter and nectar and the ancestors with honey and clarified butter. 
He who daily studies the Samans, satisfies the Devas with soma 
juice and the manes with honey and clarified butter. 

By the use of the words " riks" &c, it is intended to indicate 
generally the hymns of the Rig-Veda, &c. 

[Translator's Notes Compare Manu II. 104-106.— "He who desires to perform 
the ceremony of the daily recitation may even recite the Savitri near water, retir- 
ing into the forest, controlling his organ and concentrating his mind. 

II. 107.- For him who, being pure and controlling his organs, during a year, 
daily recites the Vedas, according to rule, that daily recitation will ever cause 
sweet and sour milk, clarified butter and honey to flow." 

Compare also Visnu, III. 34-38.— Now he who studies the hymns of the Rig-Veda 
regularly, feeds the manes with clarified butter, he who studies the Yajus texts, 
feeds them with honey. He who studies the Saman melodies, feeds them with milk. 
He who studies the Atharva Veda, feeds them with meat. He who studies the 
Puranas Itihasas, Vedangas and the Institutes of Sacred Law, feeds them with rice.] 


XLIV. — The twice-born who daily studies the 
Atharva Angiras to the best of his ability, satisfies the 
Devas with fat and the pitris with honey and clarified 
butter —44 

XLV. — He who daily studies the Vakovakyam,* the 

* 44 This might bo translated ' dialogue. 1 It appears from batapatha-br&hmaua 
iv. 6, 9, 20, that some portions of Vodic tradition were called vdkovdkyctm or brahmo- 
dijamr— Indian Wisdom by M. W. p. 298. 


Puranas and Narasamsis,* the Gathikas, the Itihasas, 
and the Vidyas to the best of his ability. — 45. 

XL VI. — Satisfies the dwellers of heaven with meat, 
milk, boiled rice, and honey, and the pitris with honey 
and clarified butter. — 46. 


He, who again daily studies as far as he can, the Atharva 
Augirasa, satisfies the Devas with fat, and the manes with honey 
and clarified butter. 

" Vakovakyam," the Vedic sayings in the form of questions and 
answers. "Puranas," such as Brahma, &c. The word " cha " "and " 
in the text indicates the Dharma-sastras of Manu, &c. " Narasamsis," 
the mantras in honour of the God Rudra. " Gathas," such as 
Yajfiagatha, Indra gatha, &c. "Itihasa," history, such as the 
Mahabharata, &c. " The Vidya?," sciences, such as Vgrunividya. 

He, who studies these to the best of his ability, satisfies the Devas 
with meat, milk, boiled rice and honey and the manes with honey 
and clarified butter.. 

The fruit of Pancha-Mahdyajna, 


XLYII. — They, being satisfied, satisfy him with 
the auspicious fruits of all his desires. Whatever portion 
he studies, even of that he receives the fruit. — 47. 

XLVIII. — The twice-born who studies daily enjoys 
the fruit of bestowing the earth full of treasures, and of 
the highest austerities. — 48. 


i6 They," the Devas and the Manes, being satisfied, satisfy " him" 
the student, with the fruits of all his desires which are " auspicious," 
not harmful to any one else. 

The author has said all this as panegyric on study. Whatever 
portion of the Vedas laying down methods of any sacrifice he studies 
daily, of that sacrifice he receives the fruit (i.e., as if he had actually 
performed that sacrifice,) Similarly, that fruit which is acquired 

* " Relating to the praise of a manor men, laudatory, eulogistic (as a hymn, 
tale, Sec.) "~M, W. 



by " thrice " three times, giving away the earth filled with treasures 
and that fruit which accrues from the performance of the highest 
austerities, such as Chandrayana, &c, all these are acquired by him 
who studies daily. 

By using the word " daily " it is meant to indicate that though 
this is an optional vow, yet it is a permanent duty (because on the 
non-performance of study there takes place sin.) 

Thus having spoken of the ordinary (general) duties of (all) 
Brahmacharins or students (whether temporary celibates or lifelong 
celibates) the author now speaks of the special duties of the naisthika 
Brahmachari (a perpetual celibate.) 


XLIX.— The Naisthika Brahmachari should live 
with his Acharya, in the absence of the latter, with his 
son, or wife or even fire. — 49. 


Tbe preceding rules apply to all Brahmacharis in general, whether Upakur- 
v&na (or temporary) or Naii-.tbika (lifelong celibates). This verse and the next 
declare the rules applicable to the Naisthika or perpetual celibate. 


L. — In this way destroying the body and subdu- 
ing his senses, he attains the region of Brahma and is 
not born here again. — 50. 


In this way " the Naisthika " he who regulates himself as a 
student till the time of his nistha or death should live all his life ; 
in the presence of his Acharya (preceptor) he should not be 
independent, after the acquisition of the "Vedas. 

In the absence of the Achfirya he should live in the presence 
of his son ; in the absence of the latter, in the presence of his wife ; 
in her absence, even before fire. 

' In this way,' by the above-mentioned method, " destroying " 
(finishing) the body and subduing the senses ; i.e., taking special care 
to conquer his senses, that Brahmachari attains the " region of 
Brahma " or immortality and is never again born here. 




Tho word "NaiKthika" is derived from fost+a*. («KrcT"i 3* Panini IV. 3. 11.) 
As says Manu (II. 242—245) :— 

" Ho who dosiros incomparable bliss (in heaven) shall not dwell during his 
wholo lifo in (tho houso of) a non-Brahminieal toachor, nor with a Br&hmana who 
does not know tho wholo Vodas and tho Angas. (243) But if (a student) desires to 
pass his wholo lifo in tho teachor's houso, ho must diligently sorvo him, until ho 
is froed from his body. (244.) A Briihmana who sorves his teacher till tho dissolu- 
tion of his body, reaches forthwith tho eternal mansion of Brahmd. (247.) A perpe- 
tual student must, if his teacher dies, serve his son, provided he be endowed with 
good qualities, or his widow, or his sapinda, in the same manner as the teacher. 
(248.) Should none of these be alive, he must servo the sacred fire, standing by 
day, and sitting during the night, and thus finish his life. (249.) A Br&hmana who 
thus passes his life as a student without breaking his vow, reaches after death the 
highest abode and will not be born again in this world." 

The method of serving fire is given by H&rita, Saiikha, Likhita, and Yama. 

Vasistha (chapter VII). gives the following rules :— " 4. A perpetual student 
shall servo his teacher until death ; 5. and in case the teacher dies he shall servo 
the sacred fire. For it has been declared in the Veda, 1 the fire is thy teacher.' 7. 
A student shall bridle his (tongue ; 8. He shall eat in the fourth, sixth, or eighth, 
hour of the day. 9* He shall go out in order to beg. 10. He either may wear all his 
hair tied in a knot or keep merely a lock on the crown of his head tied in a knot, 
showing the other parts of the head. 17. Let him bathe three times a day " 

The text of Daksa that declares that a Brahmacharin should bathe once a day 
applies to ordinary students, and not to a perpetual celibate* 


Chapter III: — Marriage 

The Final Bath and the Teacher's Fee. 


Now the author mentions the bath that precedes the marriage 
of a marriage — inclined (Brahmachari, viz. of an Upa-Kurvaiiaka). 


LI. — Having finished the Veda, or the Vratas, or 
both of them, and having given presents to the Guru, 
let him bathe, (or) with his permission. — 5\. 


In the aforesaid manner " having finished " completed, " the 
Veda" consisting of the Mantras (Hymns) and the Brahmanas 
(commentaries), or the " Vratas/' the duties of a Brahroachari ; or 
the minor duties ; "or both of them," "let bim bathe," "having 
given" to the aforementioned "Guru" "any presents" anything 
he desires ; according to his ability. If he is unable to do so, then 
" with his permission," even without giving presents. This adjust-, 
ment of the various alternatives (whether he should study one Veda 
or two, or all, or Vrata only etc.) must be made, having regard to 
time, ability etc. (of the pupil). 


Compare Manu (II. 245 and 246) " He who knows the sacred law must not 
present any gift to his teacher before (the Samdvartana) ; but when, with the per- 
mission of his teacher, he is about to take the (final) bath, let him procure (^ 
present) for the venerable man according to his ability. 

" (Viz.) a field, a gold, a cow, a horse, a parasol and shoes, a seat, grain, (even) 
vegetables, (and thus) give pleasure to his teacher." 

If the pupil is unable to give any presents, he may bathe with the permissioi* 
of his Guru. As says Asvalayana (Gpihya Sfltra, III. 9-4) :— " When, after having 
flnished his (task of) learning, he has offered something to the teacher, or has 
received his permission, he should take a bath (which signifies the end of his 

The option to the study of the Veda, or, Vrata only, docs not depend on the 
will of the pupil, but is rogulatod by tho timo ho can devote, the ability ho 
possesses, and so on. This shows that a Sn&taka, or a Vedic graduate, is of 
three kinds : — 1. The Vidyasnfitaka, who has studied tho Vedas ; 2. Tho Vrata- 
snfttttka, who has porformed the Vratas or vowed observances of a student ; 
^ho Ubhayasnataka, who has completed both the Vedas and the Vratas. See 

QHAPTEti II I — M A BUI A G$, v. til. 91 

PftraskaraGrihyaSAtra(II. 5. 82 — 35) ; so also Hftrita Smriti (IV. 1—2), as quoted ia 
Parasara Madhava (&. B. 8. Vo!*I. part II. page 553). 

Studying a Veda means, not merely learning to recite it, but understanding its 
meaning also. As says the Krtrma PurAua (I. 2.15.1) Having studied and 
Understood the moaning of ono Veda, or two, or three, or all four of them, let the 
twice- born bathe." 

As regards the V'ratas, that must be done after finishing tho Aranyakfts. As 
says tho Kfirika (of Anantadeva ?) : — u Having finished tho Veda, or tho Vratas, or 
both of them, and in tho case of the Vratas having learnt tho meaning of tho words* 
and studied tho Aranyak&s." 

u Tho learning of tho meaning of tho. words means here, mastering the 
syllables of the book, so as to get facility of reading, and does not stand in noed of 
understanding the meaning. The meaning is not necessary for ceremonial purposes, 
nor is it necessary to know tho meaning for a Sannay£si, for he would study with 
meaning the Uttara-mimamsa, rather than the Vratas The knowledge of the 
meaning of the Vedas, required by the above text of tho Kflrma Pur&na, is limited to 
that kind of knowledge, by which one may know how ceremonies are to be 
performed in the Karma Kdnda. 

Note : — The critical study of the Vedas is not meant here, which will take a 
life-time, but a general knowledge for due performance of the rituals. (See Vasis- 
thaVIIL 1.) 

The method of this final bath which raises a Brahmach&rin to the rank and 
privileges of a Snataka is given in Kurma Purana I. 2-15. 3 to 7. 

The Selection of a Bride and External Marks- 
The author now describes what must be done after bathings 
and he mentions also the marks of an (eligible) bride. 


LIL — Without breaking (the rules) of student- 
ship, let him marry a woman with auspicious character- 
istics who has not belonged to another man, who is 
lovely, who is not a Sapinda and who is younger (than 
himself). — 52. 


Avipluta-brahmacharyam] " Without breaking the rules of 
studentship," without falling from Brahmaeharya, or chastity. 

Laksanyam] " With auspicious characteristics, one possessing 
auspicious marks, both external and internal. 

Translator's note : — A bride should possess (1) auspicious marks, (2) not 
previously engaged to or enjoyed by another, (3) not an agnate, (4) younger. 
(See Gautama Dharma SQtra IV. 1. Visnu. XXIV. 9. Vasistha.VIII. 1.) 


All the three kinds of Snatakas should marry at once after the final bath, and 
not lead an unmarried life, as said by Dakfa : — "A twice-born should not remain 
even for a single day Arama-less.' ' (This is quoted again in Verse 89.) 


yAjnavalkya smriti. 

A student before his marriage must remain strictly a celibate. He must not 
have broken the vow of chastity. Such a student is entitled to marry. But a student 
■who has broken his vow must perform a Prayaschitta before marriage. For him 
marriage is not a sacrament. 


The external marks of a girl are thus given in Manu (III. 10) : — 

" Let him wed a female free from bodily defects, who has an agreeable name, 
the (graceful) gait of a Hatpsa or of an elephant, a moderate (quantity of) hair on the 
body and on the head, small teeth, and soft limbs." 


MaNU also mentions the girls who should be avoided (III. 8-9.) " Let him 
not marry a maiden (with) reddish (hair), nor one who has a redundant member, nor 
one who is sickly, nor one either with no hair (on the body) or too much, nor one who 

iis garrulous or has red (eyes), 

" Nor one named after a constellation, a tree, or a river, nor one bearing tbe 
name of a low caste, or of a mountain, nor one named after a bird, a snake, or a slave, 
nor one whose name inspires terror." 

Therefore girls named Chandali, Vindhya, D&si, Chamund&, &c. should not 
be married. 

So also in thfe Visnu Purana (fek. Ill Ch. 10) \— <c He must not marry a girl who 
is vicious, or unhealthy, of low origin, or labouring under disease ; one who has been 
ill brought up ; one who talks improperly ; one who inherits some malady from 
father or mother ;one who has a beard, or who is of a masculine appearance ; one 
who speaks thick, or thin, or croaks like a raven ; one who keeps her eyes shut, or 
has the eyes very prominent ; one who has hairy legs, or thick ankles ; or one who 
has dimples in her cheeks, when she laughs. Let not a wise and a prudent man 
marry a girl of Such a description : nor let a considerate man wed a girl of a harsh 
skin; or one with white nails ; or one with red eyes, or with very fat hands and 
feet; or one who is a dwarf, or who is very tall; or one whose eyebrows meet, or 
whose teeth are far apart and resemble tusks." 

Internal Maries. 

The Internal indications are to be known by the rule laid down 
by Asvalayana (I. 5. 5) in the text " Let him make eight lumps." 
" On the previous night, lumps of earth are to be made respectively 
of the earth taken from (1) the cow-pen, (2) an ant-hill, (3) a gambling 
place, (4) a tank, (5) a waste land, (6) a field, (7) the place where four 
roads meet, and (8) the cemetry. In the above order if she touches 
the first ball, she will be rich in barley grains, if the second ball, 
she will be rich in cattle ; if the third ball, she will be devoted to 
Agnihotra and the service of her elders ; if the fourth, she will be 
wise, skilful and respectful to others ; if the fifth, she will be diseased ; 
if the sixth, she will be unfaithful ; if the seventh, she will be barren ; 



if the eighth, she will be a widow." (This has been ordained 
by AfSvalayana.) 

Translator's note— Compare also Manava Grihya Sfttra I. 7. 0-10. 


Tho full text of Asvalfiyana is tho following (Asvalayana Grihya Sfltra, I. 5. 
4 and 5) :— " As the characteristics (mentioned in tho preceding Sfitra) are difficult 
to discern, let him make eight lumps (of earth), recite over the lumps the following 
formula, ■ Right has been born first, in tho beginning ; on the right, truth is founded. 
For what (destiny) this girl is born, that may she attain here. What is true may 
that be soon/ and lot him say to tho girl, < Take one of these/ 

"If she chooses the (lump of earth taken) from a field that yields two crops 
(in one year), ho may know, 4 Her offspring will be rich in food/ If from a cow-stable 
rich in cattle. If from the earth of a Vedi (altar), rich in holy lustre. If from a pool, 
which does not dry up, rich in everything. If from a gambling-place where four 
roads meet, wandering to different directions. If from a barren spot, poor. If from 
a burial-ground, (she will) bring death to her husband." 

Manu (III. 6 and 7) mentions that the following families should also be 
avoided :— " In connecting himself with a wife, let him carefully avoid the ten 
following families, be they ever so great, or rich in kine, horses, sheep, grain, or 
<other) property, 

" (Viz.) one which neglects the sacred rites, one in -which no male children 
(are born), one in which the Veda is not studied, one (the members of) which have 
tliick hair on the body, those which are subject to hemorrhoids, pthisis, weakness of 
digestion, epilepsy, or white and black leprosy/* 

A ividow not to be married. 

Striyam] " Woman " — to prohibit marriage with a eunuch, 
the womanhood must be examined. 

Ananyapurvika] (Not Anyapurvika), one who has not been 
accepted by any other man either by way of gift, or enjoyment. 

Kantam] " Lovely, Beautiful" — Attractive or causing pleasure 
to the mind and sight of the betrothed, as it has been ordained by 
Apastamba, (I. 3. 20 Grihya) : " A wife who is pleasing to his mind, 
and his eyes, will bring happiness to him." This is in the absence 
of any external faults, such as having extra or defective bodily 
parts, &c. 


One should not marry a woman who has already been enjoyed by another 
person. Or, says Baudhayana that seven kinds of women are called Punarbhfis : — 
" 1. A bride already promised to another ; 2. a bride who has already elected another 
mentally, 3. who has gone round the fire ceremony, 4. who has performed the 
seven steps ceremony, 5. who has been enjoyed by another, 6. who is pregnant, and 
7. who has given birth to a child before marriage. By marrying these seven kinds 
of girls, the debt one owes to his ancestors is not discharged, nor is the offspring 


The first two sorts of bride may be re-married, if there is some defect in thd 

[Compare Narada XII. 46-52. So also Vasibtha XVII. 19, 20 ; Manu IX. 175^176* 
Visnu XV. 8, 9. Tr.] 


" A Sapinda she whose pinda or body is satnana or common, 
one, is called a sapinda ; who is not a sapinda is an Asapinda 
such a one (he should marry). " Sapinda'' relationship arises 
(between two people through their being) connected by particles of 
one body. Thus the son stands in sapinda relationship to his father* 
because the particles of his (father's body having entered (his.) In 
like (manner stands the grandson in sapinda relationship) to his 
paternal grand-father and the rest, because through his father* 
particles of his (grandfather's) body have entered into his own, 
Just so is (the son, a sapinda relation) of his mother, because particle 
of his mother's body have entered into his own. Likewise (the 
grandson stands in sapinda relationship) to his maternal grandfather 
and the rest, through his mother. So also is the nephew a sapinda 
relation of his maternal aunts and uncles and the rest, because 
particles of the same body (the maternal grandfather) have entered 
into (his and theirs) ; likewise (does he stand in a sapinda relation* 
ship) with paternal uncles and aunts and the rest. 

So also the wife and the husband (are sapinda relations to 
each other), because they together beget one body — (the son). In 
like manner* brother's wives are also sapinda relations to each other* 
because they produce one body (the son) with those severally who 
have sprung from one body. Therefore, one ought to know that 
wherever the word Sapinda is used, (there exists between the persons 
to whom it is applied) a connection with one body either immediate 
or by descent." (As translated by West and Buhler pp. 120-121.) 

balambhatta's gloss. 

Tho word 4 one,' by which the word samdna is explained, moans hero the 
principal, or tho chief. That is, who are, most nearly related by consanguinity. 
Tho word * Pinda ' moans hero i a body,' and not tho funeral pinda, Thus tho word 
* sapinda ' otymologically means "ono body/* i.e., ono common source or ancestor. 
Tho word 'anvaya'or 'connection' may bo either that of tho contents or the 
container, diroct or mediate. This connection of one body with another is explained 
above by illustrations of son and father, grandson ftnd grandfather etc. 

" The particles " moan the male seed and the fcuialo ovum, as will be explained 
later on. 


Tho word 'sapinda ' being thus a yoga-rudhi word (a technical word which 
also retains its etymological sonso), there can be no relationship of sapindahood 
between a teacher and his pupil, though a pupil may offer pinda or funeral cake to 
his decoased Guru. 



It may bo objected that the text (Manu V. 59 and Vasistha IV, 
16) : — "It is ordained that among Sapindas the impurity on account 
of death shall last ten days," being general, would (in this view of 
Sapindaship) apply to the maternal grandfather and other members 
of his family • (it is replied) it would have been so, if there had not 
been (in that very passage) a special text to the contrary (Vasistha 
IV. 19) viz : " Others (than the blood relations) shall perform (the 
obsequies) of married females." 

[Translator's note .—Maternal kinsmen are affected by impurity for three days 

Therefore, where there are no special texts regarding (the 
period of impurity on the death of a) sapinda, there the text " For 
ten days etc. " does apply. 

The sapinda relationship is certainly to be described by the 
entering of the particles of a common body. Because on account of 
the $ruti (Aitareya Brahmana VII. 13- 6) — 

" (In him) the self is born out of self." Thus also (Tait. Br. 
I. 5. 5. 6). " Thus thou art born again in thy offspring. So also is 
the text of Apastamba (II. 9. 24. 2) : " Now it can also be perceived by 
the* senses that the father has been reproduced separately in the 
son." So also in the Garbha Upanisad s— ? 

u Of this body consisting of six sheaths, three are from the 
father, and the three from the mother. The bones, the nerves, and 
the marrow are from the father ; the skin, the flesh, and the blood 
are from the mother." 

In all these passages, the entering of the particles of the body 
is being demonstrated- 


It may be objected that the word ' pinda,' as popularly understood and as 
described in all Smritis, means a funeral cake or pinda, and nowhere does it mean, 
* a body/ and so 4 Sapinda 1 must mean persons related by common funeral pirula. 
To this the commentator, Vijnanesvara, replies by the emphatic statement, " The 
sapinda relationship is surely to be described by tho entering of the particles of a 
common body." 

In support of this view Vijnanesvara quotes two Sruti texts and a Smriti also. 
(The Sruti texts are % 51^ WW*; Aitareya Brahmana, VII. 13. 6; an<* 




the text ^Tg^ST^'' (Tait. Br. 1. 5. 5. 6.). The third text quoted by him 

is from Apastamba Dharma Sutra (II. 9. 24. 2). The first is a dialogue between 
Harischandra and Narada in the Aitareya Brahmana and the second is reproduced 
inithe Apastamba. The full text of the latter is given below in order to understand 
the context : — 

" Now the Veda (Tait. Br.) declares also one's offspring to be immortality (in? 
this verse) : In thy offspring thou art born again, that 4 mortal, is thy immortality.' 

<( Now it can also be perceived by the senses that the (father) has been re- 
produced separately (in the son) ; for the likeness (of a father and of a son) is even 
visible, only (their) bodies are different. 

" These (sons) who live, fulfilling the rites taught (in the Veda), increase the- 
fame and heavenly bliss of their departed ancestors'." 

(The texts quoted, however, do not seem to be relevant, for they do not prove 
that the word sapinda means relationship through a common ancestor). 

(Balambhatta, then, gives the opinion of those who take the word, sapinda,, 
as meaning those related through the offering of pindas. He does so as a Pilrva- 


But we have in the Matsya Parana (XVIII. 29) " From the 4th to the 6tb 
generation, the forefathers get their share of sraddha from the Kusa wiping (lepa> 
and not pindas ; and three generations, father, grandfather, and great-grandfather, 
tbey are entitled to the ball of food (pinda); the seventh being the giver of 
the pinda. These seven are known as sapindas, for the sapindahood includes these* 
seven, counting the performer of the sacrifice." 

So also in the Markandeya PQrana (XXXI. 3-5):— " The father, and grand- 
father, and also the great grandfather— these truly must be known as the three 
males who are related by the pinda. And those who are related by the lepa are* 
said to be the three others reckoning upwards from the grandfather's grandfather ; 
and the celebrant is the seventh among them. Such have Munis declared this 
seven ancestral relationship to be reckoning from the celebrant upwards. And 
there-above are thoso beyond participation in thelepa. n 

May not these texts show that the sapinda relationship is something other 
than the relationship through particles of one's body. It is really relationship 
through the common act of offering pindas. This view is not only endorsed by the 
Smirti texts, but by the digest writers like Hemadri, Madhava, Apararka and the 
rest. In this view of the case, the matter stands thus. One is the giver of pinda, 
called the pinda-datu. Three are sharers in the pinda, called pinda-bhaks, viz-, the 
father, the grandfather, and the great-grandfather. Three are sharers in the lepa 
or wipings, and are called the lepa-bhaks, viz., great-groat-grandfather, groat- 
great-great grandfather, great-great-grcat-groat-grandfathor. Thus the cause of 
Sapinda relationship consists in tho entering of these seven persons in one pinda 
or funeral cake. In other words, tho sapinda relationship of one person, Dovadatta, 
is with his six ascendants, beginning with tho fathor, and with six descendants, 
beginning with tho son. 

The particular Dovata (tho recipient of pinda offering, wholly or partially) 
through one coromonial of Srfiddha, being common, tho following persons also are 
related as sapindas to Devadatta, viz., brother, undo (father's brother), maternal 
uncle (mother's brother), nephew (sister's son), and tho rest together with their 
rcspectivo wives. Thus in the ceromony of offoring pinda by tho celebrant* 



Dovadatta, whoever aro included in tho list of Dovatas (recipients of pindas wholly 
or partially), among them, whoever receives pinda, in tho ceremony of offering 
pindas, from tho brother,- father's brother, mother's brother and the rest, that 
ancestor becomes a M pin da of such person. As regards tho wives, they being 

co-performers of every religious rite along with their husbands, so they become 
sapindas through their husbands, so in their case also, tho sapindahood is de- 

Similarly, a sister, a father's sister, a mother's sister and such like are 
sapindas, because they are entitled to offer pindas to the same ancestors, thus they 
are related through the ceremony of giving tho same pinda. In fact our opponent 
(Vijfianosvara) had at last to fall back on this consideration of offering pindas in 
the case of those wives who have no offspring of their own (because such wives 
aro made sapindas only through the offering of pindas, and not because they have 
given birth to a person in whom there are particles of a common ancestor). Thus 
the offering of the pinda is the last refuge of our opponent also. 

Of course, tho word, sapinda, is a technical wofrd, and so it cannot be extended 
to the cases of a teacher and pupil etc., though they offer pindas. 

So far the Pfirva-paksa. 

The Reply. 

This view of sapinda relationship through the offering of common pindas is 
thus refuted by Vijfianesvara. 


But if the sapinda relationship be taken to mean those who 
are connected through the offering of the same pinda to an ancestor, 
then there would be no sapinda relationship in the mother's line, or 
in the brother's sons and the rest. 


>. • • 

. <* 

f< Mother's line," thus from one root ancestor, a daughter is born, from her 
a daughter is born, from the latter a daughter is born, and from the latter a 
daughter is born, in the fifth daughter in descent, there would be no sapinda- 
hood. In the mother's line, the sapindahood extends up to the fifth only, and 
beyond that it ceases, for that is the opinion of Yajnavalkya as in verse 53. Up to 
the fourth daughter, all those persons who enter as Devatas in the offering made by 
her, cease to be recipients of pinda, and the offering made by the fifth daughter, 
though they may get a share in the ceremonies performed by the others. 

If it be said that the relation of sapindaship cannot apply here, because 
unnecessary, as is the case of a pupil and the rest, we say that this is said by 
accepting the fact of the opponent's position, as a matter of fact, this is not the 
case, because there is no authority for it. Having this in view, Vijnanesvara has 
said " then there would be no sapinda relationship with the brother's sons also." 

The opponent, however, tries to remove this defect by virtue of the maxim, that 


a word should always be taken in its current sense or usage, for the current sense 
should steals away that which is derived from the root. Therefore, the word, sapinda, 
be taken in its current sense, and not in the etymological sense. Every word has two 
powers, the samudaya sakti and the avayava sakti. The samudaya sakti of a word is 
the connotative power of the word, irrespective of the various members of which the 
word may be composed. The avayava sakti of a word is the connotative power of 
the word, dependent upon its constituent members. Therefore, the rule is, that 


^ 1 1 — 1 5 ™ 

where you take a word in its conventional sense, op with its samudaya safcti, you 
cannot take it in its etymological sense, or, avayava sakti. Therefore, Vijnanes 
vara answers his opponent by saying : — 

A rule of interpretation. 

By taking the samudaya sakti and treating the word, (sapinda,) 
as a rudhi word, you discard the avayava dakti of the word, though 
it is manifest everywhere, wherever it is used. 

Translator's Note. — The force of Vijn^nesvara's objection is that if the avayava 
sakti of a word is applicable, wherever that word occurs in a sentence, then there 
is no reason to discard it, and have recourse to the samud&ya sakti of that word. 
This is based on the maxim : — 

^ Where the avayava sense of words is inapplicable, there only the samudaya 
sense of the word is taken, because there is no other way possible." Therefore, 
the word, sapinda, need not be taken in its rudhi sense, because its avayava sakti 
also gives a consistent sense throughout wherever the word occurs. 

Therefore, the extracts from the Matsya Purana and others quoted by our 
opponent, are consistent with our view of the word, sapinda. 

Here an objector may say, that admitting your view of the word, sapinda, then 
even a person, eight in ascent, would be a sapinda, as he has common particles* 
This objection, the commentator, Vijn&nesvara, answers : — 

The definition of Sapirida not too wide. 


We will show (in our explanation of the next verse) how if the 
sapinda relationship be defined to be based upon the connection of 
the parts of the same body, the definition will not be found to be 
too wide — (we will show how this definition will not imply too much, 
nor include too many individuals, how the fault of extreme extension 
or illimitableness will be avoided in practice). 

Translator's note.— See Tagore Law Lectures for 1880 on this subject. 

The question of step-mother and her father s relations, 


Horo BAlambhatta enters into a long discussion, as to how far a step mother, 
and her descendants, and her relations, are to bo considered sapindas. The whole 
controversy is introduced by the following text of Sumantu 


" Tho wives of a father aro all (whethor of tho same casto or of different caste) 
like mothers, their brothers are like maternal uncles, their sisters aro like maternal 
aunts, and tho daughters of such maternal uncles and aunts aro like sisters, and 
so also tho stop-sisters are like sisters, and the offsprings of tho latter aro like 
nieces. (They should not bo married) otiiorvvise tho offspring would bo sankaras, 
sinful and fallen." 

Opponent's view. 

The opponent quotes this text in support of tho view, that tho children and 
relations of a stop-mother aro not sapindas by the definition of the word, but by 
virtue of the analogy of this text. Therefore, a person having a connection with 
a step-mother, is liable to the sarao prayas'chitta, as incest with one's mother etc. 
This text also by analogy shows, that the death impurity in the case of a step- 
mother is tho same as in the case of the mother. This death impurity is only 
/ in tho case of the death of the step-mother, and does not apply to the death 
of her son. Similarly, her daughter being considered a sister by the analogy of the 
above text, the daughter of such a sister will not be a niece, because an analogical 
text should not be forced beyond its own scope (yavad vachanam vachanikam). Of 
course, there can be no sapinda relationship with a step-mother, because tho 
particles of her body have not entered into the formation of his body. Nor can it 
be said, that since his body contains the particles of his father's body, and the 
father's particles enter into the body of the step-mother, therefore the step-mother 
is the same as the father. In that view a concubine, or, a slave of the. father, would 
also be his sapinda. Nor should it be said, that since his sapindahood is through 
the sapindahood of his father, therefore, the step-mother is also his sapinda. For, 
in this view, the father of the step-mother (the step-maternal grand-father) would 
also become his sapinda, and thus this view is open to the fault of illimitableness. 
Because, the reasoning stands thus. The father is his sapinda, the step-mother is 
the sapinda of the father, therefore the step-mother is his sapinda. The father of 
the step-mother is her sapinda, therefore, the father of the step-mother, becomes 
his sapinda, and so on. 

If you say that a step-mother is a sapinda by the following reason : — a son of 
a step-mother (a step-brother) is certainly his sapinda, because he has the particles 
of his father's body in him, therefore, the step-mother becomes a sapinda, because 
the step-brother is a sapinda, and her particles ar^inthe step-brother. If we 
admit the soundness of this reasoning, it would lead us to the conclusion that i£ 
the step-mother is a sapinda, (in this way, and not by virtue of the text of 
Sumantu,) then her father would become his sapinda by this reasoning, because 
he also through his daughter (the step-mother) contributes towards the formation 
of the body of her son (the step-brother, who is a grandson of such a person), 
therefore, on this reasoning, the father of the step-mother would become ( a sapinda. 

We may clear up this ■ point by an illustration. Dasaratha, the, father of 
Sri Rama, had two wives, Kausalya, the mother of Sri Rama, and Kekayi, the mother 
of Bharata. Both Rama and Bharata have in their body the particles ol Dasaratha. 
Therefore, Kekayi, the mother of Bharata, becomes a sapinda of Rama. There- 
fore, kiug Kekaya, the father of Kekayi, and the maternal grandfather of Bharata, 
becomes the sapinda of Rama, By this reasoning the brother of the step-mother 
becomes a sapinda also of Rama, since whether directly or indirectly, Dasaratha 
and Kekaya king aro tho two sources from which the body of Bharata is built up, 
therefore, Rama and Yudhajit (the son of king Kekaya) become sapindas to each 
bther. • » 




In this way, directly, or indirectly, the daughters and sons of the brother of 
the step-mother, become also sapindas. 

On other reasonings, similar to this, the opponent comes to the conclu- 
sion that the step-mother is not a sapinda by virtue of the definition of that word, 
but only through the analogy of the text of Sumantu. 


To this argument of the opponent it is answered, that according to Vijndnes- 
vara the sapimlahood exists everywhere in such cases also, because of these 
words of the Mitaksara : — 

" Therefore, one ought to know that wherever the word sapinda is used, (there 
exists between the persons to whom it is applied) a connection with one body 
either immediately or by descent." And since the step-mother along with her 
husband is the common source of a body, (Bharata), who is his (Rama's) sapinda, 
therefore, the step-mother is also his sapinda. If you say that by this reasoning, 
the father of the step-mother would also become his sapinda, and that the definition 
would be open to the fault of illimitableness, we answer that it is not open to that 
objection, because that is a conclusion which is favourable to us, for, we hold that 
the father of a step-mother would be a sapinda by our definition, but for the exist- 
ence of the above text of Sumantu, We interpret that text as a Parisankhya. All 
the ancestors of the step-mother and their descendants would be sapindas, but for 
this text. It limits the sapindahood to (1) the brother of the step-mother, (2) the 
sister of the step-mother, (3) the daughter of the brother of the step-mother, (4) 
the daughter of the sister of the step-mother, (5) the son of the brother of the step- 
mother, (6) the son of the sister of the step-mother. The text of Sumantu prohibits 
the marriage-relationship among these only. A step-mother being just like a 
mother, by the general rule one could not marry a girl who is within five degrees 
of relationship of the step-mother. But by interpreting the text of Sumantu as a 
parisankhya, one can marry a girl even within five degrees of the step-mother, 
provided she is not one specifically prohibited in the above text of Sumantu. (As 
regards what is a parisankhya vidhi, it would be made clear in the commentary on 
verse 81. Wo may, however, briefly describe it here quoting from the Tagore Law 
Lectures, 1905, page 42. Vidhis are of three kinds, Apurva vidhi, or simply, vidhi, 
(2) a niyama vidhi, an d (3) a parisankhya vidhi. 

A Vidhi tends to secure what is otherwise at all not attainable. 

A Niyama tends to secure what is partially otherwise attainable. 

A Parisankhya consists in a statement of recital as to a benefit which is 
commonly attainable in its entirety either by acting according to the statement or 
by other means. 

To express the effect of the above in our modern law language 

1. A Vidhi is a perfect (imperative) command, 

2. A Niyama is an imperfect (directory) rule. 

3. A Parisankhya is a monitary precept. 

A Vidhi supplies an urgent necessity and may bo taken that the form " You 
shall do it" is appropriate for it. A Niyama is not so urgent and it bo taken that 
the form "you shall do it unless there bo a good reason, to the contrary," is the 
proper form for it. A parisankhya is hardly required as a rule of law and it may 
bo taken that the form " you may do it" is the proper form for it. 

Tho above distinction will bo clear from the examples which the Mimaiiisa 
writers give of Niyama and Parisankhya. 

44 Take a hearty meal after the fasting of thoolevonth day of tho moou." This 



is a Niyama. It evidently implies that the meal it* to be taken unless one has any 
good reason for abstaining from it. 

The flesh of animals whoso feet aro divided into five nails are eatable. This 
is an example of Parisaukhy/l. This means, yon may eat the flesh of such animals, 
and not that you shall cat it. You may eat it, as the eating the flesh of such 
animals is warranted by such other fcastras, probably such as relate to Hygienic 

Balambhatta then shows that tho above text of Sumantu cannot be an Apurva 
Vidhi, nor a NiyamaVidhi, but a Parisankhya Yidhi. 

Then ho goes on to explain the above text of Sumantu thus :— Tho word, 
" Tad-bhratarah, M means her brothers, her refers to step-mother, the word " tad- 
bhaginyah," means her sisters, viz., the sisters of the step-mother. The word " Tad- 
duhitarah, ,, does not however mean her daughters, that is, the daughters of tho 
step-mother, because such daughters are already sapindas by virtue of the definition 
of that word, but it means tho daughters of tho brothers and sisters of the step- 
mother. It, therefore, means that the daughters of the brother or of the sister of 
the step-mother are within the prohibited degree of marriage. 

Lest a doubt may arise that so far the text of Sumantu shows that tho son has 
the sapinda relationship with the family of his step-mother on her parental side, 
but that tho parental relations of the step-mother have no sapindahood recipro- 
cally in the son's family, the text goes on to say :— " Bhagini-sapatnyah cha bhagi- 
nyah," the step-sisters are sisters. A step-sister and a step-brother, though 
sapindas, cannot intermarry by force of the general rule, yet it would not apply to 
their descendants, therefore the text goes on to say : — " The descendants of the 
step -brother and the step-sister are like nephews and nieces, so also the offsprings 
of the daughters of the step-maternal uncle and the step-maternal aunt/' 

Marriageable age of girls. 


Yaviyasi] Younger, shorter in size, and junior in age. 
Udvahet] Let him marry, let him accept in marriage according 
to the rules laid down in his particular Grihya $utra. 


Yaviyasi. Though according to Amarakosa (II. 6. 43), Yaviyasi means one, 
low-born or a younger brother, yet here it means one younger in age, because this 
is a meaning given to the word in other Dharma Sastras also. 

Manu (IX. 94) gives the following age about the marriage of a girl " A man, 
aged thirty years, shall marry a maiden of twelve who pleases him, or a man of 
twenty-four, a girl eight years of age, if (the performance of ) his duties would (other- 
wise) be impeded, (he must marry) sooner." 

According to Brihaspati, a man of thirty should marry a girl of ten, while a, 
person of twenty-one years of age should marry a girl of seven years of age. Balam- 
bhatta does not, however, prove this last. 

Yisnu Purana lays down an universal rule that bride should be one-third of the 
age of man (Bk. III. Ch. X. 16) u If he marry, he must select a maiden who is of 
a third of his age/* 

Translator s note. Yajnavalkya wisely lays down no such hard and fast rule as 
to the age of a girl to be married. He follows the ancient Stitrakaras in this matter* 



Coming after Manu, his omission to mention any particular age of the marriageable 
girl, shows that he disapproves the rule of Manu about the age, and so he ignores it. 
His contention that the girl should be younger in age than the bridegroom, is reason- 
able and perhaps of universal application. This is the rule laid down by Gautama 
also, who (IV. 1) uses the same word as Yaviyasi " A householder should take a 
wife (of) equal (caste), who has not belonged to another man and is younger (than 
himself). 1 ' ' 

In fact, in ancient times, early marriage of girls was not the rule. Thus 
Sayana-Madhava in his commentary on Paras'ara-samhita, Achara Randa, Adhyaya 
II (B. S. S., Vol. II. Part II, page 69 forward) quotes texts to show the ancient 
custom, though he does show merely to indicate that this custom is no longer 
prevalent. A summary of this PQrva paksa is given below. The Sastras say that 
a Kanya should be given in marriage. The word " Kanya " is not confined to a 
girl of ten years of age. Thus in Mahabharata, Anusasana Parva, Chapter 20, 
Verse 22, the word "kanya" is used by an old unmarried lady in her dialogue 
with Astavakra, where she asks him to marry her. She says there, "Kaumarain 
brahmacharyam me kanya-eva asmi na s'aips'ayah,'' " from my early youth I have 
been performing the vow of studentship, I am verily a kanya still, there is no 
doubt in it. " Similarly in Salya Parva, Adhyaya 51, Verse 10, we find the 
speech of Narada to the old maiden, wherein he uses the word u kanya " in address- 
ing her, " Asamskritayah kanyayah kuto lokastavanaghe." 

So also we find in the dialogue between Uma and Mahesvara, the word, kanya, 
applied to any unmarried woman, " Ritusnata tu ya suddhasa kanya iti abhidhi- 
yate," " an unmarried woman, bathing after her monthly course, is called a kanya V 

If it bo said, that a girl not married and so not passing through the sacrament, 
cannot go to heaven, to this we reply, that a girl may pass her whole life in study 
after getting the sacred thread, and thus become a Brahmavadini, a knower of Brah- 
man, and thus go to heaven. Ordinary women must pass through the formality of 
the sacrament of marriage in order to go to heaven, but not so the Brahmavadinis. 
As says Harita (XXI. 23) :— 

wsfrsR OTt * fcwra* *fa i tort 

**i^g^w*nsr ^c^rr toT5i i 

* Women belong to two classes. Brahmavadinis and Sadyovadhus. Among 
these two, there is ordained for Brahmavadinis the sacrament of investiture with 
sacred thread, the fire sacrifice, the study of the Vedas in her own house and to 
beg alms. For Sadyovadhus, the rule is that when their marriageable time ap- 
proaches, the mere formality of investiture with sacred thread should be done, 
and then they should be married away." Thus both kinds of girls, the perpetual 
virgins corresponding to Naisthika Brahmacharins, and the Sadyovadhus correspond- 
ing to Upakurvanaka, must pass through the ceremony of Upauayana or investiture 
with sacred thread in order to become Dvijas or twice-born. If women are not 
invested with sacred thread, they remain as SGdras, and children born of them will 
boSOdras. Harita takes into consideration this fact, for Manu (II. 66) says 
" This wholo series (of ceremonies) must be performed for females (also), in order 
to sanctify the body, at the proper time and in the proper order, but without (the 
recitation of) sacred texts." Therefore, Harita says : - <5 f few' 



9RW-^POT "Nahi andra-yonau Br&hmaru-kgatriya-vaisyft jayanto," " Be- 

cause Brahmanas, Ksatriyas and Vaisyas cannot bo produced from JS'fidra womb," 
^^«lf%??: ^Wqf:' « Tasmftt chhandasa striyah samskaryah,'' therefore 
women must also bo (sanctified by) receiving (all) sacraments through Vedic 

Thus according to Harita, who is a Sfltra writer, older in ago than the present 
metrical Manusmriti, women were entitled to study the Vedas and remain unmar- 
ried for a long time. Tho text of Manu (II. CO) applied to Sadyovadhus, who did not 
like to study, as many Dvijas now-a-days do not study the Vedas, and merely pass 
through the formalities of initiation, I?or such Sadyovadhtts, Manu (II. G7) says :— 
" The nuptial ceremony is stated to be the Vedic sacrament for women (and to be equa 
to the initiation), serving the husband (equivalent to) the residence in (the house 
of the) teacher, and the household duties (the same) as the (daily) worship of the 
sacred fire." 

For Brahmavadinis, of course, this rule does not apply, and they are governed 
by the law of Harita. 

Madhavacharya, of course, has quoted Harita, merely to demolish him, for he 
says that the above rule of Harita applies to woinfcn of the ancient Kalpa. In sup- 
port of his view he quotes the following verse (which in some manuscripts is attri- , 
buted to Yama and in others to Manu) : — 

WJiq* ^ t^Wf *TTfr3ft 3TT^R cf«ir II " 

" In ancient times girls were entitled to be invested with sacred girdle, to 
teach the Vedas (or to be taught the Vedas), and to recite the Savitri," 

*&wn fkfitofc n 

The father or the uncle, or the brother, should teach her, and not any stranger. 
In her own house is ordained for the girl the duty of begging alms. She should 
wear the skin of the deer, or Chira (langoti, a long strip of garment), or keep 
matted hair (like a male Brahmachari)." This text merely recites a simple fact 
that in Pura Kalpa women were educated like men. It does not prevent the educa- 
tion of women, nor advocate early marriage. The Pura Kalpa was the time when 
Brahmavadinis, like Gargi, held a controversy with Yajnavalkya in the court of 
Janaka, as given in the Brihadaranyaka Upanisada, some time about 600 B, C. It 
cannot mean the Pauranic Kalpas. 

• The learned editor of Parasara Samhita, Pandit Vaman Sastri Islampurakar, 
shows that the text of Harita as quoted by Madhavacharya, is inaccurate, the 
correct text being the following :— 

'cn*rt fi[fe% f^5<r: I HOTri^m: srafeT^fcr I a^T^^igq- 



This shows that Brahmavadinis need have been perpetual virgins, but could 
marry after attaining puberty. Thus according to the true reading of Harita, there 
were two classes of women, one educated (Brahmavadinis), and the other uneducated 
(Sadyodvaha). The Brahmavadinis, were required to pass through a course of study 
till they attain puberty, when they could marry, or go on with their studies and 
marry at some later period, as illustrated by the cases mentioned in the Maha- 
bharata. Thus the earliest marriageable age was, according to Harita, the period 
after the attainment of maturity, apparently for both classes of girls, and the 
marriageable age might be extended even beyond the period of maturity in the case 
of Brahmavadinis. 

The Gotra and the Pravaras. 

The author now mentions some further attributes especially to be 
considered in the selection o£ a bride. 


LIIL — Free from disease, having a brother, and not descended 
from a family having a common Arsa and Gotra- — 53. 


Aroginfm : " Free from diseases ''] Not being tainted from any 
incurable malady. 


The shorter form would have been "Angara." The use of the bigger form 
11 Aroginim " shows that the disease should be incurable, because this latter word 
is formed by the affix (in) denoting a perpetual condition. 

The appointed daughter^ 

Bhratrimatim. " Having a brother."] — In order to guard against 
the danger of her being taken as a Putrikd appointed daughter)- 


From this it may be inferred that the Putrika may take place without 
even a previous expressed intention. 


A Putrika or an appointed daughter may be made without the express state- 
ment by the father. He need not use the formula as given in VasUtha (XVII. 17):— 
" With reference to this (matter of appointing a daughter there is) a verse 
(to be spoken by the father when appointing his -daughter)," 41 I shall give thee a 
brotherless damsel, decked with ornaments ; tho son whom she may bear, shall be 
my son." 

So also Mann (III. 11) " But a prudent man should not marry (a maidon) who 
has no brother, nor one whose father is not known, through fear lest (in tho former 
case she bo made) an appointed daughter (and in tho latter) lest (ho should com- 
mit sin), 1 ' 

So also Gautama (XXVIII. 19 and 20):— "Somo declare, that (a daughter be- 
comes) an appointed daughter solely by tho intention (of tho fathor). 

" Through fear of that (a man) should not marry a girl who has no brothers. " • 


Tho method of expressing intention is shown by Maim also in (IX. 127) : — 

41 He who has son may make his daughter in tho following manner an appointed 
daughter (putjrikft, saying toiler husband), " 44 The (male) child, born of hor, shall 
perform my funoi'al rites.'' 

Therefore, whore the father has oxpressed intention to the contrary, there 
a person may marry a brothorlcss girl also. In other words, where the father says, 
4 ' \ do not intend taking her son as my son," there such a girl may be married. 

An appointed daughter may bo so appointed to raise an issue to her father 
alone, or that her issue may belong both to hor father and her husband. In the first 
case, tho marriage mantra in gift will be as in Vasistha (XVII. 17) ; — " I shall give 
thee etc., etc., the son whom she may bear shall be my son." 

In the second case, the mantra should be as mentioned by Katyayana 44 1 am 
sonless, I shall give thee this girl, if you are also anxious to get a son, then the son 
born by her will belong to us both." 

According to some, the intention of the father must be expressed otherwise the 
girl cannot become an appointed daughter. 

Th<i Gotra and Pravara* 


Asamana-arsa-gotrajam: — ''Not descended from a common arsa 
and Gotra.' ' 

Belonging or appertaining to a risi is " arsa " and is technically 
called Pravara. Gotra is the well-known family descent. The words 
Arsa and Gotra, form the compound word Arsagotra. He whose arsa 
and gotra are common is called Samana-arsagotra. She who is des- 
cended from the latter is termed Samana-arsa-gotraja. One who is 
not the Samana-arsa-gotraja is an asamana-arsa-gotraja (literally un- 
common arsa-gotra-descent). Such a one (he should marry). 

The Gotra and the Pravara must be avoided separately, i.e., not 
descended from a common Gotra and not descended from a com- 
mon Pravara. Thus Gautama (IV. 2) : — " Marriage may take place 
among parties having no common Pravara." So also Manu (Chapter 
III. 5) 

"She who is non-sapinda to the mother and non-sapinda to the 
father (should be married)." 

Some are of opinion that a girl having the Gotra even of the 

mother is not to be taken in marriage. Because of the following 

text relating to Prayasichita (^atatapa in Parasiara Madhava B. S. S. 
Vol. II. pt. l.p. 337):— 

Having married the mother's brother's daughter, as also one 
having the mother's Gotra, or one having the common Pravara, (he 
should abandon her)* and should perform Chandrayat).a." (The words 
within bracket are not in Madhava). 

* Some texts read u gatvA " i.e., "having sexual intercourse/' 



Here by the use of the word " non-sapinda " the daughter of the 
father's sister, or mother's sister etc., has already been prohibited. 
Therefore by the word Asagotra (not common Gotra) is prohibited 
such person only who though a non-sapinda and though descended 
from a separate line, has yet a common gotra. And by the addition 
of the word Asamana-Pravara (not common Pravara) is prohibited 
one who though not a Sapinda and though not a sagotra has yet a 
common Pravara. 

The rule of Asapinda marriage applies to all classes, because 
Sapinda relationship exists everywhere. 

" Not being descended from a common arsa and gotra " applies 
only to first three classes. Although the Ksatriyas and the Vai^yas 
not having a peculiar gotra of their own, have no Pravara as well, yet 
the gotra and Pravara of the Purohita (family priest) are to be under- 
stood, § * 1 

Thus A^valayana having promised "he takes the Pravara of his 
sacrificer," says " the Ksatriyas and the Vai^yas take the Pravara of 

The status of a wife is not created in a girl who is a Sapinda, 
Sagotra or Sapravara. In the case of a girl who is deceased, or (who 
has no brother), etc, the status of a wife is established, though there 
is obvious evil* 


• • 

The word, Arsa, is derived from the word, risi, that is the same thing as Pravara, 
The word Pravara means, in the first place, the invocation of Agni, by words like 
u Agnc maham asi doveddho etc.", "agnirdevo hota devanyah etc." as taught in the 
Kalpa Sutras. " When the fire is to be consecrated, Agni Havyavahana, the god who 
carries the libations to heaven, must be invoked. This invocation or invitation to 
Agni, is called Pravara." (Max M tiller's History of Sanskrit Literature, Edition of 
Panini Office, Allahabad, Page 198). 

The word Pravara secondarily means the classes of Risis belonging to any par- 
ticular Gotra, through that Gotra is carried on. In other words, the Muni, or noble 
ancestor, who contributes to the credit of a particular Gotra or family. 

"The mother's Gotra is of two sorts, the Gotra which she had bofore her mar- 
riage, and the Gotra which she gets aftor hor marriage, uf#., her husband's Gotra. 
The husband's Gotra being the Gotra of her son also, is already prohibited in cases 
of marriage. So when it is said ho should not marry in her mother's Gotra, it moans 
he should not marry a girl belonging to tho Gotra of his maternal grandfather (Ma- 
tftmaha). Some howovor hold that this is not a general rule, bub confined to tho 
Madhyamdina Brahmanas. 

Tho daughter of a maternal uncle is also within the prohibited degrees, be- 
causo sho belongs to tho " mother's gotra. Tho abovo toxt, therefore, prohibiting 
pmrriago with tho maternal uuclo's daughter, contemplates tho caso of tho step 
maternal unclo (the daughter of tho brother of tho step-mother). 



Balambhatta then gives a li»t of several gotras and pravaras. Ho says thero 
are eighteen Ganas or classes of Munis from whom arose the various gotras and 
pravaras, viz. : — 

(I) Jfunadagnya, (2) Vitahavya, (3) Vainya, (4) GritsamadA, (5) Vadhryas'va, (6) 
Gautama, (7) Bharadvaja, (8) Kapi, (9) Hlrita, (10) Mauclgalya, (11) Kanva, (12) VirCi- 
pa, (18) Visnu-vriddha, (14) Atri, (15) Viavamitra, (10) Ka-syapa, (17) Vasistha, (18) 


I. Jdmadagnya Gun a. 

(I) Jfunadngnyah, (2) Vats ah, (3) S'rivatsah, (4) Chyavanah, (B) Alpah, (ft) Vdnah, 
(7) Yasdvarni, (8) Jivantah, (9) Devaratakah, (10) Vitatsflyana, (11) Vairah, (12) Hit- 
yah, (13) Vatah, (14) Manduh, (15) Prachinayogyah, (16) Arstisonah, (17) Anupakah^ 
These are called the seventeen Bhftrgavas. Marriage cannot take place in the Jdma- 
dagnya Gana amongst them, 

II. Vitahavya Gaud. 

(I) Vitahavya, (2) Ayaska, (3) Mauna, (4) Mauka, (5) Vadhfila, (6) Sdveda. 
These six are Bh&rgava sub-divisions. Marriage cannot take place with ono 
another amongst them. 

III. Vaina Gana. 

It consists of two Gotras, (1) Vainya and (2) Partha, both belonging to Bharga- 
va sub-division. They should not marry with each other. 

IV. Gritsamada Gana. 

This Gana has two Gotras, (1) Gritsamada and (2) Saunaka. People of this 
Gana should not marry with each other. 

V. Vddhryasva Gana. 

This Gana has got two Gotras, (I) Vadhryasva and (2) Mitrayugya. It is also a 
sub-division of Bhargava. They should not marry each other in the Vddhryasva 

The above five Ganas beginning with Jamadagnya and ending with Vddhryasva 
are all collectively called Bhrigu Ganas. These five Ganas also should not marry 
with one another amongst them 


VI 0 Gautama Gana. 

This Gana consists of seven Gotras, (1) Gautama, (2) Ayasya, (3) Auchathya, (4) 
Kaksivana, (5) Ausija, (6) Vrihaduktha, (7) V&madeva. These are the seven Gotras. 
They should not marry with one another amongst them. 

VII. Bharadv&ja Gana (sub-division). 

These are the seventeen Gotras, (1) Bharadvaja, (2) Kusanku, (3) Agni, (4) Vai- 
sya, (5) Jarta, (6) Yama, (7) Kata, (8) Sairira, (9) Krirasunga, (10) Vandana, (11) Bri- 
haspati, (12) Sarvastamba, (18) Kapi, (14) Mata, (15)Vachasa, (16) Gargya, (17) Sai- 
nyaka. These are the seventeen Gotras called Bharadvaja Gana. They should not 
marry with one another amongst them. 

VIII. Kapi Gana. 

This Gana consists of three Gotras. Kapi, Mahadak^aya, RikSaya. They can- 
not marry with one another. 



IX. Hdrita Ga»m (sub-division). 
These are the ten Gotras, (1) H£rita, (2) Yauvan£sva, (3) Man dh&tra, (4) Kutsa, 
(5) Pingala, (6) Samkha, (7) Darbha, (8) Bhauma, (9) Gava, (10) Amvarisa. They can* 
not marry with one another amongst. 

X. Maudgalya Oana (sub-division). 
These are the three Gotras, (1) Maudgalya, (2) T&rksya, (3) Bh&my&rsva. They 
cannot marry with each other. 

X/. Kanva Oana (sub-division). 
These are the two Gotras, (1) Kanva, (2) Ajamidha, They cannot marry with 
each other. . 

XII. Virtlpa Oana (sub-division). 
These are the four Gotras, (1) Virtipa, (2) AstAdamstra, (3) Prisdasva, (4) Mud- 
gala. They cannot marry with one another. 

XIII. Visyu-vriddha Oana (sub division). 
These are the thirteen Gotras, (1) Visnu-vriddha, (2) Paurakutsya, (3) Trasa- 
dasya, (4) Kata, (5) Mayana, (6) Bhadrana, (7) BSdarayana, (8) S&tpat&mya, (0) Aupa- 
mitya, (10) Gavi, (It) Sdtviki, (12) Taluki, (13) Nitumdata. They cannot marry with 
one another amongst them, 


XIV. Atri Gana (sub-division). 
(1) Sy&vAsva, (2) V&marandha, (3) Gavisthi, (4) Adhananjaya, (5) Sumangali, (6) 
Tithi, (7) Vlja-vapa. They cannot marry with one another amongst them. 

VISVAMITRA division. 

XV. Visvdmitra Oana (sub- division). 
These are the thirty-eight Gotras, (1) Visvamitra, (2) Devarata, (8) Mann, (4) 
Tantu, (5) Aulaki, (6) Valaki, (7) Chakita, (8) Ulukau, (9) Yajnavalki, (10) Narada, 
(11) Brihadagni, (12) Kala, (13) Vaba, (14) Salali, (15) Bahu, (16) Lohita, (17) Salanka, 
(18) Ayana, (19) Vavarnyakama, (20) Kayana-ptirana, (21) fcalavata, (22) Agni-deva, 
(23) Madana, (24) Kausika, (25) Astaka, (26) Ajya, (27) Madhuchchhandasa, (28)- De- 
vasrava, (29) Dhananjaya, (30) Sringa, (31) Kata, (32) Sairira, (83) Varighapoghamar- 
eana, (34) SOnu, (35) Pana, (36) Dhumra, (37) Jathara, (38) Ekahavyaka. They cannot 
marry with one another amongst them. 


XV I. Kasxjapa Oana (sub-division). 
Theso are the ten Gotras, (I) Kasyapa, (2) Rebha, (3) Raibha, (4) Sandilya, (5) 
Devala, (6) Asita, (7) Samskriti, (8) Putiraasa, (9) Vatsara, (10) Naidhruva. They 
cannot marry with one another amongst them. 

XVII. Vasistha Oana (division). c 
These are the eleven Gotras, (1) Vasistha, (2) Indra-pramada, (8) Abharatbasu, 
(4) Samskfiti, (5) Kaundina, (6) Pilti-masa, (7) Gaurivita, (8) ParAsara, (9) Maitra 
varuni, (10) Sakti, (11) Uparaanyu. They cannot marry with one another amongst 

XVII L Agastya Oana (division). 
These are the throe Gotras, (1) Agastya, (2) VAtav&ha, (3) D&rdhyachyuta. They 
cannot marry with. 

General Rules about Qotras. 
Marriago cannot take, placo between Jamadagni Gana, VievAmitra Gana and 
Dovar&tra Gotra, 



Marriago cannot tako place with ono another amongst Bharadvaja Gana, Vi6vi- 
mitra Gana, Krita Gana, Saisira Gana and ftjuriga Gana. 

Marriago cannot tako placo with ono another among Katfypoya Gana, Vasistha 
Gana Samskriti Gana, and Pftti-masa Gana. 

Marriago cannot tako placo among with ono another Atroya Gana, Vitfv&mitra 
Gana, and Dhanaujaya Gana. 

Marriago should nover tako placo between Bharadvaja Gana, and Kapi Gana. 

Tho ceremony of marriago should never tako placo between Mandgalya and 
Vlrflpa Ganas. 

Then Balambhatta gives a long list under each of tho eighteen classes. This 
list ho has taken from Samgraha-kara. But other books givo only eight Gotras, and 
not eighteen, that is, tho seven well-known Ri>is and Agastya, tho eighth. Tho 
curious reader may be referred to Max Mutler's 44 History of Samskrit Literature/' 
PAnini Office Edition, pp. 195 to 200. 

Then Balambhatta goes on to say : — Marriages may tako place from three mo- 
tives, either for the sake of sexual gratification, or for begetting a son, or through 
religions motives, viz., to perform fire sacrifices etc. In the case of those who marry 
through tho first two motives, they should Certainly avoid a girl, who is diseased. 
But if he marries through religious motives he can certainly marry such a girl for 
she can help him in his religious sacrifices. In the last two eases also, viz., where 
he marries for the sake of a son, or for tho sake of religion, he should marry a girl 
of his own caste. 

But in the case of a girl who is a sapinda, or sagotra, or samana-pravara, the 
marriage is absolutely void. 

The Sapinddhood in marriage. 

In the explanation of the word Asapincla, it has been said that 
Sapinda relationship arises from the circumstance that particles of 
one body have entered into the bodies of persons thus related, either 
immediately or through transmission by descent. But inasmuch 
as this definition would be too wide, since such a relationship 
exists in some way or other, amongst all men in this world that 
has no beginning, the author says — 


LIII. — Fifth and seventh removed from the mother 
and father respectively.— 53. 


" From mother. 5 ' — In the mother's line, after the fifth ; and " from 
father," in the father's line, after the seventh ancestor, (the Sapinda- 
relationship ceases). (The words within bracket must be supplied to 
complete the sense). 

Therefore, though this word " Sapinda " owing to its. etymologi- 
cal meaning, is applicable everywhere, yet like the words Nirmantha 



(which literally means the product of rubbing, but especially appiels 
to fire only) or Pafikaja, &c.. (literally born of mud, but is applied to 
lotus only), it is subjected to restrictions, (and denotes a particular 
limited relationship only)* Thus the six ascendants beginning with 
the father, and the six descendants beginning with the son, and one's 
self counted as the seventh, in each case are Sapinda relations. 

In the case of the division of the line also (by branching off from 
the main stem), one ought to count up to the seventh ancestor, 
including him with whom the division of the line (branching) 
begins, (for example, two collaterals A and B are sapindas if the 
common ancestor is not farther removed from either of them than 
six degrees) ; and thus the counting of the sapinda relationship be 
made in every case. 

So also beginning from the mother and counting her father and 
grandfather &c- till the fifth ancestor is reached, is the meaning of 
the words " fifth from the mother." 

In the same way, beginning from the father and counting his 
father &c. till the line reaches the seventh ancestor is the meaning of 
the phrase " seventh from the father." 

Similarly in marriage, the two sisters or a sister and a brother, or 
a brother's daughter and father's brother, different branches are 
counted as one, on account of the two having a common beginning. 

Though it has been said by Vasistha (VIII 2). " The fifth and 
the seventh from the mother and the father n (he may marry), and 
by (Paithinasa) also : — " Beyond three from the mother and five from 
the father," (he may marry), yet these texts lay down (the minimum 
limit of marriage) and are for the purpose of prohibiting marriages 
under those degrees, and do not countenance marriages in those 
degrees ; and thus these two texts would not be opposed to all other 
texts ; otherwise they would be opposed to all the Smjitis. 

The Sapiridahood of Anuloma births. 
This rule is applicable to parties who are Sajati or of equal birth. 
Among parties who are vijati or of unequal births there is a special 
rule- As says (^afikha.) — 

"When there are many okaj&tas (begotten by the same father), prithakaksetras 
(of separate fields) and prithakjanas (separato birth), thoy are all ekapinclas, but of 
separate purification; and pindas cease in the third," 

Explanation. — "Ekajatas " begotten by the same father, such as 
Brahmana &c " Prithaka-Ksetras" born of women belonging to differ- 
ent classes. " Prithakajanas " born of different women of the same 


class. They are ekapinclas or sapindas, but of separate purifica- 
tion. We shall speak of separate purifications in the chapter on 
" Impurities." 

' The pinda ceases in the three" means that in third case, viz, 
among the Auuloma sous the sapindaship extends only up to the 
third degree. 


« • 

According to tho Sam graha text, the sapintlaship is to be counted by taking 
the father of tho boy as tho starting point and so counting up to tho seventh. 
Similarly, taking tho girl's father as the starting point, and going on up to the 
seventh. This is the counting from the side of the fathers of the bride and bride- 
groom. Similarly, the mothers of the bride and bridegroom should also be taken as 
starting points, and the counting should be made up to the fifth degree from them. 
Thus according to this text, both sides should be counted, viz. y on the bridegroom's 
side, which should be counted from tlie father and the mother of the bridegroom, to 
find out that the intended girl is not within the seventh degree from his father's 
line, and within fifth degree from his mother's line. Similarly in the case of the 
girl, it should be seen that the intended bridegroom is not within seventh degree of 
her father's line, or within fifth degree from her mother's line. Thus a bride or a 
bridegroom may marry, if they are not so related. Therefore, Gautama (IV. 5) 
says : — " Beyond the fifth from the side of the mother's Bandhus." So if a girl or a 
boy is beyond the fifth degree from their respective mother's side, they can marry. 

Similarly, if the girl or the bridegroom is not within the seventh degree 
counted from their respective father's side, they can marry. In other words, in 
counting persons of Bhinna (separate) gotras, the sapindahood ceases with the 
sixth in degree. But in counting persons of the same gotra, the sapindahood ceases 
with the eighth degree, both in the case of the boy and the girl. Therefore, as an 
illustration, the eighth sagotra ancestor of the boy, not being considered a sapinda 
for this purpose, a daughter of this ancestor is not also a sapinda of the boy, so her 
daughter may be married to the boy. In other words, the grand-daughter 
(daughter's daughter) of the eighth ancestor may be married to the boy. This is 
the opinion of Haradatta in commenting upon the text of Gautama. He says : — 
" Commencing with the father and counting in the line of his Bandhus, a girl born 
above the seventh, may be married to the boy. Similarly, beginning with the 
mother and counting in the line of her Bandhus, a girl born from above the fifth may 
be married by the boy." Therefore, in all Smritis, the epithet, Asapinda, is taken 
as a qualifying term of the girl to be married, (and not applying to the boy to be 
married). Therefore, the sense of the text is that counting from the Kutastha 
(father), the sapindahood ceases beyond the seventh, and counting from the 
Kutastha mother, it ceases beyond the fifth. The text of Sam graha quoted above 
Should be taken in this sense. 

(Balambhatta then goes on further to discuss the same point.) 

The above text of Mitaksara begins by explaining the phrase of Matritah as 
used by Yajnavalkya first, and he takes up the case of the father next after the 
brother. Because the mother is more important, as she contributes more towards 
the birth of a child than the father. The mother contributes four elements to the 
formation of the body of her son, while the father contributes only three. 

Vijnanes vara explains the verse "Panchamat saptamat tirdhvam matritah pitritah 


YAJNAVA ley a smriti. 


tatha 99 of yajfiavalkya, by adding the phrase, "Sapindyam nivartate," " sapindahood 
ceases." The above line of Yajfiavalkya, therefore, should be translated as "the 
sapindahood ceases from beyond the fifth and the seventh removal from the mother and 
the father." It does not mean that the sapindahood is up to the fifth and seventh from 
the mother and the father respectively. This the commentator has done in accord- 
ance with the texts of Matsya Purana (XVIII, 29) " Sapinda relationship is up 
to seventh generation (sapta-paurusam)," as well as the text of Sankha : — " the 
sapinda relationship of all according to the Gotra, is Sapta-paurusi " ; and to the 
snme effect is the text of Gautama (IV. 2) "A marriage (may be contracted) 
between persons who have not the same Pravaras, " (And) who are not related 
within six degrees on the father's side, (Nor) within four degrees on the mother's 

The commentator (Vijn&nes'vara) then gives two illustrations, one from the 
Vedas, and one from ordinary life, to prove his contention that the word, " sapinda,** 
may have an etymological meaning, as well as a technical meaning, at one and the 
same time. The Vedic illustration is the word, " Nirmanthya," which literally means 
" the product of rubbing," but it is a particular name of " fire," and not of any other 
product of rubbing or churning, like butter etc. Similarly, the secular illustration 
of the word, Pankaja, literally means " born in the mud," but it is confined to " lily M 
alone. In other words, the word, sapinda, is a yoga-rudhi. 

Therefore, the commentator (Vijnanesvara) says : — u Though this word, sapin- 
da, etc." 

In the case of the bifurcation of a line, the counting should begin with the 
persons from whom the line branches off. 

Similarly, must be explained the text of Vasistha (VIII. 2) i9 Who is not 
related within five degrees on the mother's side (Matri-bandhu), nor within seven 
degrees on the father's side (Pifcri-bandhu)." 

So also the text of Gautama (IV.2-5) " A marriage (maybe contracted) bet- 
ween persons who have not the same Pravaras, (and) who are not related within 
seven degrees on the fathers side, or on the side of the begetter, (nor) within the 
five degrees on the mother's side." 

Similar is the text of Flarita, " Sapta pitritah pariharet, pancha m&tf itah," 
let him leave the seventh from the father, and the fifth from the mother." 

To the same effect is the text of Paithinasi " Asamanftrseyam kany&m vara- 
yet ; pancha matritah pariharet ; sapta pitritah," " let him choose a girl, who has 
not the same £rsa (gotra and pravara); let him leave her who is related within five 
degrees from the mother, and seven degrees from the father.*' To the same effect is 
the text of Sankha :— " Let him marry a girl, who is of the same caste, who is 
not of the same gotra and pravara, and who is seven and five degrees removed 
from tho father and the mother respectively.** 

To tho same effoct is Visnu (XXIV. 10) :— " Nor (should he marry) one descend- 
ed from his maternal ancestors within tho fifth, or from his paternal ancestors 
within the seventh degree." 

So also Narada (XII. 7):—'* Sagotras and Samfmapravaras are ineligible for 
marriage up to the fifth and seventh degrees of relationship respectively, on the 
father's and mother's side." 

The toxt of Vasistha quoted above by Vijfi&notfvara is not exactly accurate. 
Tho full toxt is as given below (Vasirtha VIII. 1 and 2) 



Sfgtff WfllV El^cT 1 1 

Similarly tho toxt of Paithinasi is not fully given by Vijnanesvara. The full 
text is : — 

qs^iff wr^cr: qfcs^t srcror i 

" Lot him leave a girl who is fifth from the mother, and seventh from the 
father. Or, who is third from the mother and fifth from the father." 

The last alternative applies to sons, by different mothers, belonging to differ- 
ent castes. If one father has several sons, by wives of different castes, then in their 
case the second alternative of Paithinasi would apply. To this alternative 
applies the text of Sankha also mentioned in the commentary by Vijuanesvara* 


After the above discussion, and criticizing the opinion of Nirnaya-sindhu, B5- 
lambhatta goes on to say that old authors have divided the sapinda relationship 
with bhinna gotra into five sub-divisions. (1) The sapinda relationship through 
the analogy of Chuda-bandha. (2) The sapinda relationship through the analogy of 
Mukta-hara-bandha. (3) The sapinda relationship through particles of the same 
body. (4) The sapinda relationship tbrough the offering of funeral oblation (Nirva- 
pya-Ssa-anvaya). (5) The sapinda relationship through the offering of funeral obla- 
tion and inheritance. (Nirvapya-amsa-anvaya), 

Among these the Chudd-bandha sapipda relationship is that between two 
equal and unequal persons, like the people, born from the head (Brahmanas). The 
Mukta-hara relationship is that like several pearls strung together, on the same 
string, where the father and mother belong to the same caste. The sapindahood 
through particles of blood (avayava-anvaya) is that relationship, which is seven- 
fold from the father's side, and four-fold from the mother's side. The Nirvapya- 
anvaya sapindaship is that which arises from the right of a person to offer food to 
a particular kind of ancestor, who is dead. The last kind of relationship is that 
which exists between bride and a bridegroom by the fact that they are the sources 
(avayavin), from whose body particles are taken by the descendants. 

The example of Chuda-bandha sapinda relationship may be illustrated by the 
following table. Brahmadatta is the founder of the family. He has two sons, Yaj- 
nadattaand Devadatta. These latter have two daughters, Ganga and Yamuna. 
These latter have daughter and a son, named respectively Sarasvati and Mitra- 
datta. These latter have a daughter and a son, Vijaya and Pundarika. These 
latter have a daughter and a son, Sulochana and Visnudatta. Vijaya is the fifth and 
Sulochana is the sixth. Here the sapinda relationship ceases. Pundarika is the 
fifth, and Visnudatta is the sixth. But here the sapinda relationship does not 
cease, because they are within the seventh degree from the father. They cannot 
marry (the girl, Sulochana), But' according to the siddhanta of the Western 
(Praiicha School) they can. 



1. Brahmadatta. 

2. Yajnadatta 
8. Ganga 


2. Devadatta. 

4. Sarasvati 


5. Vijaya 

I A 

6. Sulochana 

3. Yamuna. 


4. Mitradatta. 
6. Visnudatta 

Note;— Here the girl, Sulochana, cannot marry Visnudatta. Though their 
Gotras are different, but Visnudatta is within seven degrees from, the fathers side. 
This sapindaship is called Chuda-bandh-anvaya. 

The Mukta-hdra Sapindaship. 

This will be illustrated by the following table. Brahmadatta had two sons, 
Yajnadatta and Devadatta, the latter have two daughters, Ganga and Yamuna res- 
pectively. The latter have a daughter and a son, Sarasvati and Mitradatta. Saras-* 
vati gives birth to a daughter, Jayanti, and Mitradatt has a daughter, Vijaya. Ja- 
yanti has a daughter, Kaveri, and Vijaya, a son, Visnudatta. Kaveri and Visnudatta 
can marry., because Visnudatta is sixth from the mother's side, and so is not a 
sapinda of Kaveri. From the mother's side the sapindaship ceases beyond the fifth. 
Or, to take a further example, Visnudatta, sixth, has a daughter, Dharitri, the 
seventh. Jayanti, the fifth, has a son, Indradatta, whose son is Mudgala, the 
seventh. Mudgala and Dharitri cannot marry, because Mudgala is seventh from 
the father's side, and sapindahood has not ceased. 


1. Brahmadatta 



2. Yajnadatta 


3. Ganga 

4. Sarasvati 


5. Jayanti 


6. Kaveri 

These last two can marry. Bnt 

5. Jayanti 


6. Indradatta 


7. Mudgal 

These last two cannot marry. 


2. Devadatta. 

8. Yamund 


4. Mitradatta 


5. Vijaya 

6. Visnudatta 
• • 

5. Vijaya 

I • 

6. Visnudatta 


7. Dharitri 


Now to the third case. Brahmadatta has a daughter, Visnubhakti, the latter 
has a daughter, Vedavati. Can this daughter, Vedavati, bo married to Brahma- 
datta ? Because 44 the mother's side beyond the fifth and from the father's side 
beyond the seventh" is the rule That prohibition does not apply hero. Brahma- 
datta and Vedavati, moreover, are of different Gotras also. And says the text of 
Vriddha-Manu.— 44 She gets unity with the husband in pinrla, in gotra and in sutaka 
(birth and death impurity). Aftor the marriago, on tho sovonth footstep, the girl 

GRAFTER III— MAURI AGE, v. hill. 115 


loses hor father's gotra. Bofore the seventh footstep, if the bridegroom dies, she 
should be given to another bridegroom. The ceremony of taking the hand is 
completed on tho seventh footstep, when the status of a husband accrues to the 
bridegroom. Tho nuptial texts are a certain proof (that a maiden has been made 
a lawful) -wife, but the wise should know that they are complete with the seventh 
stop. (Maim VIII. 227). If tho bridegroom has gone to another country, then 
after waiting for thrco monthly courses, a girl should be married away to another, 
if tho Vak-dana (betrothal) ceremony was done." 

Thus according to tho above text, there would be no bar to tho marriage of 
Vodavati with Brahmadatta, because they are of different gotras. But, the marriage 
cannot take place, because the sapindahood through blood relationship comes in, 
and this avayava-anvyaya sapindahood prevents tho marriage. To this effect 
is tho opinion of Visvarflpacharya : — "An animal is born after conception, enveloped 
in seven sheaths, four of which are from tho mother, and three , (bones and the 
rest) from the father." Therefore in the body of an offspring, there are three 
elements of the father's body, and through this relationship of the particles of a 
common body the sapindahood arises.* Therefore, since there is this relationship 
in the particles of the body between Brahmadatta and Vedavati, the daughter of 
Visnubhakti, there can be no marriage between them. 


Brahmadatta has two wives, Chandrakanti and Rfipavati. Chandrakanti has 
a son, Somadatta. RQpavati has a sister, Hamsavati. Why cannot Hamsavati be 
married to Somadatta ? There is no relationship of sapindahood between them, 
through the rule of "seventh from the father and fifth from the mother," and they 
are also not of the same gotra. But such a marriage cannot take place, because 
Baudhayana prohibits such marriages :— " The Dharma is that which is ordained 
by the Veda, the adharma is that which is opposed to it. The Veda is the visible 
Narayana, the Self-existent. Thus have we heard. All the wives of a father are 
mothers. Born from one mother, in one year, two girls should not be married, to 
two persons who are related as father and son, (because by such marriage one 
sister will stand as a daughter-in-law of the other sister). But, if the sisters 
are step-sisters, then such marriages can take place (i.e., the father can marry one 
step-sister, and the son can marry another step-sister." 

Thus, a step-mother being like a mother, the own (uterine) sister of a step- 
mother cannot be married. 

[Then Balambhatta gives the opinion of Chaturvimsati-mata, and Kapila-mata.] 


This is illustrated by Manu (IX. 182) " If among brothers, sprung from one 
(father), one have a son, Manu has declared them all to have male offspring through 
that son." Thislfrerse of Manu is explained by some as applying to funeral offer- 
ing, (viz. a nephew is just like a son for the purposes of funeral offering). (Others 
take this verse to mean as applying to inheritance. If among two brothers, one 
has a son, and the other has none, and if this childless brother dies, then the 
surviving brother will take the estate of the deceased brother). 

This would be a cas6 under the fifth head. Therefore, the uterine sister of 
one's step-mother, or of uncle's wife, or of elder brother's wife, should not be 
married, because they are related by common funeral offerings and inheritance. 

Note The text of Balambhatta appears a little unintelligible. (Tr.) 


He then quotes Linga-Purana : — " Those women, whose relationship is only 
through words, (through the ceremony of repeating the mantras of marriage), or 
who share the affection, should not be married, because such marriages are unr 
seemly and abhorrent to all, and the family becomes extinguished by such 

Balambhatta then goes on explaining the text of Mitaksard, where Vijnanesvara 
says about mixed-caste-births in para beginning with : — "This rule is applicable 
to parties who are Sajati or of equal birth. Among parties who are Vijati or of 
unequal births, there is a special rule." Balambhatta then explains the text of 
Sankka quoted there. We repeat it here for better understanding 

'qsN^TcTT 311^ ^hn: ^q^FSRt 1 

Literally this verso means, "if many (sons) born of one (father), have separate 
fields and separate producers etc." 

The word, janah, here means, mothers. In fact both phrases, "separate fields' 8 
and "separate producers" mean one and the same thing, viz., separate mothers. 
But with this difference, that "separate fields" mean, mothers of different caster, 
while " separate producers" mean, mothers of the same caste. A Brahmana may 
have a Brahmani wife, a Ksatriya wife and a Vaisya wife at one and the same time, 
Sons born of these wives wilj be Prithak-ksetras, Or, a Brahmana may have seyeral 
wives of the same caste, viz., all Brahmanis. These sons will be Prithak-janas, 
These sons will be inter-related as step -brothers, some of the same caste as their 
father, others of a caste lower than their father but higher than their mother. 
In the case of step-brothers of the same caste as their father, the sapinda rela- 
tionship is governed by the general rule, given in verse 53, viz., " a,bove the seventh 
from the father and above the fifth from the mother." But in the case of the stepr 
brothers, who are not of the same caste, the above rule of Yajfiavalkya is modified 
by the present rule pf Sankha, which declares that their sapindahood ceases witl* 
the third, and their period of impurtiy is also different. 

Madiiavachakya in commenting on this verse of Sankha, in hi$ commentary on 
verse 25, Adhyaya 2 of Paraa'ara (page 61, Vol. I, Part 2, of B. S. S.) says " Those 
whose father is one, but mothers are of different castes, they through the difference 
of their mothers., are men of different pastes, still through the oneness of their 
father they are sapindas to each other. In their case, the sapindahood ceasep 
with the third degree. 1 ' In fact, Madhavacharya ta^es bpth epithets, Pfithak- 
ksetra and Prithak-jana, as applying to the same person, viz., sons of mothers of 
different castes, and not to sons of mothers of the same caste. According to 
Madhavacharya (as well as V;juanesvara), the separate period of death impurity 
applies to sons of diffcreqt castes. Among these Rons of different castes, their 
sapindahood in their Gotra ceases with the ttyrd male line. m In the case of tho 
sons of the same caste, who are step-brothers,, the sapindahood in their stepr 
mother's line (i.e., in tfro lino of the father of tho step-mother), ceases in the third. 
That is to say, it ceases with the father of the step-mother. Then the questiou 
arises, how far this sapindahood goes in tho lino of the father of the step-mother. 
According to tho text of Sumantu, it docs not extend further. This \s tho opinion 
pf tho author pf Dvaita-nirnaya, But this is wrong, as shown by my revered 

teacher. , 

Tho word, "avartate;' in tho above verso of Sankha,, means, fci?thati, i.e., it 

pxists up to ttueo (inclusive). The word, pinda, in tho 8f,me vprsp, means sapiiul^ 



hood, :ind bo VijfiAnesvara explains it by saying, that " in thoir case tho sapinda- 
ehip oxtends only up to tlio third Puruna (inclusivo)." 
Jind of commontary of Ualambhatta, on vorso 53. 

A rule of Eugenic. 

The author now declares an exception relating to tho bride, 
though she may possess all the above qualifications- 


LIV. — She should be of a great family of Srotriyas, 
whose ten ancestors are renowned, but not of a family, 
though prosperous, that has any hereditary disease or 
taint. — 54. 


The forms "Purusa" and "Purusa" are the same, meaning 
n ancestors." Of that family of which " the ten ancestors " viz., five 
from the mother's side, and five from the father's side "are 

" ^rotriyas." — Those who study the Vedas. The study is indi- 
cative of being versed in the (understanding and) studying of the 
Vedas, (and in the) Sastras. 

" Mahakula."-^-" Great family," is a compound of Mahat (great) 
and Kula (family), i.e., a family rich in sons, grandsons, catties, 
servants, villages, &c The -bringing of a girl from such a family 
is ordained. 

" Hereditary diseases " are such as leprosy, epilepsy, and the 


" Taint" is that which enter the system through semen and 

Moreover, such a family as is described by Manu (Chap. III. 7). 

" The family which neglects the prescribed rites of religion, in which no 
male children are born " &c, should be avoided. 

Being married by these defects, even a " prosperous " family — 
a high family, such as above described, should be avoided ; and a 
girl should not be brought from such a family. 

In the previous verses were mentioned the rules about the qualifications of 

the bride herself; in the present verse are described the qualifications, which the 

family of the bride should possess. 

The word, " Purusa," and " Purusa," are the same. See Amarakosa (IL 6. 1), 
The test should be applied to the both lines, maternal and paternal, of the 



The word, " S'rotriya, " though derived from the root, " Sru" "to hear," really 
means, 14 one who has studied the Veda." See Panini V. 2. 84.* Therefore, mere 
reciting of the Vedas is not sufficient, one must understand it also ; as clearly 
stated in the Mahabhasya. The word, " Sruta, " in the commentary, means "the 

The rule laid down in this verse, is an example of Parisankhya. It is not a 

The hereditary diseases " are fully described in books on medicine. 

The full text of Manu, referred to above, is the following (III. 6 and 7) :— " In 
connecting himself with a wife, let him carefully avoid the ten following families, 
be they ever so great, or rich in kine, horses, sheep, grain, or (other) property. 

"(Fis.,)one which neglects the sacred rites, one in which no male children 
(are born), one in which the Veda is not studied, one (the members of) which have 
thick hair on the body, those which are subject to haemorrhoids, phthisis, weakness 
of digestion, epilepsy, or white and black leprosy. " 

(Balambhatta then goes on to discuss again the question of sapinclahood, and 
quotes the author of Dvaita-nirnaya, and controverts the views of Nirnaya-sindhu)* 

The same rules apply to the bridegroom by Atidesa- (analogy). 

Having thus described the restrictive rules (Niyama) in selecting 
a girl, now the author explains the restrictive rules relating to the 
bridegroom to whom a girl should be given. 


LV. — The bridegroom too should possess these 
qualifications, (and free from the same defects), and be of 
the same class (or of a higher), be a &rotriya (himself), 
young, wise, beloved of all, and one whose virile power 
has been well examined. — 55. 


" The bridegroom" too should possess " all the above-mentioned 
qualifications," and be free from all those defects. There is another 
qualification (which he should possess), viz., that he should be of the 
" same class " of equal caste, or of a higher class, but never of a 
lower caste. 

" ^rotriya." — himself versed in understanding and studying 
(the Vedas), " whose virile power has been tested " well and " care- 
fully." — Narada (Chap. X. 71.) has described the method of such a 

'< If his somen, when thrown into water, does not swim on tho surface; and 
if his urine is rich and foamy : by those tokens may a potent man bo known, and one 
impotent by the opposito characteristics." 

*Seo p. 925 of my odition of tho Astadhyfiyi of Panini for tho formation of tho 
word *tfiw. ManUalik in his translation of Yajnavalkya has quoted in a footnote, 
tho definition of brotriya from Taranfith Tarkavachaspati's Lexicon. Tr. 




" Young " — not old. " Wise " — clever in worldly and religious 
(Vedic) transactions. " Beloved of all men," to whom men are 
attached owing to his mild speech, preceded by smile etc. 


• • 

This verso lays down a rule of Atidcsa, or analogical application of a law. All 
the abovo rules regarding the fitness of a bride are to bo applied to tho case of 
tho bridegroom also. Tho rules in tho case of tho bride are, (1) virginity, (2) beauty, 
(3) asapinilahood, (4) younger in age, (5) not suffering from any incurable disease, 
(0) having a brother, (7) not having the same Pravara, (8) not having tho same 
gotra, (9) fifth from tho mother, (10) seventh from tho father, (11) whoso five maternal 
and paternal ancestors are all Srotriyas, and renowned, (12) .of a high family, 
(13) and not having any hereditary taint. All these rules, however, cannot be applied 
in full in the case of the bridegroom. Balambhatta discusses this question at the 
end of his notes to the preceding verse, especially with regard to the question of 

The word, " savarna, " in the verse, is compounded of two words, *'Sa, " an 
abbreviated form of " saha, " and " Varna." " Saha " means " equal, " or " superior." 
Therefore, Vijnanesvara explains the word, "Savarna, " by saying, "of equal or 
superior caste." An objection may be raised here, that a word should not bo 
explained in two senses, in one and the same passage. So the word, "Savarna", 
should either mean, " a man of the superior caste, but not of the same caste," or 
" a man of the same caste, but not of the superior caste." This is the rule of 
" Anekarthatva-akalpana, " (see Tagore Law Lectures. 1905, p. 276), This objection 
is, however, answered by the fact that two meanings of the word, may be taken, 
w r hen an additional statement is to be made. Such a statement is made in this 
passage, where the commentator says, " she should not marry a person of a lower 
■easte." , 

The word, "Savarna," therefore, here, must be taken in its wider sense, 
otherwise it would conflict with the rule given in the next verse, which allows men 
to marry girls of lower castes, and consequently, a girl may be - married to a person 
of a higher caste. 

Narada lays down this further rule about the bridegroom (XII. 9) " If his 
collar-bone, his knee, and his bones (in general) are strongly made, if his shoulders 
and his hair are (also) strongly made, if the nape of his neck is stout, and his thigh 
and his skin delicate ; if his gait and his voice is vigorous." 

In the original of the text of Narada (XII. 10), some read, " Viparitaih," others, 
" Viparitah." The sense, however, is the same, 

Male child, however, would fail, if the above tests of Narada be applied to 
him. Therefore, the commentator says that the tests should be applied to a young 
man, (who has attained puberty), and ivho is not old. 

Note (Incidentally, this verse lays down a prohibition against child mar- 
riages of boys. They must have attained puberty before marriage). 2V, 

Katyayana lays down further rule about bridegrooms who should be avoided 
"Those who live in far off countries, who are illiterate, who follow the path of 
emancipation, who are heroes (soldiers), who are without Vratas, or who are addicted 
to Vratas, to such, a girl should not be given by the wise." 


Inter 'marriage allowed. 

Marriages are of three kinds, as they are either for the sake of 
enjoyment, or for the sake of a son, or for the sake of Dharma (religH 
on). Among these, the marriage for the sake of a son is of two kinds, 
necessary (Nitya), and optional (Kamya). In the necessary (Nitya) 
marriage for the sake of a son, from the text " the bridegroom must 
be of the same class and learned," it is shown that the wife of the 
same class is the principal. 

"Now the author mentions an optional rule with regard to 
Kamya marriages. (In Kamya marriages, a man may marry a girl 
of the same caste, as in the Nitya marriage, or of lower caste). This 
is on the strength of the maxim, that an option may be allowed in 
the cases of the Kamya in relation to a Nitya form of any ceremony. 


LVL— ' Though it has been said that a twice-born 
may take a wife from a Sudra family, yet that is not my 
opinion, because out of her, he is born himself.— 56. 


" Though it has been said : " — " but for those who through 
desire proceed (to marry again) the following females, (chosen) accord- 
ing to the (direct) order (of the castes), are most approved.'' (Manu 
III. 12). After having premised this (another sage, Visnu. XXIV, 1 
to 5)," says: — "(1) Now a Brahmana may take four wives in the 
direct order of the (four) castes, (2) A Ksatriya, three, (3) A Vaisya, 
two, and thereby (though these authors, Manu and Visnu, would 
allow), to the twice-born men, marriages, with $udra women, yet, "it 
is not my," Y&jnavalkya's, " opinion." " Because he," the twice- 
born, "is born himself therein." As says a $ruti (Aitareya Brahmana 
VII. 13. 10, or 7) : — " His wife is only then a real wife (jay a from 
jan to be born) when he is born (jayate) in her again." Hereby 
assigning the reason " that out of her he is born himself," the author 
prohibits a marriage with a $udra woman for one who is desirous of 
begetting a Naityaka (necessary) son. But in the case of not being 
able to produce a Naityaka son, in producing an optional son, for a 
Brahmana, a Ksatriya, and Vaisya woman, and for a Ksatriya, a 
Vaisya woman, are allowed. 

Translator's Note.— Vijn&nosvara, somehow or other, is very unhappy in his 
quotations from the Sruti. The text of the Aitareya Brdhmana, instead of prohi- 



biting marriages with 8ftdra women, would rather favour such marriages, so long as 
a man g*ts a son. Tho full text is given below, as it occurs in the story of Sunahsepa 
in tho Aitaroya BrAhmana;-" Tho husband enters tho wife (in tho shape of seed), and 
when tho seed is changed to an ombryo, ho makes her mother, from whom after hav- 
ing become generated, in hor, ho is born, in tho tenth month. His wife is only then 
a real wife (j&y/l from fan " to bo born") when ho is born in hor again. Tho seed 
which is placed in hor, sho dcvolopos to a boing and sets it forth. Tho Gods and tho 
Jlisis endowed hor with great beauty. Tho gods then told tho men, this being is 
destined to produce you again. Ho who has no child, has no place (no firm footing). 
This even know tho boasts. Thence tho son cohabits (among beasts oven) with his 
mother and sister. This is tho broad woll-trodden path on which those who havo 
sons walk free from sorrows. Beasts and birds know it, thence thoy cohabit (even) 
with their own mothers. Thus he told." 


Tho full text of Manu quoted above is the following (III. 12 and 13) : — ** For 
tho first marriage of twice-born men (wives) of equal casto are recommended ; but 
for those who through desire proceed (to marry again) the following females, 
(chosen) according to the (direct) order (of the castes), are most approved. It is 
declared that aSudra woman alone (can be) the wife of a Sfidra, she and one of his 
own caste (the wives) of a Vaisya, those two and one of his own caste (the wives) of 
a Ksatriya, those three and one of his own caste (the wives) of a Brahmana." 

Tho text of Manu uses the word, " Kramaso varah/* which may be split up into 
*' Krama sah varah " or, a Kramasah avarah. 1 * 

Balambhatta approves the first reading, and Vara, means, " Varaniya," or 
chosen, viz*, approved by Sastras. 

The verse of Y3jnavalkya has another reading also. Instead of "Tatr&yam 
jayate svayam, 1 ' there is " Tatratma j&yate svayam" (as given by Apararka). 
VijnSnesvara disapproves this reading, and so explains the word, " ayam," (of his 
reading, which required no explanation, but for this other reading of Apararka) by 
saying/' ayam dvijatih," " he, the twice-born. 99 

Then, Balambhatta says that though Manu in III. 14 to 19 allows a Brahmana to 
marry a Sfidra girl, yet he disapproves such marriages. 

The word, rt Naityaka," in the text of the commentary, means, " one related to 
the Nitya form of marriage." It is derived from the noun, " Nitya," with the affix, 
" Vyun " (afca), with the force of "tasya idam." See P&nini (V. 1. 132). 

The Rule about Inter-marriage. 
Now the author describes the order in which such inter-mar- 
riage may take place for him who is still desirous of sexual gratifica- 
tions, though he has got a son, or has lost his wife and is not entitled 
to enter another order (arframa), but is anxious to remain in the order 
of the house-holder. 


LVII. — Three, according to the order of the caste, 
so also two, and one for a Brahmana, a Ksatriya and a 
Vaisya respectively (may be the wives). To a person 
born as a &udra, a girl of her own caste is his wife. — 57. 




According to the order of the classes, for the Brahmana three, 
for the Ksatriyatwo wives, and for the Vai^ya one wife are ordained, 
A $udra can have only one wife born in the same class. 

It is an established rule that a wife of the same class has pre- 
cedence over all other wives. In the absence of her that precedes, 
she that follows, takes precedence (as the principal wife) in the due 
order (of classes). This is also the order in the injunction of begetting 
a son either as, a substitute for a necessary (Nitya) son, or an optional 
(Kamya) son. 

As to the son of a $udra woman being counted among sons 
and being described in the Chapter on Partition, e.g., where the 
author after enumerating the son begotten by a Brahmana upon his 
Ivsatriya wife, is Murddha-vasikta etc., ends with " this rule refers to 
wives regularly married," (V. 00 and 91) that refers to the son of a 
person desirous of sexual enjoyment or who is simply desirous of re^ 
maining in the Asrama (order of house-holder) and does not refer 
to twice-born in legitimate wedlock. 


Marrying girls of lower castes may proceed from following causes. (1) Prom 
mere sexual desire, though the man may have a son already existing by a prior wife, 
(2) By a man who has lost his wife, and has not entered the order of Sannyasa, 
because he is not entitled to that order. (3) A man who has lost his wife and is 
entitled to enter the order of Sannyasa, yet does not enter that order, because he 
has no liking for it, and wishes to remain as a house-holder. 

"According to the order of the classes, " viz., beginning with Ksatriya and 
the rest. " Respectively, 0 means for Brahmanas, Ksafcriyas, and Yais'ays res-? 
pectively. Thus a Brahmana may have three classes of wives, viz., a Brahmani, a 
Knatriyani an4 a Vaisyani, A Knatriya may have two classes of wives, viz., a 
Ksatriyani and a Vaisyani. But q, Vaisya or a 6Qdra cq,q have wives of ono class 
only, viz., of his own caste. 

It may be said that there are castes lower than Sudras, such as, washerman 


(Rajaka), carpenters (taksakq,), etc. and a kfidra can marry girls of those castes. 
But this is not allowed, for the text says, 41 that a budra can marry a girl of his own 
casto only.*' It is only the t\yo higher cantos who pan take girls of lower castes, 
but not so the fcudras. 

A wifo of the samo casto is always tho principal wife, All othor wives aro 
subordinate or subsidiary. If a man has no wifo of his own casto, but has ono 
of tjio lower casto only, such a wifo is not to bo considered as tho principal wife. 

Though in onumorating various kinds of sons, such as in vorses 91 and 92 of 
this book, and in tho chapter on inhoritauco, in vorsos 128 and tho rest, of Book II, 
Ynjnavalkya has mentioned the sons by SQdra married women also, yet it does not 
juean that the author permits such marriages with Sftdra women. A son, born to a 
Bvfthfpn^W father, by a bflclra wife, is called iNisada or Pa rasa vr*, a sou bgrji to ^ 


- . . ..— — ■— - 

Ksatriya father by a b'Adra wifo, is called an Ugra ; a sou born to a Vaisya on a 
Sfidra wife is called Karana. Yfijfiavalkya, no doubt, mentions all these kinds of 
sons, and says they are sons by married wives (Sco verses 91 and 92 below), yet ho 
doos so, out of respect to Manu, and not that lie approves such marriages* Accord- 
ing to him, all those, tho sons of Sftdra women, would bo bastards. Or, if nob 
bastards, thoy aro allowed as legitimate sons only to those persons, who aro 
moved by legitimate dosiro for sexual gratification, or by tho dosiro to keep up tho 
ordor of tho houso-holdor, and not for ovory kind of such marriages. 

(The senso seems to bo this. A marriago with a Sftdra woman would bo valid, 
and her children would bo legitimate and entitled to inheritance, if tho man has 
no wifo of a higher caste ; for example, if a Brahmana has no wife of a Brahmana, 
Ksatriya, or Vaisya caste, from tho very beginning, or if he had such wives, and 
they are dead, and ho wants to satisfy his legitimate sexual desire, and does not 
want to become a Sannyasi, but wants to keep up tho household order, then he can 
marry a SGdra wifo, and tho children of such a marriage, would bo legitimate. 
This is the only way of reconciling Yajfiavalkya with himself, and with Manu. 
Comparo Paiaskar Gr. Sfitra, I. 4-8 and Vasistha I. 24. Tr.) 

The Eight Forms of Marriages. 


(1) The Brahma Marriage. 
The author now describes the various forms of marriages. 


LVIII. — That is called a Brahma marriage (where- 
in the bridegroom) being invited, (the bride) is given 
away (to him) bedecked according to the (giver's) 
means. The son born of her purifies twenty-one per- 

* . 

sons on both sides. — 58. 


That marriage is called " a Brahma marriage/' in which 
" having invited " the bridegroom possessing the above mentioned 
qualifications, the girl " is given away being bedecked " according 
to the giver's means, preceded by the pouring of water- The son 
born of her purifies both sides," ten in the ascending (father's) 
line and ten in the descending (or son's) line, and himself " the 
twenty-first," provided he be o£ good conduct. 


Tho author now goes on to describe eight forms of marriages, as mentioned 
by Manu (III. 2i) " (They are) the rite of Brahmana (Brahma), that of the gods 
(Daiva), that of the Risis (Arsa), that of Prajapati (Prajapatj r a), that of the Asuras 
(Asur), that of the Gandharvas (Gandharva), that of the Raksas (Raksasa), and that 
of tho Pisachas (Paisach)." 

The word, " k Varaya, M "to the bridgegroom," should be added in the verse, 
after the words, " Diyate," meaning, %i is given away, M to complete the sense. 



The commentator has added the words, " preceded by the pouring of water," 
in accordance with the words of Manu (III, 35) :— " The gift of daughter among 
Brahmanas is most approved, (if it is preceded) by (a libation of) water," 

The word, " Tajja," in the verse is a compound of two words, " tat," and, " ja. ,f 
The word, "tat," being a pronoun should refer to the word immediately 
antecedent to it, viz., " the Brahma rite of marriage. The commentator, however, 
following the spirit and not the letter of the verse* has explained the word, tat," 
by the word " tasyam * " of that girl," z/iz., " in the girl who has passed through 
the sacrament of Brahma rite." 

Manu also has said (III. 37) :— H The son of a wife wedded according to the 
Brahma rite, if he performs meritorious acts, liberates from sins ten ancestors, 
ten descendants and himself as the twenty-first/ 1 

The words, " on both sides," mean, " on father's and son's side " and not as 
explained by Apararka, " on father's and mother's side." This is consistent with 
the text of Manu quoted above. 

The Bairn and the Arqa Marriage. 


L1X. — (The giving away of the bride) to the Ritvij, 
officiating at a sacrifice (constitutes) a Daiva marriage. 
The giving of the bride, after taking two cows, is an 
Arsa marriage. The son, born of the first marriage, 
purifies fourteen generations, that born of the second, 
six. — 59. 


That is Daiva marriage, where during the course of the per- 
formance of a sacrifice, the bride being bedecked according to the 
giver's means, is given to the sacrificing priest (Ritvij as his fee). 

So where a pair of cattle (a cow and a bull) being taken (from 
the bridegroom) the girl is given, it is an Arsa form of marriage. 

The son, born of the first, i.e., the son of the Daiva marriage, 
purifies fourteen generations, seven preceding and seven following. 
The son, born of the second, i.e., from the Arsa marriage, purifies six, 
three preceding and three following. 


• • 

Tho word, " Yajfiastho," in tho abovo vorse, is a Karraadharaya compound. 
Tho final, "e " is not changed to "aya " by tho rule of Sandhi, because of tho Panini 
SAtra prohibiting it, becanso the vowel "Ri" follows. Therefore, the proper 
reading of tho verso should be, 44 Yajnastho Ritvijo," and not Yajnastha JRitvije, as 
generally found. (See Panini VI. 1. 128). 

This giving to the Ritvij is in consideration of his fee. When a person 
commences the performance of any big sacrifice, like Jyotistoma etc., ho may 
give his daughter in marriage to tho ofliciating priest, in consideration of his 



finishing tho sacrifice, which may last for sovoral days. Tims says Manu 
(III. 28) "Tho gift of a daughter who has been decked with ornaments, to a 
priost who duly oiliciatos at a sacriflco, during tho course of its performance, 
thoy call tho Daiva rite." ' 

Tho words, " decked with ornaments according to his ability," should bo sup- 
plied everywhere, and it applies to all kinds of marriages. 

Though tho verso says, M Two cows should be given," yot it really means "a 
cow and a bull," as says Manu (III. 29) :— " When (tho father) gives away his 
daughter according to tho rule, after receiving from tho bridegroom, for (tho ful- 
filment of) tho sacred law, a cow and a bull or two pairs, that is named tho Arfia 

The Daiva sanctifies seven and the Arsa three on each side. Compare Manu 
(III. 38) :— The son born of a -wife, wedded according to the Daiva rite, likewise 
(saves) soven ancestors and seven descendants, the son of a wife married by the 
Arsa rite, three (in the ascending and descending lines), and the son of a wife 
married by the rite of Kaya (Prajapati) six (in either line)." 

The Prdjdpatya Form of Marriage. 

The author now gives the definition of Prajapatya form of 


LX. — Where (the daughter) is given to a suppliant 
(bridegroom) by saying to the couple, " May both of you 
perform together your duties," that is Kaya marriage. 
The son bom of her purifies six generations on each 
side, together with himself. — 60. 


The gift of a daughter (by her father) after having addressed 

the couple with the text, " may both of you perform together your 

duties," is the "Kaya," or "Prajapatya" form of marriage. A son 

born of such marriage purifies eleven generations, six ascendants 

inclusive of himself, and six descendants inclusive of himself. 


Vijiianea vara has not explained the word, «' A^hine," of the text, because it 
was implied in the very act of gift and the address to the couple. In fact, Manu 
has not used this word, " Suppliant," in III. 30. The word, "Kaya," used by Yajfia- 
valkya, is the same as the word, " Prajapatya," of Manu. The word, " Kaya," comes 
from the root, " Ka ", meaning " Brahma/ 1 Prajapati. The word, " Ya," in the text 
of Yaj navalkya, means " yatra, " " where." 

In tho Brahma form of marriage, the bridegroom is not the suppliant, but is 
invited by the father of the bride and given gold &c. 

In the Daiva form of marriage, the bridegroom is the officiating priest, or 
Ritvik, the gift being of the girl only, all other conditions are the same as in the 



Brahma form of marriage. In the Arsa form of marriage, the father receives a pair 
of a cow and a bull from the bridegroom. In the Prajapatya form of marriage, the 
speciality consists in the particular address given by the father to the couple. The 
supplication for the girl by the bridegroom, is not a necessary condition : 

The word " Taj-ja, M in the text of Yajnavalkya, means " the issue of Prajapat- 
ya marriage." 

Some say that the issue of such marriage, purifies eleven generations, viz., six 
ascendants including himself, and six descendants including himself. Thus it comes 
to this, that five ascendants and himself the sixth, and five descendants and himself 
the sixth, altogether eleven. (In fact, the reading of Vijnanesvara is "Ekadasa", 
as approved by Balambhatta. But, in some other places, the reading is, "trayo- 
dasa.") The issue purifies six ascendants, six descendants, and himself the 
thirteenth. Compare Manu 111* 38. This reading appears to be better, as it is in 
consonance with the explanations of the previous verses. (Compare Gautama 
IV. 32). 

This form of marriage is meant for monogamous couple only, A person mar- 
ried by this rite of Prajapatya, cannot take another wife, during the lifetime of his 
first wife. This is the force of the marriage address, "may both of you perform 
together your duties." "Of course, in other forms of marriages also, the married 
couple should perform their duties together, but in this form of marriage, they are 
specially enjoined to observe their duties to each other, so that the husband cannot 
renounce his wife and take to the order of Sannyasa, nor can he take another wife, 
so long as she is alive/' This is the opinion of Nrisimha and Haradatta. (See 
Gautama IV. 7, and Haradatta's Commentary thereon). 

It would have been better to have mentioned this Prajapatya form of marriage 
before the Arsa form, because it is a higher form than that of Arsa. But here 
yajnavalkya follows Manu, in his order, as given in verse III. 21, and in view of 
verse III. 25 of the same. Therefore the Prajapatya is mentioned as fourth in 
order, so that the rule of Manu, III. 25, may apply to it :— u But in these (Institutes 
of the sacred law) three of the five (last) are declared to be lawful and two unlaw- 
ful ; the Paisdcha and the Asura (rites) must never be used." 

[Translator's note :— Compare Gautama IV. 32. Apararka quotes the text of 
Devala to the effect that these four forms of marriages, and sons born of such 
marriages, purify seven generations of the giver and the acceptor.] 

The four lower forms of Marriages. 

The author now defines the lower forms of marriages, viz., 
" Asura," " Gandharva," "Raksasa," and " Pais&cha." 


'LXL — The Asura by largely giving of money ; the 
Gandharva by mutual consent ; the Raksasa by forcible 
taking by waging war, and Paisacha by deceiving the 
girl. — 61. 


The Asura marriage is that in which money is largely given 
(to the father and others in exchange for the girl) ; the Gandharva 




marriage takes placo through tho mutual lovo of the parties. The 
Ufiksasa form is tho carrying away of the girl by making war ; the 
Fai&cha marriage is " by deceiving tho girl deceitfully and 
fraudulently carrying away tho girl when asleep, etc. 


Tho word "AdAnftt," in tho toxt, moans " the giving (dana) of a largo quan- 
tity (A). This monoy is givon to tho girl as woll as to tho father and other kinsmen 
of tho girl. (This is called "Asura" form, and is still prevalent among persons 
following Semitic religion, where large dowries are given to the girl, in considera- 
tion of her marrying tho bridegroom. Tr.). <A 

Compare Manu III. 31 " When (the bridegroom) receives a maiden, after 
having given as much wealth as he can afford, to tho kinsmen and to tho brido 
herself, according to his own will, that is called the Asura rite. 1 ' 

In Arsa form of marriage also, the bridegroom gives presents to the father 
of tho bride, but that is allowed by the Sastra. But in the present case, the bride- 
groom of his own will and not because there is any injunction of the kastra, volun- 
tarily, and in a way, purchases the girl, by spending a large amount of wealth. 

The Gandharva form consists in the mutual consent, or the reciprocal attach- 
ment of the parties. As says Manu III. 32:— " The voluntary union of a maiden 
and her lover one must know (to be) the Gandharva rite, which springs from desire 
and has sexual intercourse for its purpose/' 

The Raksasa form is thus described by Manu III. 33 :— a The forcible abduc- 
tion of a maiden from her home, while she cries out and weeps, after (her kinsmen) 
have been slain or pounded and (their houses) broken open, is called the Raksasa 

(The Paisaeha marriage is also a marriage not by force, but through fraud, 
practised on the girl. Thus it differs from the last, where force is used. 

Manu thus describes it III. 34:— " When (a man) by stealth seduces a girl 
who is sleeping, intoxicated, or disordered in intellect, that is the eighth, the most 
base and sinful rite of the Paisachas." 

All these forms of marriages are disapproved by Manu (III. 39 et. seq) : — 
(39) " From the four marriages, (enumerated) successively, which begin with the 
Prahma rite spring sons, radiant with knowledge of the Veda and honoured by the 
kutas (good men). (40) " Endowed with the qualities of beauty and goodness, 
possessing wealth and fame, obtaining as many enjoyments as they desire and being 
most righteous, they will live a hundred years. (41) " But from the remaining (four) 
blameable marriages spring sons who are cruel and speakers of untruth, who hate 
the Veda and the sacred law. (42) 44 In the blameless marriages blameless children 
are born to men, in blameable (marriages) blameable (offspring); one should, therefore, 
ftvoid the blameable (forms of marriage)." 

Ev*i>n in this Manu has made an exception, in Sloka III. 23, where he allows 
Brahmanas to marry in Asura sud Gandharva forms, also, " One may know that the 
first six according to the order (followed above) are lawful for a Brahman a, the 
four last for a Ksatriya, and the same four, excepting the Raksasa rite, for a Vaisya 
and a Sudra." * 

Madhava and Medhatithi explain this verse of Manu thus :— " The first six forms 
of marriages are valid for Brahmanas, the last four forms beginning ivith " Asura " 

valid for Ksatriyas, The Just four, with the exception of R&ksasa, are valid 



for Vaisyas and Sudras/' (According to this view, Paisacha form is valid for Vaisya 
and Sudra). But Narayana "holds that Paisacha form is illegal even for a Sudra, and 
so this verse, of Manu III. 23, should be explained as including the Prajapatya rite 
also, viz.. u the same four beginning with Prajapatya are allowed for a Ksatriya, 
the same four excepting the Raksasa rite, for a Vaisya and Sudra." Thus according 
to N&riiyana, the words, "four last," of Manu III. 23, mean " the four last beginning 
with Prajapatya." Thus Paisacha is prohibited to all. 

Even among the six forms of marriages allowed to a Brahmana, and seven 
to a Ksatriya, Manu lays down a special rule (III. 24 et. seq.) :— (24) " The sages 
state that the first four are approved (in the case) of a Brahmana, one, 
(rite in the case) of a Ksatriya, and the Asura (marriage in that) of a Vaisya and 
of a Sudra. (25) " But in these (Institutes of the sacred law) three of the five (last) 
are declared to be lawful and two unlawful; the Paisacha and the Asura (rites) 
must never be used. (26) "For Ksatriyas those before-mentioned two rites, the 
Gandharva and the Raksasa, whether separate or mixed, are permitted by the 
sacred tradition." 

When it is impossible to get a girl in marriage by any other form, then the 
Paisacha rite may be adopted by Brahmanas and the rest. For says Manu " If 
by all means, a man cannot get a good girl, then that girl may be married by 
stealth in secrecy." 

2Vote :— This verse is not found in Manu as printed. But in Parasara Madhava 
it is attributed to Vatsa, or Samvarfca, according to some reading. See Vol. I. Part II. 
Page 86. B. S. S. Nirnaya Sindhu also reads " Vatsa.' 1 Tr. 

In the case of the Gandharva and other rites of marriage, in order to consti- 
tute the legal status of husband and wife, there must be performed the ceremonies 
of Homa and all the rest up to Sapta-padi. As in the Grihya Paris ista :— The four 
forms of marriages, Gandharva, Asura, Paisacha and Raksasa, though consummation 
may have taken place before, yet after it the Homa ceremony must be performed. 
If such Homa etc. ceremonies are not performed, then the girl so seduced or forcibly 
taken away etc. may be given away in marriage to another, according to the 
following text of Baudh&yana (iv. i. 15) and of Vasistha (XVII. 73) "If a damsel 
has been abducted by force, and not been wedded with sacred texts, she may 
lawfully be given to another man ; she is even like a maiden." 

Tl<e words "abducted by force" include the cases of fraud etc., also. For in 
the Smriti-arthasara, we find the following rule of penance before re-marriage 
" Fasting in the Asura abduction for three nights, so also in the Gandharva abduc- 
tion. In the Raksasa and Paisacha cases, she should perform Ch&ndrayana. 

Note by the Translator. — It is curious that Balambhatta, writing at the end 
of the 18th century, allows the remarriage of such girls. The ideas of his contem- 
poraries were against such marriages. Evidently Balambhatta would have also 
approved the ro-marriago of virgin widows, as allowed by Vasistha XVII. 74 : — "If 
a damsel at the death of her husband had been merely wedded by (the recitation 
of) sacred texts, and if the marriage had not been consummated, she may be married 
again." * 

* The Special Forms in various kinds of mixed Marriages. 

The author now describes the special ceremonies to be observed 
in marrying girls of the same or of different classes. 




LXLT. — In marrying a girl of the same class the 
hand should be taken, the Ksatriya girl should take 
hold of an arrow, the Vaisya should hold a goad, in the 
marriage with one of higher class. — 62. i 


In marrying a girl of one's own class, the hand should be 
taken, according to the rules of one's own Grihya Sutra. A 
Ksatriya girl should hold an arrow, a Vaisya girl should hold a goad 
in her marriage with persons of higher classes. A Sudra girl should 
take hold of the end of the skirt. As it has been said by Manu 
(ill. 44.) :— 

" A Stidra girl marrying one of higher class should take hold of the hem of 
tho (bridegroom's) garment." # 


Compare Manu III. 43 and 44 (43) " The ceremony of joining the hands is 
prescribed for (marriages with) women of equal caste (varna) ; know that the 
following rule (applies) to weddings with females of a different caste (varna).'' (44) 
" On marrying a man of a higher caste a Ksatriya bride must take hold of an arrow, 
a Vaisya bride of a goad, and a Sfldra female of the hem of the (bridegroom's) 
garment." » 

[Translator's Note :— In explanation of this verse, Balambhatta uses the maxim 
" *parercF spiral a reference to "the central ruby of a nose ring which casts a lustre on 
the pearl on each side of it," (See the Pandit of Benares for December, 1867 p. 155). 
several places of his gloss, Balambhatta has used this maxim. So he seems to be 
in very fond of it.] 

Persons entitled to give away a girl in Marriage. 

The author now explains the order of persons who can give a 
girl in marriage. 


LXIIL — Father, grandfather, brother, Sakulyas 
(kinsmen) and mother are respectively entitled to give a 
girl in marriage, provided the giver be in natural state. 
In the absence of the first, the second (is entitled) and 
so on. — 63, 

LXIV. — If they fail to give her away in marriage, 
they incur the sin of killing the embryo at every 
menstruation ; in the absence of persons who can give 
her away in marriage, the girl herself may elect , a 
proper bridegroom. — 64. 




Among, these (father etc.) in the absence of those mentioned 
first, those mentioned next are entitled to give away the girl. 
Provided " he, be in natural state " i.e., if he has no defects lite 
madness, etc. , , ,] 

If the person who is entitled to give, does not give her in 
marriage, " he incurs the sin of killing the embryo at every monthly 
course of the girl." This is to be understood in the case of the 
bridegroom possessed of the afore-mentioned qualifications being 

When there are no persons qualified to give, even the girl, 
herself even, may elect a " proper husband " — One whom she can 
legally marry and who possesses the qualifications mentioned before, 


The Sakulyas are of two sorts, those from the father's side and those from the 
mother's side. If they are absent from the father's side, then the Sakulyas of the 
mother's side should give away the girl- If no Sakulyas are available, then the 
14 mother " should give away the girl. 

The word, "tatha," in Yajnavalkya's verse 53, has the force of a copulative 

If a person, who has a right to give away a girl in marriage, does not exercise 
that right, he incurs sin. Of course, this is subject to reservation that a desirable 
husband is available.. If not, then the following rule of Manu (IX. 89) becomes 
applicable according to some: — "(But) the maiden, though marriageable, should 
rather stop in (the father's) house until death, than that he should ever give her to a 
man destitute of good qualities." This verse is to be found in Yama also. 

But the right opinion is that a girl must be married away, even to a disquali- 
fied person, when a proper bridegroom is not available, for otherwise, there is the 
sin of killing the foetus. As says Baudhayana (IV. 1. It): -"Let him give his 
daughter, while she still goes. naked, to a man who has not broken the vow of 
chastity and who possesses good qualities, or even to one destitute of good qualities ; 
let him not keep (the maiden) in (his house) after she has reached the age of 
puberty . ,l 

The phrase, " whilo she still goes naked," in the above verse of Baudhayana, 
moans " a girl of nine years of age," otherwise a girl technically called " Rohini.'* 
So also Manu (IX. 88) : — u To a distinguished, handsome suitor (of) equal (caste) 
should (a fathor) give his daughter in aocordanco with the proscribed rule, though 
sho havo not attained (the propor ago)." The words, u though she have not 


attained tho propor ago," mean " that a young girl, not yet reached tho age of 
puberty, should bo given away to none, but to a fully qualified husband. But a 
girl, who has attainod maturity, should be given to any husband available." This 
follows from roading tho two versos of Manu (IX. 88 and IX. 89) together. * But 
Yama has only tho verso corresponding to Mann's IX, 89 only. Ho has no vorse 
corresponding to Mann's IX. 88. Consequently, in tho opinion of Yama, it may be 
said, that a girl should novor be given away to unworthy person, though she might 



— J - • • - - _ - T* - - — W * 

liavo attained maturity. But this cannot bo tho right meaning of Yama. What ho 
moans is that when a qualified person is available, tho girl should never bo given 
away to an unworthy person. If tho text of Yama be not so interpreted, then the 
above text of Baudhayana (IV. 1-1 1) will find no scopo. 

Tho word, 4< tu, M in Yajilavalkya's verso C4, has the force of tho conjunction, 
f* but. ■ 

Tho phrase u who possesses the qualifications mentioned before," means 
*' qualifications like being of tho same caste, otc." If she cannot get a husband, 
possessing all good qualities, she can marry a husband destitute of these good 

In tho phrase " even tho girl, herself even, may elect," tho first " even " shows 
that tho girl without any regard for her negligent father etc. may elect a husband. 
The second " even *' shows that she herself without the help of king etc. may elect 
her husband. This, of course, applies, when she herself can find out a husband, 
good or bad. But she cannot do so at all by her own efforts, let her take the help 
of the king in searching out a husband for her. As says Narada {XII. 20 to 22) :— 
(20) " Let a maiden be given in marriage by her father himself, or by her brother 
with the father's authority, or by her paternal grandfather, or by her maternal 
uncle, or by her agnates, or cognates. (21) " In default of all these, by the mother, 
in case she is competent (to act as guardian) ; if she be wanting in competence, the 
distant connexions shall give a maiden in marriage. (22) If no such person be in 
existence, let the maiden have recourse to the king, and let her, with his 
permission, betake herself to a bridegroom of her own choice." 

» In the above text of Narada there is enumeration only of the persons entitled 
to give away the girl in marriage. It does not intend to teach the order in which 
they are so entitled. For, otherwise, it would clash with the text of Yajnavalkya, 
in which after father comes the grandfather, and then the brother. 

The Penalty for Breach of Promise of Marriage. 

Now is mentioned the punishment for taking back a girl 
already promised. 


LXV.— Once is a girl given in marriage, he who 
takes her back is to be punished like a thief. Even 
having given her, he. may take her back, if a better 
qualified suitor arrives.— 65. 


This is the rule of scriptures, that a girl is given once only. 
Therefore taking her back after giving her away is punishable like 

To this universal prohibition, the author adds an exception — 
" If a better suitor " — One more richly endowed with knowledge, 
powerful connections, &c, arrives, and the first is tainted with some 
heinous crime or is of bad conduct, then he (the father) may take 



back the girl though already given. This is to be understood to be 
the case, before the marriage ceremonies are completed by moving 
seven steps (sapta-padi). 


• • 

The punishment of a thief is that his head should be cut off. Narada (XII. 32) 
also is to the same effect :— a When a man, after having made a solemn promise of 
giving his daughter in marriage to a certain suitor, does not deliver her afterwards, 
he shall be punished by the king like a thief, in case the suitor be faultless/' It 
follows from the above that if the suitor has faults, the girl should not be given to 
him. So also Gautama (V. 23) 11 Though he may have promised it, he should not 
fulfill the promise, if the person, to whom the promise is made, is tainted with 

H Abhijana," powerful connection, viz., a Kulina, one of high birth. 
(Monier-Williams gives its English equivalents as " noble descent ; the head 
or ornament of a family.*' Tr.) 

If by such a breach of promise the girl cannot be married at the proper age, 
then the father does not incur the guilt of not giving her away in marriage at the 
proper time, that is to say, he does not incur the guilt of killing a fcetus. 

Of course, the breach of promise is censured by Manu also (IX. 99) : — "Neither 
ancients nor moderns who were good men have done such (a deed) that, after pro- 
mising (a daughter) to one man, they gave her to another." 

So also Manu (IX. 47) and Narada (XII. 28) " Once is the partition (of the 
inheritence) made, (once is) a maiden given in marriage, (and) once does (a man) 
say, 4 1 will give ; ' each of those three (acts is done) once only." These texts of 
Manu (and Narada) apply to cases, where the suitor is faultless. 

The marriage ceremony is not complete till the seventh step is not taken, 
as says Manu (VIII, 227) : — u The nuptial texts are a certain proof (that a maiden 
has been made a lawful) wife ; but the learned should know that they (and the 
marriage-ceremony) are complete with the seventh step (of the bride around the 
sacred fire)." Therefore the commentator, Vijnanesvara has added that this taking 
back of the girl is possible before the completion of the seven steps. Some texts 
of Mitaksara give the whole of the verse of Manu here. 

It follows, therefore, that after the marriage ceremony is completed with the 
seventh step of the bride, around the sacred fire, she cannot be taken aw r ay, even 
if it bo found that the bridegroom has fault. 

Horo Balambhatta quotes from Narada the following text which however is 
not found in Narada, and the reference to which in Gharpuro's edition of Balam- 
bhatta is wrong, JY. 

a Before the relationship of husband and wifo arises, there comes the ceremony 
of varana or betrothal. After tho ceremony of varana or betrothal comes the 
ceremony of P&ni-grahana, which is a soparato sacrament. Among those two 
(Varana and Pani-grahana) tho Varana is voidable, if somo fault is found in bride- 

To tho same effect is tho text of Yama : — " Neither by the libation of water, 



nor by speech (promiso of marriage, or recital of sacred mantras), does one bocomo 
tho husband of a girl, it is through tho sacrament of Pani-grahaua (holding of tho 
hand), completed at tho soventh stop, that ono becomes a husband." 

It follows, thoroforo, that if tho bridegroom dies before tho soventh step is 
completed, tho girl is not to bo considered as a widow. 

To tho same ofToct is Vasistha, which will bo mentioned in tho chapter on 

[Cf. also Narada XII. 08.— Tr.] 

The "penalty for concealing the Faults of the Bride, 6cc. 


LXVI. — One who gives away a girl without 
mentioning her defects, is to be punished with Uttama 
Sahasa, and he who abandons a wife, who is without 
blemish, is similarly punishable. Again one who 
falsely blames a girl is to be punished with one hun- 
dred (panas). — 66. 



He who, without revealing the blemishes which are discover- 
able by inspection, gives away a maiden, is punishable with Uttama 
Sahasa. The Uttama Sahasa will "be described later on (in verse 
366). f * 

He who, having promised to marry, abandons a girl who is 
faultless, is also punishable with Uttama Sahasa. 

He who, before marriage, " blames," through malice &c t , a 
girl with false " blemishes," such as being incurably diseased &c, is 
to be punished with " hundred " panas to be described hereafter (in 
verse 365). 


Compare Narada (XII. 36) where faults of a maiden are described :— «' Afflic- 
tion with a chronic or hateful disease, deformity, the loss of her virginity, a 

blemish, and attraction for another man : these are declared to be the faults of a 

If after the promise to marry, and even after one has accepted to marry her 
(with a libation of water and in the presence of Brahmauas), the faults of a maiden 
are discovered, he may abandon her, as says Manu (IX. 72; <* Though (a man) 
may havo accepted a damsel in due form, he may abandon (her if she be) blemished, 
diseased, or deflowered, and (if she have been) given with fraud." 

So also Narada (XII. 31) Let no man calumniate a faultless maiden, 
neither ono must calumniate a faultless suitor. When, however, there is an 
actual defect, it is no offence if they dissolve their mutual agreement." 


The Ananyapurva defined 

In verse 52 ante, it was declared that one should marry an 
Ananyapurva. The author now describes what is the nature of 
Ananyapurva, who is prohibited to be married. 


LXVII. — She, on whom the sacrament of marriage 
is again performed, is called a PunarbhuXagain sanc- 
tified), whether she be a virgin, or deflowered. She is 
called a Svairini, who abandoning a husband, takes pro- 
tection under a person of her own caste, through lust. — 


The ananyapurva is of two kinds — the Punarbhfi and the 
Svairini. The Punarbhfi is again of two kinds — deflowered (injured, 
ksata), and virgin (uninjured). Among these two the " deflowered " 
is one who, even before marriage, had the fault of having connection 
with another man. But the "uninjured " or " virgin " is one who i3 
affected with the disgrace of having passed through the ceremony of 
.marriage, (but whose marriage was never consummated). 

She who having abandoned * the husband of her youth ' (or a 
child husband) through lust, takes protection with a man of her own 
class, is a Svairini. 


r There are, in fact, three sentences in this verse. The first is the description 
of that Punarbhfi, "who is Ksat&, or deflowered. The second is the description of 
that Punarbhfl, who is a virgin, but is Samskpit£, i.e., has passed through the 
ceremony of marriage only, but whose marriage was never consummated. The 
third describes the Svairini. The word, " Punah," in this verse, has the force of 
the conjunction, "but." 

[Compare N&rada (XII. 45 et seq.), for seven kinds of Ananyapurvas. 

The word, " Kaumaram, ,, used by Yijuanesvara, in the above commentary, and 
translated as, '* the husband of her youth," in accordance with Mr. Jolly, would mean 
according to B&lambhatta, 44 a child husband," which is the reason for the wife 
abandoning him. Tr.] 

The Niyoga Ceremony. 

Thus marriage with " an ananyapurva " being prohibited in every 
way, the author now mentions a special rule* 


LXVIII. — The younger brother of the husband, a 
Sapinda or a Sagotra, being anointed with clarified 



butter, and with the permission of the Guru, may go to 
a sonless widow, when in season, with the desire of 
raising a son. — GS. 

LXIX. — Let him go till conception is produced, 
otherwise he will become fallen. The child born in 
this way is a Ksetraja son of his (the deceased). — 69. 


" Soilless " is one who has not got a son. " Being permitted " 
by the father or others " to raise a son," " the younger brother " 
of the husband, or " a Sapinda " which has already been defined, or a 
" Sagotra," may go to her. Among these on the failure of the first, 
the second may go. " Having anointed the body with clarified 
butter," he should go so long as conception is not produced and 
when she is in "'season," which will be described later on. " Other- 
wise " if he goes even after having produced conception, or in any 
other manner, u he becomes fallen. " " The son produced in this 
way is the Ksetraja son " of the deceased husband. The Acharya 
(Vi^varupa) says — " This relates to betrothed girls (losing their 
would-be husbands)" as it has been ordained by Manu (IX. 69): — 


%t If the (future) husband of a maiden after troth verbally plighted, 
her brother-in-law shall wed her according to the following rule." 

[ (Cf. Narada XII. 80. 81.) Tr. ] 


Instead of the reading in Mitaksara, " Ghritabhyakta-sarvfingah,'' another 
reading is, *' Sarva-g£tra. M The above verses lay down the order in which a person 
may approach a widow, who wishes to raise an issue to her deceased husbaricl. 

The word " Acharya," refers to " Visvarupacharya " (who was the teacher of 
Vijnanesvara). By referring to him, Vijnanesvara indicates by implication, that 
this is not his opinion. He differs from it. Because his opinion is expressed in the 
words " Purva parinetuh," in theHext of Mitaksara. The word, " Parinetri," shows 
that a betrothed husband is not meant, but a husband whose marriage was consum- 
mated. In fact the Ksetraja-sons like the Pa n da vas, were raised to wives, whose 
marriages had already been consummated. The text of Manu (IX. 69) does not 
refer to Niyoga at all. It means that when a virgin has lost her husband to whom 
she was betrothed, then she should be" married again, by giving her away in 
marriage to the younger brother of the deceased betrothed brother. In fact, the 
word, " Nija," in the above text of Manu, and so also the word, " Vindeta," meaning 
44 shall wed," refers to the wedding ceremony, and not to Niyoga. This will be 
futher cleared up in the chapter of inheritance. Among the three kinds of 
Ananyapurvas, this verse of Manu gives a special rule regarding the virgin Ananya- 
purva, and not regarding her re-marriage. 



Narada has described three sorts of Punarbhus, and four sorts of Svairinis 
in XII. 46-52 :— " A maiden not deflowered, but disgraced by the act of joining the 
bride and bridegroom's hands, is declared to be the first Punarbhu. She is required 
to have the marriage ceremony once more (when she is married for the second time)." 
" One who, after having left the husband of her youth and betaken herself to 
another man, returns into the house of her husband, is declared the second 
(Punarbhu). " " When a woman, on failure of brothers-in-law, is delivered by her 
relations to a Sapinda of the same caste, she is termed the third (Punarbhu). " 
<r When a woman, no matter whether she have children or not, goes to live with 
another man through love, her husband beiag alive, she is the first Svairini (wanton 
woman)." " When a woman, after the death of her husband, rejects her brothers-in- 
law or other (relations) who have come to her, and unites herself with a stranger 
through love, she is called the second (Svairini)." " One who, having come from a 
(foreign) country, or having been purchased with money, or being oppressed with 
anger or thirst, gives herself up to a man, saying, " I am thine/' — is declared to be 
the third (Svairini). " When a woman, after having been given in marriage by her 
spiritual guides, in a manner corresponding with the usages of her country, (is after- 
wards carried) to another by force, she is called the last Svarini." (Tr.) 

The Adulteress and her Treatment. 

The author now describes how unchaste women are to be 


LXX. — The unchaste wife should be deprived of 
authority, should be unadorned, allowed food barely 
sufficient to sustain her body, rebuked, and let sleep on 
low bed, and thus allowed to dwell. — TO. 


She who commits' adultery, " should be deprived of authority " 
i.e., the control over servants and the management of the house-hold 
&c., should be taken away. She should be kept " unadorned " i.e., 
without collyrium, ointments, white cloth or ornaments ; " with 
food enough to maintain her body " and sustain her life merely, and 
Cl rebuked " with censure &c, and " sleeping on low bed, " on the 
ground, and " allowed to dwell," only in his own house. This 
should be done in order to produce repentance, and not for purifi- 
cation ; for the rule of purification has been separately laid down 
(by Manu XL 177) : — " An exceedingly corrupt wife let her husband 
confine to one apartment, and compel her to perform the penance 
which is prescribed for males in cases of adultery. " 

[Note— Buhlor. u Adultory is an Upapataka according to Manu XI. 60, and 
to bo expiated, according to Manu XI. 1 18, by a Govrata or a Ch&ndrayana, which 
latter seems to bo hero intended. The commentators add that the penance must 
bo lighter or heavier, according to tho casto of the male offender." 2VJ 




So also says NArada (XII. 01) " When a married woman commits adultery, 
her hair shall bo shaved, she shall have to lie on alow couch, receive bad food and 
bad clothing, and the removal of the sweepings shall be assigned to her as her 
occupation." # 

This penance for women commiting adultery, applies to that case, whore she 
voluntarily Gommits adultery with a person of the same caste. If it is not volun- 
tary, then the penance is lighter, as will bo shown later on. 

Note.— Jolly's Narada, XII.— " Mitramisra in the Viramitrodaya, quotes this 
toxt as proving that an adulteress even has a claim to maintenance. He inter- 
prets it as follows When a woman has committed adultery through amorous desire, 
she shall bo shaved and compelled to lie on a couch, bad food and a bad dwelling 
shall bo given to her for her maintenance ; and the removal of rubbish shall be 
assigned to her as her occupation." 

Translator's note.— In the case of a woman persisting in adultery, the proper 
punishment is to abandon her, according to the opinion of MaDHAVA on 
PARASARA Prayasehitta-kanda II, Adhyaya X, verse 28. He quotes there the 
opinion of Chaturvimsati-mata, to the effect that a wife under no circumstance 
should be abandoned, unless she be guilty of a Mahapataka, like killing a Brah- 
raana and the rest. This according to MADHAVA applies to the cases, where a 
woman commits adultery only once and then repents. Even according to YaJNA- 
VALKYA I. 72, a wife should be renounced, if she gets conception through 

Compare VISNU LIIL 1, 2 and 8. The first two Sfltras lay down the penance 
for a male adulterer, and the last for the female : — " A woman who has committed 
adultery once, must perform that penance which has been prescribed for an 

Compare also VASISTIJA XXI. 8 :— " But if (a wife) has actually committed 
adultery, she shall wear during a year a garment smeared with clarified butter, . 


and sleep on a mat of Kusa grass, or in a pit filled with cowdung. After (the 
expiration of) the year, (the husband) shall offer eight hundred burnt-oblations, 
(reciting) the Savitri (and the Mantra called) Siras, while she is immersed in water. 
It is declared in the Veda that she becomes pure (thereby)." 

Women always Pure. 

Now the author propounds the following Arthavada (obiter 
dicta) to show that a penance for an adulteress is less hard. 


LXXI. — Soma gave them purification ; the Gan- 
dharva, sweet speech ; Agni, perfect purity ; therefore 
verily women are always pure. — 71. 


Before marriage, Soma, Gandharva and Agni having enjoyed 
women gave them respectively purification, sweet speech and per- 
fect purity. Therefore women are considered always to be " pure " 

clean in the matter of being touched, embraced, &c. 




As a general rule, a penance for a female is always half of that ordained for a 
male. But in this special case of an adultery the penance for the female is the 
same as that of male. It should, however, be somewhat less hard than that of male. 
Hence the appropriateness of the present verse. It should, however, not be 
concluded from the present verse, that the woman commits no sin by adultery. 
The sin of a female is as bad as that of a male. 

Translator's note.— In the Visnu Purana, Book III, Ch. 10, Pitzedward Hall's 
Edition, Vol. III. p. 103, there is the following note :— " An extract from the 
Jyotir~nibandha may be added, for its superstitious oddity : 

"A maiden should not be married within her sixth year: because Soma (The 
Moon ?) enjoys her for two years ; then, in like manner, a Gandharva and, similarly, 

Compare also Atri-samhita (Anandasrama Edition, 1905, verses 193 and 194) 

^sift m^mi q^i^r m i^f^ar ^fjf^; " n 

" A woman is not rendered guilty by her connection with her paramour, 
nor a Brahmana by his performance of non-Vedic rites, nor a (river) water, by urine 
and excreta ; nor fire, by burning impure articles. (194). Women were first enjoyed 
by the Celestials ; then, by the moon, the Qandharvas and the Fires. Afterwards 
came men to enjoy them. They are never affected by any sin." 

A Eule of Purification. 

To remove the doubt (that may arise from a general reading 
of the above to the effect) that they can have no fault, the author 
says ; — 


LXXIL— The purification from unchastity is at the 
season ; in case of conception her abandonment is or- 
dained. So also in case of causing abortion or killing a 
husband or committing a heinous crime, and the rest, 


The unholiness that arises from unrevealed mental chastity, 
t\e., from enjoying another man in imagination, is purified at the 
season," i.e., menstruation. When conception is produced by 
(adulterous intercourse) with a Sadra, she should . be abandoned, 



| As it has been said in Vasistha-smiiti (XXI. 12) :— " Tho wives of 
Brahmanas, Ksatriyas, and Vaislyas who commit adultery with a 
^ftdra may be purified by a penance in case no conception has taken 
place (from their adulterous intercourse), not otherwise. " 

So also in " causing abortion," in " killing the husband," and 
in " committing a heinous crime/' such as killing a Brahmana and 
in having adulterous intercourse with a pupil, &c, (this being 
implied by the use of the word " and the rest " in the text) she 
should be abandoned. As it has been ordained by VYASA (Vasistha 
i XXL 10.) "But these four wives must be abandoned, viz. y one who 
i yields herself to her husband's pupil, or to his Guru, and especially 
1 . one who attempts the life of her lord, and who commits adultery 
with a man of a degraded caste (Junghita)." The Junghitas (out- 
castes) are the descendants of Pratilomas, such as leather-tanners &c. 

The abandonment should be by not having any carnal con- 
nection with her, and by not allowing her to join in any religious 
ceremonies and does not mean that she should be driven out of the 
house, because of the rule " she should be kept confined to one 
apartment " (Manu XL 176 or 177). 

[ [Translator's note— See Vasistha XXI, 6 and 7 :— 

" If (a wife) has been mentally unfaithful to her husband, she shall live on 
barley or rice boiled in milk during three days, and sleep on the bare ground. 
After the three days (have expired), the (husband) shall offer eight hundred burnt- 
oblations, (reciting) the Savitrr(and the Mantra called) Siras, while she is immersed 
in water. It is declared in the Veda that she becomes pure (thereby). 

" If (a wife) has held an (improper) conversation (with another man), she must 
perform the same penance during a month. After (the expiration of) the month, 

L (the husband) shall offer four times eight hundred burnt-oblations, (reciting) the 

I Savitri (and the Mantra called) Siras, while she is immersed in water. It is 

I declared in the Veda that she becomes pure (thereby)." 

The meaning of the word u Aprajata " in the above verse of Vasistha is, " when 
no conception has taken place" (and it does not mean, " when no child is born," 
as has been done by Mr. Biihler in S. B. E. Vol. XIV p. 112). In case where a 
conception has taken place, the wife should be abandoned.] 

BaLAMBHATTA' gloss. 

In the case of revealed mental unfaithfulness, the rule of three days' fast &c, 
i as laid down in Vasistha (as given in the above note) should be observed. In case 
I of unrevealed mental unfaithfulness, there is no open penance, and so Vijnanesvara 
J says <{ unrevealed," i.c, not known to any second person (not even to her husband, 
| that she has been mentally unchaste). This mental unchastity consists in thinking 
to have intercourse with another person. Therefore Vijnanesvara uses the milder 
term, " unholiness," and not the harsher term, " sin." 

The wives may bo abandoned in the four cases mentioned by VYaSA, also 
I in some other cases mentioned by Vasistha. 



So also Devala and Narada (XII. 90-94) ;— " When husband and wife leave one 
another, from mutual dislike, it is a sin, except when a woman, who is kept under 
supervision, commits adultery. " When a married woman commits adultery, her 
hair shall be shaved, she shall have to lie on a low couch, receive bad food and bad 
clothing, and the removal of the sweepings shall be assigned to her as her occupa- 
tion. One who wastes the entire property of her husband under the pretence that 
it is (her own) Stri-dhana, or who procures abortion, or who makes an attempt on 
her husband's life, he shall banish from the town. One who always shows malice 
to him, or who makes unkind speeches, or eats before her husband, he shall 
quickly expel her from his house. " Let not a husband show love to a barren 
woman, or to one who gives birth to female children only, or whose conduct is 
blamable, or who constantly contradicts him ; if he does (have conjugal intercourse 
with her), he becomes liable to censure (himself)/' 

So also Yama : — a A wife who does not approach her husband in season, and 
thus kills the embryo, should be exiled, after proclaiming her through the village. 
She who owing to hating her husband does not approach him in season must be 
proclaimed to the kinsmen, and exiled since she is a killer of the foetus." 

So also Baudhayana : — "Wise men quickly abandon that wife who is ill- 
tongued, undutiful, barren or unchaste, and hating her husband. A wife, who does 
not give birth to a child, should be renounced in her tenth year of marriage, and 
in her twelfth year, if she gives birth to female children only, and in her fifteenth 
year, if she gives birth to dead children only, but a wife must be renounced at 
once, if she is unpleasant-speeched." 

So also Harita 41 Let him abandon the wife who kills the embryo, or commits 
adultery with a person of low caste, or with a pupil, or with one related to her as 
a son, or who is addicted to drink and other vices, or who wastes wealth and pro- 

So also Yama :— " The abandonment of that wife is enjoined, who is inde- 
pendent in her movement. A woman should never be killed, nor deformed by 
mutiliation. Manu-Vaivasvata has enjoined the renouncement of the wife, who 
is independent and adulterous. He has also ordained that a woman should never 
bo killed, nor deformed." 

Vijn&nesvara, in explaining the word " Jungita," has said above as illustration, 
u tanners and the rest." The words, " and the rest, 1 ' include " washermen, dancers, 
buruda, Kaivarta, Meda andBhillas, who are all antyajas," according to the following 
verse : — 

" Rajakas-charmakara£-cha n&to buruda eva cha. 
Kaivarta-meda-bhillas-cha saptaite cha antyajah smfit&h." 

The Adhivedana or the Ta king of a Second Wife. 

The author now 'describes the reason (hetu), for which a man 
may take a ^econd wife. 


LXXIII — The liquor-drinker, the diseased, the cun- 
ning, the barren, the killer of wealth, the unpleasant- 
spoken, who bears female children should be superseded, 
so also (one) who hates people. — 73. 




One who drinks intoxicating liquors is a "surapi or liquor- 
drinker/' oven though she bo a Sfidra woman (liquor being permitted 
to the £(ld rfis). This is so, because of this general prohibition 
(Vasistha XXM5), " Half the body of the husband falls, if his wife 
drinks spirituous liquors." 

" Diseased " one afflicted with a chronic disease. " Cunning " 
deceitful, ' speaking in contradictions. 1 " Barren " who is fruitless. 
" Killer of wealth " who destroys or squanders away wealth. 
" Unpleasant-spoken" who speaks harshly and roughly. " The bearer 
of female children" who gives birth to female children (only). " Who 
hates people " who always does something injurious (to her husband's 
people, such as, her father-in-law &c. who hates her husband's 
people). The phrase "should be superseded " applies to every one 
of the above. " Adhivedana or supersession " means taking another 


The word is "hetum," in the singular, with the force of the collective noun, 
and not " hetum " in the plural, as in the printed texts. 

The word, " Surapi," is formed by a special Vartika, given under Panini 
III. 2. 8 : — " The affix comes after the verb pd when it means 1 to drink,' and 
only when it is in composition with the words surd and sidhu as its object." This 
is an important modification of the general Sfitra. Thus Surdpah, feminine Surdpt 
* wine bibber;* Sidhupah, fern, ttidhuph u spirit-drinker," (See my Astadhyayi, 
p. 410). Tr. 

Wealth not being an animate object, the word 4< kill " is inappropriate regard- 
ing it. So VIJNaNESVARA explains it by saying " destroyer." 

The phrase u who hates people," means " who hates all her husband's people, 
Buch as her husband's father and the rest." 

The word, " Tatha," in the text of Yajnavalkya, has a disjunctive force here, 
and means " a wife who has any one of the evil habits mentioned in the verse." 

Polygamy, however, is not very desirable, as it leads to constant frictions, as 
mentioned by DAKS A (IV. 7.)*: 

Compare MANU (IX. 77-82) :— 

(77) " For one year let a husband bear with a wife who hates him ; but after 
(the lapse of) a year let him deprive her of her property and cease to cohabit with 
her. (78) She who shows disrespect to (a husband) who is addicted to (some evil) 

* In the printed edition of the Anandasrama, the reading is '^'.^f^rai ^mq- 
f*«£ ftsrqw?^ » The reading in one Ms. quoted in a footnote in the above-mentioned 
edition is 3:^9^ g^T fiawr fen^ etc. Tr. 



passion, is a drunkard, or diseased, shall be deserted for three months (and be) 
deprived of her ornaments and furniture. (79) But she who shows aversion towards 
a mad or outcast (husband), a eunuch, one destitute of manly strength, or one afflict- 
ed with such diseases as punish crimes, shall neither be cast off nor be deprived o£ 
Iier property. (80) She who drinks spirituous liquor, is of bad conduct, rebellions, 
diseased, mischievous, or wasteful, may at any time be superseded (by another 
wife). (81) A barren wife maybe superseded in the eighth year, she whose children 
(all) die in the tenth, she who bears only daughters in the eleventh, but she who is 
quarrelsome without delay. (82) Bat a sick wife who is kind (to her husband) and 
virtuous in her conduct, may be superseded (only) with her own consent and must 
never be disgraced.* 9 


LXXIV. — The superseded should be maintained, 
otherwise great sin is caused. When the husband and 
wife live in harmony, the three vargds prosper there. 
— 74. 


Moreover " the superseded " wife " should be maintained " even 
as heretofore, with gifts, honour and good treatment. u Otherwise " 
by not maintaining her, he incurs " great sin" and is liable also to 
punishment, to be described later on. By giving maintenance there 
is not merely freedom from sin (but ^attainment of positive good). 
Because " where the husband and wife have harmony " or unity of 
heart, " there the three vargas," religion, wealth and pleasure, 
" increase " day by day. 

The glory of a dutiful wife. 
The author now addresses women. 


LXXV. — She who does not go to another, whether 
her husband be alive or dead, obtains glory here and be- 
comes happy with Uma.— -75. 

She who through inconstancy " does not approach another per- 
son," " whether her husband be living or dead, obtains " immense 
" glory here " in this world, and by the power of her holiness " she 
plays with (the goddess) Uma " hereafter. 

Supersession witliout good cause. 

The author now addresses himself to the case of the person 
who supersedes (his wife) without any (valid) cause for supersession. 



LXXVI. — Ho, Avho abandons an obedient and skil- 
ful, son-bearing and pleasant speaking wife should be 
made to give one-tliird of his property to her. If he 
has no property, he should maintain her. — 76. 


" Obedient " performing one's commands. " Skilful," quick in 
action. u Son-bearing " having sons. " Pleasant-speaking " sweet 
speaking. "He who abandons " supersedes such a wife should be 
forced by the king to give one- third of his property to her. If he be 
poor, he should be compelled to give maintenance, food and clothing. 


The text of Yajnavalkya has the word, " Daksam," which comes from the root, 
"Daks," " to move quickly." Hence VIJNANESVARA explains it by saying, " quick 
in performing her household works," Similarly, the word, " Virasu," in the text, 
literally means, " the begetter of heroes." It must not, however, betaken in its 
literal sense, but it means, " begetter of male children." 

One who supersedes such a wife, should be punished by the king. 

The supersession is of two sorts, one legal, as for getting a male child. In such 
a case, he can only supersede his wife, if she be a liquor-drinker &c, as mentioned 
above. The second case of supersession is, when one takes a second wife, out of 
mere lust. In this case he must give the superseded wife one-third of his property, 
and should please her in every way. In other words, he should divide all his property 
into three equal parts. One he should keep himself, the other he should give to his 
superseded wife, and the third to the wife he is going to marry. 

Compare N ARAB A (XII. 95):— " If a man leaves a wife who is obedient, pleasant- 
spoken, skilful, virtuous, and the mother of (male) issue, the king shall make him 
mindful of his duty by (inflicting) severe punishment (on him)." 

To the same effect is DEVALA who says, " a person who leaves a blameless 
wife, should be punished as a thief." 

The Duties of a Wife. 
The author now propounds the duties of a wife. 



LXXVII. — Wives should act according to the word 
(direction) of their husbands, this is the highest duty 
of wives. But if the husband be guilty of a heinous 
sin, she should wait till he be again purified. — 77. 


Wives should always act according to the word (direction) of 
their husbands ; because this is the best duty of women, since by 



this women attain heaven. When he is guilty of a great sin, she 
should wait till his purification, she should not be under his control 
(while he is impure) but after that time (when he becomes pure) she 
comes under his control as before. 


[Here Balambhatta enters into a long discourse on the household duties of 
women. He has collected them from various sources, the names of which he does 
not mention.] 

The wife should rise early in the morning and plaster the rooms with cow-dung 
daily, for thereby the gods and the Fathers and the divine Mothers are pleased. 
Then, having washed and performed her ablutions, she should worship the main 
door of the house, for thereby she obtains all her desires. She should worship daily 
the household deities, and offer morning arghya daily to the sun. She should offer 
Naivedya and perform Balikarma with flowers &c, according to her means. She 
should offer daily Bali to Jyestha, and worship the sacred fig-tree with flowers, scents, 
and rice, for the goddess Bhavani dwells there. The husband and wife should leave 
the bed before sun-rise, in the sacred hour called a Brahma-muhfirta," That house 
is unholy and like a burning ground, abandoned by the ancestors, where the married 
couple are found sleeping after the sunrise. 

No doubt, Manu has said that the wife goes to hell, if she performs the worship 
of Devatas, reciting of prayers, performing of austerities &c. That however applies 
to the case of a wife, who takes to religious life to the detriment of serving her 

The women should use the mantra, " Namah," in place of all mantras, and so 
also the Sudras. As says GAUTAMA (X, 64) : — u If permission has been given to 
him, he may use the exclamation namah (adoration) as his mantra.*' No doubt, this 
is enunciated primarily for the SQdras, but a woman is like a S6dra so far as her 
religious duties (Dharma) go. 

Neither Stidras nor women are entitled to recite the mantras given in the 
Puranas. They can hear the Puranas, when recited by a Brahmana. 

Women and Sudras can worship V1SNU according to Tantrik method, they can 
worship Salagram also, but they should not touch it. 

Thus women (and Sudras) have a right to perform all religious observances with 
the above restrictions. Thus they can perform Ananta-vrata and other rites of the 
same kind. The women of the twice-born class, after reciting the Sam kal pa-mantra 
themselves, should have the rest of the Puja performed by their sons &c. If «fchey 
have no sons, they should get it done by the Brahmanas. This is the rule for 
Sudras also. 

Women and Sudras and persons, not having the sacred thread, may worship 
Siva, made of clay, directly themselves, by using the mantra, " Namah." 

Then balambhatta gives a long quotation from MANU (IX. 1-30, III. 50 59 4 
IX. 74, 95, 96, 97, 85, 86, 87, III. CO, 61, 62, IX. 101, 102, V. 147-150, 153-155 and so on). 


(IX). 1. u I will now propound the eternal laws for a husband and his wife 
who keeps to the path of duty, whether they bo united or soparated. 2, Day and 
night women must be kept in depondonco by tho males (of) their (families), and, if 
they attach themselves to sensual enjoyments, they must be kept under one's 
control, 3. Her father protects (her) in childhood, her husband protects (her) in 


youth, and hor sons protect (her) in old ago; a woman is novor fit for independence. 
4. Roprehonsiblo is tho father who gives not (his daughter in marriage) at the 
proper time ; roprehonsiblo is tho husband who approaches not (his wife in due 
season), and roprohcnsiblo is tho son who does not protect his mother after hor 
husband has died. 5. Women must particularly bo guardod against evil inclinations, 
howovor trilling (thoy may appoar) ; for, if they aro not guardod, they will bring 
sorrow on two families. 6. Considering that tho highest duty of all castes, even 
tho weak husbands (must) strivo to guard thoir wives. 7. He who carefully guards 
his wife, preserves (tho purity of) his offspring, virtuous conduct, his family f 
himsolf, and his (mean of acquiring) merit, 8. Tho husband, aftor conception by his 
wife, becomes an embryo and is again born of her, for that is tho wife-hood of a 
I wifo (jaya), that he is born (jayatc) again by her. 9. As tho male is to whom a wife 
cleaves, oven so is the son whom she brings forth; let him therefore carefully guard 
I his wifo, in order to keep his offspring pure, 10. No man can completely guard 
[ women by force ; but they can be guarded by the employment of the (following) 
[ expedients: 11. Let the (husband) employ his (wife) in the collection and expen- 
diture of his wealth, in keeping (everything) clean, in (the fulfilment of) religious 
duties, in the preparation of his food, and in looking after thelhousehold utensils. 
| 12. Women, confined in the house under trustworthy and obedient servants, are not 
(well) guarded; but those who of their own accord keep guard over themselves, are 
i well guarded. 13. Drinking (spirituous liquor), associating with wicked people, 
P separation from her husband, rambling abroad, sleeping (at unseasonable hours), 
I and dwelling in other men's houses, are the six causes of the ruin of women. 

14. Women do not care for beauty, nor is their attention fixed on age ; (thinking), 
[ '(It is enough that) he is a man,' they give themselves to the handsome and to the 
ugly. 15. Through their passion for men, through their mutable temper, through 
I their natural heartlessness, they become disloyal towards their husbands, however 
I carefully they may be guarded in this (world). 16. Knowing their disposition, 
I which the Lord of creatures laid in them at the creation, to be such, (every) man 
should most strenuously exert himself to guard them. 17. (When creating them) 
| Manu allotted to women (a love of their) bed, (of their) seat and (of) ornament, 
I, impure desires, wrath, dishonesty, malice, and bad conduct. 18. For women no 
p (sacramental) rite (is performed) with sacred texts, thus the law is settled ; women 
(who are) destitute of strength and destitute of (the knowledge of) Vedic texts, 
(are as impure as) falsehood (itself), that is a fixed rule. 19. And to this effect 
many sacred texts are sung also in the Vedas, in order to (make) fully known the 
true disposition (of women) ; hear (now those texts which refer to) the expiration 
of their (sins). 20. 'If my mother, going astray and unfaithful,^conceived illicit 
desires, may my father keep that seed from me/ that is the scriptural text. 21, If 
a woman thinks in her heart anything that would pain her husband, the (above- 
■ mentioned text) is declared (to be a means for) completely removing such infidelity. 

22. Whatever be the qualities of the man with whom a woman is united according 
I to the law, such qualities even she assumes, like a river (united) with the ocean. 
J 23. Aksamala, a woman of the lowest birth, being united to Vasistha and Sfirangi, 
J (being united) to Mandapala, became worthy of honour. 24. These and other females 
I of low birth have attained eminence in this world by the respective good qualities 
| of their husbands. 25. Thus has been declared the ever pure popular usage (which 
i regulates the relations) between husband and wife; hear (next) the laws concerning 
i children which are the cause of happiness in this world and after death. 26. Between 
I wives (striyah) who (are destined) to bear children, who secure many blessings, who 



are worthy of worship and irradiate (their) dwellings, and between the goddesses* 
of fortune (sriyah who reside) in the houses (of men), there is no difference what- 
soever. 27. The production of children, the nurture of those born, and the 
daily life of men, (of these matters) woman is visibly the cause. 28. Offspring, 
the (due performance of) religious rites, faithful service, highest conjugal happiness 
and heavenly bliss for the ancestors and oneself, depend on one's wife alone. 
29. She who, controlling her thoughts, speech and acts, violates not her duty 
towards her lord, dwells with him (after death) in heaven, and in this world is 
called by the virtuous a faithful (wife, sadhvi). 30. But for disloyalty to her 
husband a wife is censured among men, and (in her next life) she is born in the 
womb of a jackal and tormented by diseases, the punishment of her sin." 

(III). 56. 14 Where women are honoured, there the gods are pleased ; but 
where they are not honoured, no sacred rite yields rewards. 57. Where the female 
relations live in grief, the family soon wholly perishes ; but that family where they 
are not unhappy ever prospers. 58. The houses on which female relations, not being 
duly honoured, pronounce a curse, perish completely, as if destroyed by magic. 59. 
Hence men who seek (their own) welfare, should always honour women on holidays 
and festivals with (gifts of) ornaments, clothes, and (dainty) food." 

(IX). 74. "A man who has business (abroad) may depart after securing a 
maintenance for his wife ; for a wife, even though virtuous, may be corrupted if she 
be distressed by want of subsistence." 

94. ' " A man, aged thirty years, shall marry a maiden of twelve who please him, 
or a man of twenty-four, a girl eight years of age ; if (the performance of) his 
duties would (otherwise) be impeded, (he must marry) sooner. 95. The husband 
receives his wife from the gods, (he does not wed her) according to his own will ; 
doing what is agreeable to the gods he must always support her (while she is) 
faithful. 96. To be mothers were women created, and to be fathers men ; religious 

rites, therefore, are ordained in the Veda to be performed (by the husband) 
together with the wife. 

85. If twice-born men wed women of their own and of other (lower castes), 
the seniority, honour, and habitation of those (wives) must be (settled) according 
to the order of the castes (varna). 86, Among all (twice-born men) the wife of equal 
caste alone, not a wife of a different caste by any means, shall personally attend 
her husband and assist him in his daily sacred rites. 87. But he who foolishly 
causes that (duty) to be performed by another, while his wife of equal caste is 
alive, is declared by the ancients (to be) as (despicable) as a Chandala (sprung 
from the) Brahmana (caste).' 1 

(III). 60. " In that family, where the husband is pleased with his wife and 
the wifo with her husband, happiness will assuredly be lasting. 61. For if the wife 
is not radiant with beauty, she will not attract her husband ; if she has no attrac- 
tions for him, rio childron will be born. 62. If the wife is radiant with beauty, the 
whole house is bright ; if she is destitute of beauty, all will appear dismal." 

(IX). 101. " Let mutual fidelity continue until death/ this may be considered 
as the summary cf tho highest law for husband and wife. 102. Let man and woman, 
united in marriage, constantly exert themselves, that (they may not be) disunited 
(and) may not violato their mutual fidelity." 

(V). 147. " By a girl, by a young woman, or oven by an aged one, nothing must 
be done independently, even in her own house. 148. In childhood a female must be 
subject to her father, in youth to her husband, when her lord is dead to her sins ; 
a woman must never bo indepoudent. 149. She must not seek to separate herself 


from hor father, husband, or sons ; by leaving them she would raako them both (her 
own and hor husband's) families contemptible. 150. She must always bo cheerful, 
clover in (the management of hor) household affairs, careful in cleansing her 
utonsils, and economical in expenditure. 153. The husband who wedded her with 
sacred texts, always gives happiness to his wife, both in season and out of season, 
in this world and in the next. 151. Though destitute of virtue, or seeking pleasure 
(elsewhere), or devoid of good qualities, (yet) a husband must bo constantly 
worshipped as a good by a faithful wife. 155. No sacrifice, no vow, no fast must 
bo performed by women apart (from their husband) ; if a wife obeys her husband, 
she will for that (reason alone) bo exalted in heaven." (V. 151). "Him to whom 
hor father may give hor, or her brother with the father's permission, she shall obey 
as long as ho lives, and when ho is dead, she must not insult (his memory). 156. A 
faithful wife, who desires to dwell (after death) with her husband, must never do 
anything that might displease him who took her hand, whether he be alive or 
deacL(?) She who throughout hor life remains faithful to her husband, attains the 
world of her husband, after her death as did Arundhati. 166. In reward of 
such conduct, a female who controls her thoughts, speech, and actions, gains in 
this (life) highest renown, and in the next (world) a place near her husband." 

[The word, " Patiloka," in this last verse, translated as "in the next (world) a 
place near her husband," means " the world attained by the husband through the 
performances of sacrifices &c. along with his wife."] Tr. 

Vasistha (XXL 14) :— " Faithful wives who are constantly pure and truthful 
(reside after death) in the same abodes with their husbands ; those who are unfaithful 
are born as jackals." 

So also Harita u We will now propound the conduct enjoined to married 
women. The wife is the home : a man should not consider his home a habitation un- 
graced by a wife ; therefore is she another home. Thoroughly cleaning the house, 
let her move impurities falling in a well-cleansed and dignified habitation, and lay up 
what is loose ; let her shun discourse with other men besides her husband, and the 
company of a pretended mendicant ; let her not frequent strange houses, plains 
or groves, or convents of mendicants ; let her not loiter on the road to the public 
well, nor walk by twilight ; let her not think of using the bed, the seat, the clothes, 
or the jewels of others, without restoring them to the state of purity, nor eat in 
the same vessel with another, nor drink spirituous liquors, nor eat flesh-meat, nor 
orts, nor refuse, unless from her spiritual parents, her husband, or her son ; let her 
be void of desire for other men besides her husband, let her shun vain expenses, 
and avoid petulant contradiction, sloth, gloominess, emulation of other families 
and the like. Soiled with orts, she must not repair to the temples of the deities, 
or to the house of him to whom her affections are due ; without counsel, or before 
she has supplied the sacrificial fire, she must not decorate her person nor touch with 
unwashed hands the goblet, the sieve, or the vessels of the dairy ; she must wash, 
and repose it in a secure place, the caldron, its lid, the ladle, and other utensils. 
On the morrow, again washing them, let her use them in the preparation of food ; 
by her husband's direction she may touch the vessels employed for the milk, 
whence oblations are supplied : having washed, wiped and placed the metallic 
vessels, having swept and wiped the house and so forth, let her perform the offices 
committed to her at the approach of the time for oblations to the assembled gods, 
bathing according to the motive, for ablutions : clothing herself with two white 
garments, having washed her hands and feet, having spit and having sipped water, 
let her enter the temple and pay her adorations ) and let her place fire in tho 



kitchen, provide sacrificial fuel, Kusa grass, flowers, oblations, and vessels used in 
propitiatory rites, and anoint with clarified butter the food and the like intended 
for use, in the same manner with that intended for ofierings ; and let her perform 
any other daily business. When all this has been done, and the fire has been 
supplied in honour of deities, let her bring the oblations for the wives of gods. 
When the offerings to deities, and the hospitable attentions to guests, have been 
performed, according to the means of the householder, and after satisfying his 
pupils and friends and her husband himself, the wife, with his permission, may eat 
the residue in private : and having rinsed her mouth with water kept for her own 
use, and washed and cleansed the vessels employed, she must lay out a part of the 
residue in a spot situated within the close, and equally distant from the north and 
east regions, saying, " Salutation to Rudra, the lord of cattle" this is a fixed rule. 
In the evening the same offices should be repeated, which are directed for each 
successive morning. As for what remains to be done after these offices, let her make 
a wall of ashes at the door, saying, "Salutation to the adorable Rudra marked with 
ashes I I make a fence of ashes ;" and let her^touch therewith her lord, her son and 
the rest, herself, and anything which should be guarded. She must not enter her 
bed with unwashed feet, nor naked, nor soiled with orts, nor disrespectfully, nor 
without saluting her husband's feet ; nor rise exposed to view, nor later than the 
rising of the sun; nor without a vessel of water. Bhe must regularly clean the 
house ; she must be circumspect, careful for the best, serene, full of good wishes ; 
she must speak affectionate to her husband ; she must not sit while he stands ; nor 
sit above him, nor in a questionable place ; nor gaze at him continually : she must 
wash his feet, press his limbs with her hands, attend him with a fan when he feels 
heat, and wipe from his limbs perspiration excited by the sultriness of summer. 
She must relieve him, when his head shakes through pain, and meet him in the 
yard when he returns fatigued with a load from another town. Entertaining no evil 
thoughts, let her do him honour with rice, grass and water presented in an argha ; 
and, under his directions, practise austerities, execute the business of the deities, 
and perform ablutions.", Colebrooke's Digest, Book III. Ch. II. Sect. 1, P. 141, 

Devala w Dependence, attendance on her husband, aid in his religious 
ceremonies, respectful behaviour to those who are entitled to veneration from him, 
hatred to those who bear enmity to him, no ill will towards him, constant 
complacency, attention to his business, are the duties of women." 

Visnu " Accompanying of her husband, reverence to his father, of spiritual 
parents, of deities and guests, groat cleanliness in regard to the domestic furniture, 
and care of tho household vessels ; avoiding the use of philters and charms, 
attention to auspicious customs, austerities after the death of her husband, no 
frequenting of strange houses, no standing at tho door or window, dependence 
in all affairs, subjection to her father, husband, and son, in childhood, youth, 
and age : such are tho duties of a woman." (Colebrooke's Digest, Bk. III. Ch. 2, 
Sec. I, XCII). 

Speech of the goddess of abundanco (Lakfimi) to the goddess of the Earth, 
VISNU (0X1X. 21 and 22) 44 With women over pure and adorned, faithful to their 
lords, speaking kindly, not lavish, blessed <with progeny, careful of the household 
goods, attentive to religious worship ; whoso houses are neat, whose senses are 
subdued, who avoid strife, who are not avaricious, who respect their duty, who 
are endued with tenderness, 1 am over present, O thou supporter of tho worlds." 



Risyas'riuga Lot hor attend to the business of the house, and heed her 
ornaments ; after tho daily bath, let hor adorn her locks with flowers and with 
dress ; Privately lot her retire early from tho couch of hor lord, that no other man 
may porcoivo her withdrawing ; let hor pay adoration to tho deities, and supply 
oblations with fragrant mixtures and blossoms." 

Vyasa :— " Sitting at tho door, continually looking out from the windows, 
conversing with despicable persons, and laughing unseasonably, are faults which 
bring infamy on the women of a family." 

Kfityayana in the Chhandoga Parisista : — "To what hell goes not a woman who 
neglects her lord through delusion of mind ? With difliculty again attaining human 
life, what pain suffers she not ?*' 

Gautama (XVIII. 1-3) : — * A wife is not independent with respect to (tho 
fulfilmont of) the sacred law. (2) Let her not violate her duty towards her husband. 
(3) Let her restrain her tongue, eyes, and (organs of) action." 

Then Balambhatta gives an extract of some forty-eight verses, from Skanda- 
Purana, (KavSi-khanda, IV Adhyaya), from the address of Brihaspati to Agastya, a 
summary of which is given below : — " Thou art fortunate, O Agastya, in having 
such a wife as Lopamudra. Arundhati, Savitri, Anasuya, feandilya, Sati, Laksnii, 
Sata-rupa, Menaka, Suniti, Sam jna and Svaha are verily types of good wives. But 
all are agreed that Lopamudra is the best among them. O Sage, she takes her food, 
after you have eaten, she sits down after you have sat down, she goes to sleep 
after you have gone to sleep, and rises from bed before you rise. She never appears 
before you without being well-adorned, but when you are away from home, she puts 
away all her ornaments. She never utters your name, always wishing you long 
life. Of course, she never utters the name of any other person. She never gets 
angry, even when you are angry with her. She always puts smiling face, even 
when reproved. When ordered u Do this," she replies " Lord, consider that it has 
already been done." When called, she quickly comes to you, leaving aside all 
household works, and says, " Lord, why have you called me, please favour me with 
your commands." She does not remain for a long time at the household door, nor 
sleeps there, nor does she give anything to anybody without your permission, and 
without your asking her, she gets ready all your Puja things. She eats the 

remnants of your food and never takes her meals, without first worshipping the 


Devatas, the Pitris, and giving food to the guests, servants, cow and beggars. She 
keeps all household utensils and ornaments neat and clean, and she is dexterous 
and thrifty. She never keeps any fasts, nor observe any vows without your per- 
mission. She never goes to big assemblages and festivities. She does not go on 
pilgrimages, or to marriage parties. When you are engaged in some business, or 
taking rest, she never disturbs you, though some urgent business may call you. 
When you are away from home, she always meditates on you, and leaves aside all 
ornaments. She never makes friendship with Buddhistic nuns (Sramana) &c. She 
never retails gossip, nor talks in a loud voice before her elders/ 7 

So also Manu (V. 160) :— V A virtuous wife who after the death of her husband 

constantly remains chaste, reaches heaven, though she has no son, just like those 
chaste men." 

Then Balambhatta quotes other passages from Mahabharata, the Bhavisya 
Purana, flemadri &c. 

In Praise of ^dstriya Marriage. 

The author now describes the fruit of taking wife according to 



LXXVIII. — Because continuity (of family) in this 
world, and getting of heaven in the next, are through 
sons, grandsons and great-grandsons ; therefore women 
ought to be attended to and should be guarded care- 
fully.— 78. 


" Continuity in this world," non-extinction of family line (and 
attainment of heaven) are the objects of taking a wife. How are 
these objects attained? To this the author replies " through sons, 
&c." Through them the continuity of line is secured ; and through 
fire-sacrifices &c, heaven is obtained. Such is the construction of 
the passage. 

Because through women these two objects are "achieved, there- 
fore women should be attended to " or enjoyed for the sake of getting 
progeny "and should be guarded " for the sake of securing religious 

So also Apastamba (II. 5. 11. 12.) has declared that the object 
of marriage is to secure Dharma (religion) and progeny. " He should 
go to his wife and not another woman, for the sake of religion and 
progeny." From this text it also follows that the satisfaction of sen- 
sual appetite is a worldly object only. 


The word, " sastriya," means, " for the sake of getting a son and for fulfilling 
religious duties." (A wife is helpful in acquiring Dharma by assisting him in 
Srauta, Garhya and Smarta sacrifices. She is helpful to him in continuing the 
line by procreating son). 

The word " Lok&nantyam "... is a locative compound, and should be analysed 
as "Loke anantam." meaning " endlessness or continuity in (this) world.'' (This is 
the reading suggested by Balambhatta, in the Mitaksara, which should read, 
M Loka anantyam.") 

Ho furthor suggests that the reading of Mitaksara should be : — % 

Of course the Word " lokanantyam tf may bo taken as a gonetive compound 
also, and may mean " the infinity of heaven worlds." But then it would not bring 
out the twofold objects of marriage, z/ts., the continuity of one's lino in this world, 
and the getting of heaven in the noxt. Hence tho above reading suggested appears 

The reading of APASTAMBA, however, is this • 



and ifc has boon thus translated in S.B.E. Vol. II. p. 125:— "If ho has a wife who 
(is willing and ablo) to porform (hor sharo of) tho religious duties and who bears 
sons, ho shall not tako a second." 

Our translation is, howovor, according to tho sonso of VIJNaNESVARA. (Tr.) 

The Season. 

Having declared that wives should be enjoyed for the sake of 
getting sons, the author now mentions a special rule regarding this. 


LXXIX. — Sixteen nights are the " Season " of 
women. Among these lie should approach them during 
the even nights. Let him avoid the Parvana nights, &c. 
and the first four nights. By so doing he would be 
even a Brahmachari. — 79. 


That period of women, indicative of the state in which they 
are capable of getting conception, is called " Season." And that 
period is " sixteen days and nights/' counting from the first day of 

In "such" a season, and during " even" i.e., equal (and not 
odd) nights, " he should approach " or go to his wife for the sake of 
begetting a son. By specifying "night" day-time has been excluded. 

" Even nights," being in the plural number, indicates totality 
taken separately as well as collectively. So that in one season he 
may go in all even nights which have not been (otherwise) prohibi- 

By so doing he is even " like a Brahmachari." Therefore, when 
Brahmacharya (abstention from women) is ordained in Sraddha, &c. 
thefi by going as above, he is not guilty of transgressing the rule of 

Moreover " he should avoid the Parvana nights &e. and the 
first four nights." By using the plural form in the text, and by em- 
ploying the word " etc.," the eighth and fourteenth days of the moon 
are also included among prohibited days. As it has been said by 
MANU (chap. IV. 128) :— " A twice-born man who is a Snataka shall 
remain chaste on the new moon day, on the eighth lunar day of each 
half month, on the full moon day and on the 14th, even if they fall 
in the period proper for conjugal intercourse." 

Therefore he should avoid the new moon (and the other Par- 



vana nights) and the four nights counting from the first day of the 


The word in the text is, «• Ahoratrah," and not " Ahoratrani. See PACINI 
(II. 4, 29.) 

One should never approach his wife in the day-time. See Prasna Upanisad 
I. 13 " Day and Night are Prajapa i ; its day is spirit, its night matter. Those 
who unite in love by day waste their spirit, but to unite in love by night is right." 

So also Sankha-Likhita : — '* He should not approach his wife in day-time, 
though in season. ,, 

So also MANU (III. 45-48) (45) "Let (the husband) approach his wife in due 
season, being constantly satisfied with her (alone) ; he may also, being intent on 
pleasing her, approach her with a desire for conjugal union (on any day) excepting 
the Parvanas. (46) Sixteen (days and) nights (in each month), including four days 
which differ from the rest and are censured by the virtuous, (are called) the natural 
season of women. (47) But among these the first four, the eleventh and the thir- 
teenth are (declared to be) forbidden ; the remaining nights are recommended. (48) 
On the even nights sons are coneeived and daughters on the uneven ones ; hence 
a man who desires to have sons should approach his wife in due season on the even 


Thus rejecting the first four nights, and all the odd nights, there remain five 
even nights (6th, 8th. 10th 12th 14th, and 16th). Rejecting the Parvana nights, it 
will be found that generally two nights are only allowed in a month for conjugal 

Samkranti should also be included among the Parvana nights, according to the 
opinion of Balambhatta's teacher. 

Astrological Seasons and how to get a male child. 


LXXX. — Thus going to his delicate wife he should 
avoid the magna and mula constellations, and when the 
moon is in an anspicions asterisk the men wonld beget 
at once a fortunate son. — 80. 


Moreover : — " Thus" in the above described manner, "going to 
his wife," he should go to the " delicate " one. The delicacy arises 
at that time from observing the rules prescribed for women in their 

But if by so doing she has not become slender, then she should 
be made so, for the sake of begetting a male child by restricting her 
to scanty and nutritious, but (non-oily) food &c. Because it is said 
(MANU III. 40) : — "a male child is born when there is excess of 
male semen, and a female when there is an excess of female germ." 
If, in even nights too, the female element l^blood) preponderates. 



then a femalo child is born having a manly appearance. And even 
in odd nights, if there bo an excess of semen, a male child is born 
though of feminine appearance. Becauso timo is only an occasional 
cause, while somon and blood, being more powerful, are the material 
cause of reproduction. Therefore she should bo made slender (so 
that female seed should have no prevalence). 

He should avoid the stars known as MaghA and Mfild (i.e., those 
nights when the moon is in conjunction with these stars.) He 
should go when the moon is in an auspicious constellation, such as 
eleventh, &c. 

By " cha M ("and") in the text is meant male asterism, auspi- 
cious (astrological) yogas (conjunctions), and lagnds ("aspects). 

" At once " means in one night, not second or third. Thus 
he begets a child possessed of auspicious signs. 

u The man " in the text means one who has not lost his virile 
power. 1 


The Vratas to be observed by a wife are described in the Taittiriya Sruti. That 
a child is born from the union of the male and the female elements, we know from 
VASISTHA (XIV. 1) :— " Man formed of uterine blood and virile seed proceeds from 
his mother and his father (as an effect) from its cause." 

So also M ANU (III. 49) : — " A male child is produced by a greater quantity of male 
seed, a female child by the prevalence of the female ; if (both are) equal, a herma- 
phrodite or a boy or a girl ; if (both are) weak, deficient in quantity, a failure of 
conception (results)." 

« * 

Other Times of Conjugal Intercourse. 

Having thus described the rules (Niyama) relating to season, the 
author now declares the rule relating to non-season. 


LXXXI. — Or he may act according to her desire, 
remembering the boon given to women. And he should 
be devoted to his wife alone, as it has been ordained 
that women are to be protected.- — 81. 


The word, " Yatha-kami," in the text means, " he whose inclina- 
tion (kama) is such that it does not cross the wish of his wife." (In 
other words, he should act according to the wish of his wife, in such 

matters of conjugal intercourse, on prohibited nights). 


The word, " or," is for the sake of showing an additional rule, 
and not to overrule previous one. 

" Remembering the boon given to women " by Indra in these 
words : — " He who will cross your desires will be a sinner." 

Translator's note: — The story of Indra's boon to women is to be found in the 
Taittiriya Samhita II, 5. 1. Vi3varupa, the son of Tvastri, was the Purohita of the 
Devas ; but he was the son of a sister of the Asuras. He had three heads (Satvika, 
Bajasika and T&masika). With one mouth he used to drink Soma, with the second 
mouth he used to eat food, and with the third mouth he used to drink Sura (wine), 
Openly he used to say, " This share of the offering is to be given to the Devas. M 
But, behind their backs, he used to say to the officiating priests, " this share of 
offering is to be given to the Asuras. ,f So the officiating priests outwardly sacrificed 
to the Devas, but in their heart they prayed to the Asuras. The result was that 
the Devas did not get the offerings, as it did not proceed from the heart. Seeing 
this double dealing of his chief priest, Visvarupa, Indra took up his Vajra, and cut 
off the three heads of the priest. The story is thus related in a modified form, in 
VASlSTHA'S Dharma Sastra (V. 7) " For it has been declared in the Veda, 1 When 
Indra had slain (Yritra) the three^headed son of Tvastri, he was seized by sin, and 
he considered himself to be tainted with exceedingly great guilt. All beings cried 
out against him (saying to him), 1 0 thou slayer of learned Brahmana J O thou slayey 
of a learned Brahmana I ' He ran to the women for protection (and said to them), 
' Take apoa yourselves the third part of this my guilt (caused by) the murder of a 
learned Brahmana.* They answered, 4 What shall we have (for doing thy wish ?)* 
He replied, u Choose a boon." They said, " Let us obtain offspring (if our husbands 
approach us) during the proper season, at pleasure let us dwell (with our husbands) 
until (our chUdren) are born." He answered, "So be it. M (Then) They took upon 
themselves (the third part of his guilt). That guilt of Brahmana-murder appears 
every month as the menstrual flow. Therefore let him not eat the food of a woman 
in her courses ; (for) such & OftO bas put on the shape of the guilt of Bxajimana- 
*nurder. M 

Thus " they (the women) said, we choose a boon, let us get a 
progeny, when approached in season ; let us be free to approach our 
husbands according to our desire (even on prohibited days)> till the 
delivery,' y (They obtained this boon from Indra). Therefore women 
get progeny when approached in season, and are entitled to having 
intercourse, according to their desire, even on the prohibited days* 
till delivery, for such was the boon chosen by them. 

Moreover it follows that ' - he should be devoted to his own wife 
he should always fix his mind on her. This is appropriate. ' 

By the word " alone " going to another woman is prohibited* aa 
adultery is made punishable by penance. For both these (viz. % 
devotion to his wife and acting according to her desire) the author 
shows the worldly necessity, viz. y " Because women are ordained to 
\>v protected," because it is said that in verse 78 ante that " womon 

CHAPTER ril-MATitilAGB, v. hXXXl. 155 

should be well protected/* and this object of protecting them can be 
best secured by acting according to their desires and by not going to 
any other women, 

A Mimarjisa Discussion, 

[Translator's Note Vijnanosvara horo ontors into a discussion as to what is a 
Niyama rulo, what is a PariBaiikhya rulo and what is an Apflrva vidhi . All Impera- 
tive texts arc not Vidhi, thoy aro not texts enjoining tho courso of action. 
Thus tho text, " Let hira porform Sy° na sacrifice, as sorcery," is not a direction to 
perform sorcery. It ts not a Vidhi, but merely an Arthavada. It is necessary, 
thoroforb, to know what is a Vidhi, and how many kinds of Vidhis are there. AIL 
vidhis are divided into three classes, viz., (1) ApftrVavidhi, called also simply Vidhi 
or Anarabhyadhita, (2) Niyama and (8) Parisankhya. The following verse lays 
down the difference between these three 

" Vidhir atyantam apraptau, 

Niyamah paksike vidhih. 

Tatra ch&nyatra va praptatt, 

Parisankhya nigadyate." 

" A Vidhi is an expression which declares a duty, not apt to be spontaneously 
fulfilled, and which is not derivable at all from any other source than the text 
mentioned. In other words, it is a general rule or command which fixes a principal, 
without reference to any specific act. 

A Niyama is a rule, declaring a restriction to the general rule or Vidhi. It is 
in fact involved in the Vidhi. When a Vidhi would otherwise give several alterna- 
tives, the rule. that fixes one alternative to the exclusion of the rest is a Niyama. 

A Parisankhya is a negative rule, but couched in positive terms. A rule should 
never be construed as a Parisamkhya, if it can be interpreted otherwise. 1 ' 

Thus, in verse 79 ante, occurs this rule « Among these he should approach them 
during the even nights." This is certainly a command, for the words, "Samvisef* 
44 let him approach," is an imperative mood. The question is, 44 is it a Vidhi or a 
Niyama, or a Parisankhya." Taking this as his text, Vijnanesvara enters into the 
following discussion.] 

A Question. — Here a person raising a doubt says:— " Among 
these he should approach them during the even night." It this a 
Vidhi (a general rule) or a Niyama (a restrictive rule) or a Parisafikhya 
(or exclusive specification) ? 

Translator's note :— u When what is not already known at all, is stated, it is an 
original statement (Vidhi). When one of the two senses is to be taken by way of an 
alternative, it is a restrictive rule (Niyama), and when something is stated there 
and in other places, it is called a case of exclusive specification." 

An Answer. 

We reply that it (the above text) is not a Vidhi, as it declares 
a thing already known. It is not a Parisafikhya, for it would be then 
tainted with three defects (see Mimamsa Vol. I. pp. 139 and 1099 
of Kunte's SaddarsJana chintanika). Therefore, those versed inMimam- 
ea Logic, have established this statement to be a Niyama. 



Vidhi defined. 

What is then the distinction between these (Vidhi, Niyama and 
Parisaftkhya). The statement of that, which is not derivable other- 
wise, is a Vidhi. As " he should perform the Agnihotra sacrifice." 
" The Astaka must be performed." 

tsliyama defined. 

When one of the two senses is to be taken by way of an alter- 
native, it is a Niyama. As " he should sacrifice on a level country," 
" he should sacrifice on new and full moon days." 

The performance of a sacrifice has already been ordained as 
a Vidhi. It cannot be performed without some particular kind 
or place. Therefore, the place is known. 

The place may be of two kinds, level or rough. When a 
sacrificer wishes to perform sacrifice on a level or even ground, then 
the rule " he should perform sacrifice on a level ground" is of no 
use or is indifferent, because its sense or direction is already acted 
upon. When however he wishes to perform it on a rough or non- 
level ground, then the precept " he should perform sacrifice on a 
level ground " declares its meaning (is applicable), because its sense 
is not then known, The prohibition of non-level ground is eventu- 
ally involved in the sense of the above, since the accomplishment of 
sacrifice is possible only in a place ordained ; while in the case of a 
non-level ground the proper scriptural sacrifice cannot be accom- 

Similarly the text, " he should take his food facing the east," 
is a Smriti illustration (of the rule of Niyama is contradistinction to 
the first which was an illustration from the ^ruti), and should be 
explained in the same manner. 

Parisafikhyd defined. 

The Parisafikhya (or exclusive specification " or exhaustive 
enumeration) is the (general) statement, in one place, of one proposi- 
tion, which though applicable in many places, still implies the exclu- 
tion of the rest (and acceptance of one only. For example, " They 
took this rope of the truth." Taittariya Samhita V. 1. 2. 1.) (the 
phrase " Rasana," " rope," is explained in the same place by " halter 
of the horse "), i.e., "he takes the halter of the horse." This mantra 
("They take the rope of truth "), by its simple expressive power, is 
applicable t9 the rope of a horse as well as to that of an ass. But, 


again, by tbo specification that " tliey take the halter of a horse " the 
(original) statement becomes applicable to the rope of a horse and 
excludes the rope of an ass. 

Similarly (to take the Smriti illustration ; see verses 177 and 
seq\ " the flesh of animals with five nails to be eaten." Here the 
eating of somo kind of meat, whether it be the flesh of dogs &c. or 
of rabbits, &c. is a natural instinct of hunger. But then (by the 
subsequent) specification of rabbits and others, the dogs &c. are 

The Opponent's View. 

What is then applicable in the present case, (viz., is the text 
"he should approach in season " to be construed as Vidhi, Niyama 
or Parisafikhya ?) An opponent urges that it is to be construed as a 
Parisankhya or exclusive specification. Because a person, who is 
married, already approaches his wife in season, out of his own 
inclination, therefore, the above text cannot be construed as a 
Vidhi (for there is no necessity of a command or Vidhi for the doing 
of that which men are naturally inclined to do). 

This text cannot also be the subject of Niyama (or restrictive 
rule). Because it is opposed or contradicts the law laid down in the 
Grihyasmritis. For the author of the Grihyasutras (or rules of 
household life) have enjoined thus (Asvalayana G. S. 8. 10—11), 
" After the taking of wife, (i.e., after the ceremony of marriage is 
performed) one should remain as a Brahmaehari (celebate, or should 
have no sexual connection with his wife) for three nights, twelve 
nights or for a year/' Therefore if before the expiration of the 
twelfth night or the year, there occurs menstruation (or seasons), then 
by construing the text, (" He should approach in season ") as Niyama, 
the rule of celibacy as above enjoined is contradicted. 

Moreover, the use of a statement already known is always for a 
specific purpose. Going to 'wife in season is already known, (and 
need not be taught) as a natural desire. Therefore, this Parisaftkhya 
is the proper interpretation of the text, viz., that if he goes to his 
wife at all, he must go only in season. 

Besides, by construing it as Niyama, (there results this 
incongruity). Since this production or begetting of a son is com- 
manded, the approaching in season is a necessary corollary and is 
known; therefore, the Niyama (rule) that " He should approach in 
season," becomes irrelevant. 



. ■ ...... ^-^i 

Moreover, by taking it as Niyama, one must assume some 
invisible result. 

Besides, by construing it as Niyama, it would mean that one 
must (or is bound to) approach in (and throughout) season. There- 
fore, in the case of a person who is not near his wife (being far 
from home), or who is suffering from some disease, and is therefore 
unfit for (having sexual intercourse), or who is not desirous and ia 
incapable, this rule becomes inapplicable (as wanting in universal 

By construing it as Niyama, there occurs further the contradic- 
tion between Vidhi, (an original statement), and Anuvada, (a repro- 
duced statement). Thus, that very word, which has been pronounced 
only once, is construed in one case as an Anuv&da (reproduction), 
and in another case, as a Vidhi (or laying down original statement), 
which is against the rules of interpretation. 

Therefore, it has been established, that the precept (" He 
should approach in season ") is a Parisafikhya (exclusive specifica- 
tion), and means, that he should approach only in-season and not at 
any other time. 

The Siddhanta View. 

This argument of the opponent is not approved by Bh&rucbi, 
Vidvarupa and others. Hence Niyama even is the proper construction. 
Because, in one alternative (i.e., when he goes in season), the text 
expresses its own purpose, and in the other case, by not going in 
season, there is mentioned the taking place of sin, according to the 
following texts — "He who does not approach near his wife, when she 
has bathed after her monthly course, incurs the horrible sin of killing 
the foetus, there is no doubt in it." 

Now is there any contradiction between Vidhi and Anuvada 
(original and reproduced statements), because there is no Anuv&da 
(reproduction) here, and the text has the force or the sense of an 
original statement (Vidhi) ? The contradiction between Vidhi and 
Anuvada arises under the following circumstances ; — Where a 
statement is to be reproduced from another place, as being the means 
to certain ends, and is to be enjoined (as Vidhi) at another place, 
for the attainment of a particular object or end which was not known 
before, (then takes place a contradiction between an Anuvada and 
Vidhi). Thus in the Miinamsft, on the chapter of Vajapeya sacrifice, 
and in the statement of the opponent's views (occurs the following 


statement) — "Ho is to perform the Viljapeya sacrifice who aspires 
after heavenly rule." In this, the sacrifice indicated by Vajapoya, 
being original statement of quality, (and being particular means to 
particular ends), is reproduced. And that (sacrifice) is then enjoined 
(as Vidhi) for a person, whose aim is to attain the fruit indicated by 
the term heavenly rule. 

There is no necessity of reproduction (Anuv&da) here. 

As to tho statement that in case of Niyama construction, 
invisible (metaphysical) results must be assumed, (we reply) — that 
(objection) is equally applicable in the case of Parisafikhya. Because 
sin must be assumed when one approaches his wife in non-season. 

As to the argument, " that since the begetting of a legal son is 
commanded, therefore the approaching in season is already known by 
inference, and consequently, " the text is not a Niyama." That is 
wrong. We may grant, that this is also an original statement (Vidhi) 
for the getting of a legal son. 

If the text (" Thus going to a slender wife he ought to beget 
an auspicious son "), be taken as expressing something more than or 
differing from approaching the wife, it being the original statement 
of begetting a son, we say that is not so. That the begetting of son 
is the result or effect of the action through the Bhavana, of which 
approaching (sexual intercourse) is the instrumental cause, is shown 
by the text — " By so approaching he should beget an auspicious 
son." As is the text " By performing Agnihotra sacrifice he should 
try (Bhavana) to attain heaven." 

Nor is this an impossible statement of an original precept 
for persons, who are not near their wives and the like. Because 
the law contemplates the case of those persons only, who are near 
and who are fit and able* Because of the special texts, " He who 
being near, does not go to his wife, when she has bathed after her 
monthly course," " He who being healthy does not approach his wife 
who has bathed after her monthly courses." 

By making it an original statement of a restrictive rule 
(Niyama), the prohibition of nen- willingness follows (i.e., those 
persons who fail in season to approach their wives out of mere 
unwillingness, are not exempted like those who are forced to do 
so out of illness or incapacity.) 

Nor is there any necessity of assuming any special meaning or 
specific purpose ; because in one alternative (in the case of approaching 



in non-season), it makes an original statement of a positive signifi- 

Nor is there any contradiction with (the Si valayana) Grihya- 
smriti. If menstruation takes place before the expiration of one year, 
then by approaching his wife (within a year) one does not incur the 
sin of falling from the vow of celibacy (Brahmacharya). As is the 
case also in ^raddha and the rest. 

Therefore, Parisafikhya (exclusive specification) is not the 
proper construction, it has the three faults known as (1) " Svartha- 
hani " (disregarding its own signification), (2) Pararthakalpana (con- 
ception of another sense), and lastly (3) Praptabadha (setting aside the 
sense that offers itself for our acceptance.) 

The text, " Five five-nailed animals [viz., the porcupine, the 
lizard, the tortoise, the sallakd y a species of porcupine, and the hare), 
are to be eaten," (has been, however, properly interpreted as a case of 
Parisafikhya, exclusive specification for the following reasons). Here 
though when one is going to eat the hare and the rest, it has the 
force of Niyama or restrictive rule ; and when one is going to eat the 
hare, &c, and the dogs &c, it has the force of a Parisafikhya (as it 
prohibits him the eating of dogs, &c.) : because both are possible ; 
yet in the case of interpreting it as Niyama, guilt will be incurred 
by not eating hare and the rest, and no guilt will be incurred by 
eating the dog and the rest, which (latter view) is opposed to the 
law of Praya^chitta ; (because in the chapter on Penances or Praya^- 
chitta, the eating of dogs &c, is made punishable) ; therefore, exneces- 
sitate, Parisafikhya is the proper interpretation of the above text. 

Similarly, the text, " eating in the morning and evening has been 
enjoined by the smriti for the twice-born/' is to be explained as a 
case of Niyama (restrictive rule) standing by itself. The text, "he 
should not eat at any other time," would be a useless repetition, 
if the above were construed as a Parisafikhya. 

In the same way, by taking it as a Niyama, the text conveys 
the meaning that he must go at every " season," Because, it is a 
rule of Logic, that whensoever an occasion recurs, then also it brings 
with it the occasional duties connected with it. 

Similarly, the text, " He may act according to his desire &c., M 
" is also a Niyama." He may enjoy his wife in non-season also, if 
she has inclination ; " Ho may go in season or at all times except on 
the specially prohibited days " : — the above two ^fitras of GAUTAMA 



(V. 1 and 2) show that tho above rule is a Niyama, i.e., it means that 
he may approach his wife in season, and out of season, when she ao 
desires, with tho exception of the days specifically prohibited. ' (Here 
let us end.) No use of further explanation, 


Tho word, *YftthAMt*f," is an Avyayibh&va compound. Ordinarily it would 
moan, * according to his inclination," bub hero it means, " according to his incli- 
nation, in conformity with tho inclination of his wife," 

Tho word, " V&," in tho verse of Yajnavalkya, is not intended to make the 
previous rule optional, but to declare an additional rule, and so the commentator 
has explained it. 

Thus in the Visnu Purana, Book III, Ch* ll> last verso " Thus considering, 
let a man approach his own wife in the proper season, or even at other times. * 

So also BAUDHAYANA (IV. 1, 19):—" They declare that the guilt of the husband 
who does not approach his wife in due season, of him who approaches her during 
her temporary uncleanness, and of him who commits an unnatural crime (with her), 
is equally (great)." Similar injunction is to be found in the Mahabharata in con- 
nection with oaths, where a person swears, " Let the sin pf going to a woman not 
in her seasons be mine &c." 

So also ATRI " One should not approach the wife who is pregnant, from her 
six months of pregnancy Up till the teething of the child." 

The following rule of GAUTAMA (IX. 25) should also be observed " After 
conjugal intercourse he shall at once clean himself. ,, 

APASTAMB A (I. 32. 2.) : And if he has had connection (with his wife), he 
shall not lie with her during the whole[night. n 

So also MANU (IV. 41. 42):— (41) " For the wisdom, the energy, the strength, 
the sight, and the vitality of a man who approaches a woman covered with menstrual 
excretions, utterly perish. (42) " If he avoids her, while she is in that condition, 
his wisdom, energy, strength, sight, and vitality wilKincrease." 

So also Visnu Purana, Book III, Ch. 11 " In due season, a man should approach 
his wife, when a fortunate asterism prevails, in an auspicious moment, and on even 
nights, if she is not unbathed, sick, unwell, averse angry, pregnant, hungry, or over- 
fed. He should be, also, free from similar impe fections, should be neatly attired 
and adorned, and animated by tenderness and affection. There are certain days on 
which unguents, flesh, and women are unlawful ; as the eighth and fourteenth lunar 
days, new moon and full moon, and the entrance of the sun into a new sign. On 
these occasions, the wise will restrain their appetites, and occupy themselves in 
the worship of the gods, as enjoined by holy writ, in meditation, and in prayer : and 
he who behaves differently will fall into a hell where ordure will be his fogd. M 

The Vamana Purana also adds that one should not approach his wife on 
"Wednesdays, on full moon days, or when the moon is in the asterisms of Magha, 
Krittika and Uttara. 

VaSISTHA (XII. 5-7) (5) " Let him not dwell together with a person whose 
clothes are foul, (6) (Let him not cohabit) with a woman during her courses, (7) Nor 
with an unfit one." The phrase " unfit one," means "one of immature age." 

VISNU (XXXV) lays down the duties of wives. 

Balarabhatta then gives the rules to be observed by a woman in her menses. 
He quotes VASISTHA (V, 6 and 5) (5) " A woman in her courses is impure during 



three (days and) nights. (6) (During that period) she shall not apply collyrium to 
Jier eyes, nor annoint (her body)* nor bathe in water, she shall sleep on the ground ; 
She shall not sleep in the day-time, nor touch the fire, nor make a rope, nor clean 
her teeth, nor eat meat, nor look at the planets, nor smile, nor busy herself with 
(household affairs), nor run, she shall drink out of a large vessel, or out of her 
joined hands, or out of a copper -vessel," 

The husband should instruct his wife the rules that she should observe during 
her monthly courses. APASTAMBA Grihya Sutra (VIII. 12 and 13) :— (12). " During 
her (first) monthly illness he instructs her about the things forbidden (to menstruous 
women), contained in the Brahmana, in the section, ( A menstruous woman with 
whom/ &c". 

Translator's note :— The illustration of Parisafikhya is given from YA JURVEDA 
TAITTIftiYA SAM HIT A (V. 1. 2. 1). The full Mantra discussed therein is also to 
be found in the VAJASANEYA SAMHITA (XXII. 2). Also in SATAPATHA BRAH= 
MANA (XIII. 1, 2. 1). The full mantra is given here 

*' This rope did they take, at the first age of truth, (the sages, at the rites : it 
hath been with us at this Soma-sacrifice, declaring the course in the gaining of the 
truth)." In this mantra the word, "rope/* has no specification, whether it is the 
rope of a horse or of any other animal. The Brahmana text clears up this doubt by 

adding :- < ^m^> : ^I^^l^^^^f^^^i : ^!^ , ^ " Reciting the mantra, « Imam 

^gribhnan rasanamritasya/ he takes the halter of the horse." The phrase, "he 
takes the halter of the horse/* clears up the doubtful point " the rope." He takes 
the rope of the hor$e $nd not of any other animal. Therefore, this is an example 
of Parisankhya, inasmuch as what rope is to be taken and what not. 

[Note.— This mantra is to be recited at the Asvamedha sacrifice. No sacrifice 
is successful unless q, mantra is recited for every act of the sacrifice. The doubt 
arose from the fact, that in the same TAITTIRiYA SAMHITA (V. 2. 1) an ass is also 
mentioned in connection with this ceremony : — f< Then the ass, with (Yaj. S. XI. 13), 
1 Yoke ye two the ass/ he says this to the Adhvaryu and the sacrificer ".] 

The word, " Abhidh&ni," in the above mantra, means " the halter by which a 
horse is tethered/' 

The word, "Bbavan^i/ , is a technical term of Mimarasa. So also the word, 


A .second wife in the life-time of the first should be taken affcer mature delfc 
boration. As a rule APASTAMBA (II. U. 12) prohibits bigamy for all. Ho com-, 
jnands, " If ho has a wifo who (is willing and able) to perform (her sharo of) the reli^ 
gious dutiog and who boars pons, ho shall pot tal^o a second." A wifo who cannot 
holp in the performance of roligious duties, but has borne sons to him, should nevey 
be superseded. Similarly, a wife who has given birth to no sons, but helps him in 
the performance of religious duties, should never be set aside by taking the second 
wife. Ag says APASTAMBA (U. 11. 14) For a wife who assists at the kindling 
pf the fires;, bocoinos connected with those roligious rites of which that (Are- kind* 
}jng) forms a, part. 11 

Tntfffllotor's note The following note is taken from S. Q. JJ. Vol. H, p, 125 



"A wifo who assists at tho kindling of tho fires for any sacrificial rito, becomes 
connoctod with that rito liko any priest, and in that rito no other woman can tako 
hor place. Itonco in tho case of an Agnihotra, which lasts during tho performer's 
life-time, or at loast as long as ho is a householder, tho porformor cannot tako 
another principal wifo aftor ho onco has begun his sacrifice. If tho wifo of an Ag- 
nihotra dies, ho must marry again, and also kindle his fires afresh." 

Thus . monogamy was tho rulo laid down for tho typical Hindu, viz., for au 
Agnihotriii* Bigamy was looked upon with moral condemnation, though legal in 
certain c&scs. 

Yfijfiavalkya does not approve tho higher castes marrying a fctidra woman, 
but VASISTHA (XVIII. 18) allows it, only for sexual gratification, and not for reli- 
gious duty ; — " For a fefldra wifo who belongs to tho black race, (is espoused) for 
pleasure, not in order to fulfil tho law." 

Of course in the Kali Age, marriage with women of other castes is not allowed. 

Translator's note. But this prohibition is of recent origin and has no sanction 
of any Smriti, eithor of Manu or Yajnavalkya, nor even of our commentator Vijna- 
nesvara. 1 quote the following from Sarkar's Law of Adoption, Second Edition, p. 
107 :— " Tho doctrine that certain usages though perfectly lawful should be shun- 
ned in the present age, appears to have originated in the Deccan which became 
the stronghold of Brahmanism since the rise of Buddhism, and more specially after 
tho conquest of Northern India by the Mahomedans had commenced* There cannot 
be any doubt that some, at least, of the usages recognized, and laws propounded by 
Manu and other ancient sages became, in the course of time, obsolete, unsuitable 
or repugnant to popular feelings, notwithstanding the stationary condition of Hindu 
society. But the theory of the divine origin of the laws compiled in the Smritis 
presented, as I have already told you, an almost insurmountable difficulty in tho 
way of changing them. The Mit&kgara, however, has laid down a very sound and 
rational principle, upon the authority of a text attributed by the Viramitrodaya to 
Yajnavalkya, namely, that abhorrence of the people is a just cause for not enforcing 
a rule of the ancient law. But this principle could not, and therefore did not 
commend itself to the later Brahmanical writers as it was calculated to be detri- 
mental to their vital interests." 

There are certain rules laid down in the Sastras, which should be observed 
by the husband of the pregnant woman. Thus in the Muhfirta Martanda " Ex- 
cept when absolutely necessary, but not otherwise, should a husband go to a distant 
country, after the Simanta ceremony, nor should he shavo himself &c, nor cut a 
tree, nor take sea-bath &c. nor cross the sea &c. 

'Women to be honoured. 

yajnavalkya. ? 
LXXXII. — Woman is to be respected by her hus- 
band, brother, father, kindred, (JSati), mother-in-law, 
father-in-law, husband's younger brother, and the ban- 
dhus, with ornaments, clothes and food. — 82. 


Moreover, the above-mentioned chaste women are to be honour- 
ed by their husbands, &c, according to their means, with ornaments, 



clothes, food, flowers, &c. Because .when they are respected, they 

increase Dharma (piety), Artha (wealth) and Kama (pleasure.) 


Bandhns mean the three kinds of Bandhns. This is merely illustrative. In 
fact all should honour them. Compare MANU (III. 55 and 56) : — (55) " Women must 
be honoured and adorned by their fathers, brothers, husbands, and brothers-in-law, 
who desire (their own) welfare. (56) Where women are honoured, there the gods 
are pleased, but where they are not honoured, no sacred rite yields rewards." 

The Duties of Women. 

The author now mentions what sort of accomplishment she 
should possess in the transaction of household business. 


LXXXIII. — Learning to arrange furnitures and being 
expert, cheerful and frugal, she should worship the feet 
of her both parents-in-law, and be devoted to her hus- 
band. — 83. 


She, who arranges and puts in their proper places the furni- 
tures, i.e., all the household utensils, is called methodical (arranging 
the household furniture). For example, putting the wooden pestle 
and mortar (used for cleaning rice) and the winnowing basket in 
their proper places on the threshing floor, the stone slab and the 
stone miller at the place of grinding, &c. &c, " Expert " i.e., skilled 
in household transactions. " Cheerful " always with a smilling coun- 
tenance. <c Frugal " Not extravagant or addicted to much expendi- 
ture, " Should be " ought to be added at the end of everyone of 
the above. Moreover, " Parents-in-law " is a diminutive (uniresidual 
dvanda compound) form of father-in-law and mother-in-law. She 
should daily worship their feet. The word, " parents-in-law " is used 
as a mere Upalaksana or illustrative of all those persons who ought 
to be respected. " " Devoted to husband " that means she should 
do the above-mentioned things being obedient to her husband. 

The Duties of a Wife Whose Husband is away. 

Having described the duties of a wife living with her husband, 
the author now mentions the duties of that wife whose husband is 
away from home. 


LXXXIV. — She, whose husband is away from 
home, should abandon playing, beautifying the body, 



joining societies and festivities, laughing and going to 
another's house. — 84. 


She, wliose husband has gone to another country, (should 
avoid) " playing," such as balls, &c., " beautifying the body" with 
ointments or unguents. "Societies," or the assemblage of people. 
" Festivities," like marriage, &c. The seeing of these two (societies 
and festivities). "Laughing," familiarly laughing, "going to another 
person's house." The phrase, " should abandon," is to be joined 
with everyone of the above. 


Balambhatta reads " Visrambhena," instead of Vijrimbhanam, ,9 as found in 
ordinary printed texts. 

Compare MANU (IX. 75) : — " If (the husband) went on a journey after providing 
(for her), the wife shall subject herself to restraints in her daily life ; but if he depart- 
ed without providing (for her), she may subsist by blameless manual work." 

To the same effect are the texts of BRIHaSPATI, VISNU, HARITA, and 

So also BRIHASPATI : — "A wife, in the absence of her lord, should not use 
(ornamental) dress, behold dances, hear songs, resort to crowded spectacles and 
jubilees, nor use flesh-meat and inebriating liquors." 

80 also VISNU (XXV. 9-11) :— (9) " Not to decorate herself with ornaments 
(or to partake of amusements) while her husband is away from home; (10) Not to 
resort to the houses of strangers (during the absence of her husband) ; (11) Not to 
stand near the doorway or by the windows (of her house).' 9 

So also HaRITA : — fl In the absence of her husband, a woman should not adorn 
nor unbind her locks." 

So also SANKHA-LIKHITA \— u Amongst all his wives, let her of the priestly 
class guard her own conduct during the absence of the husband ; let the father and 
the mother guard the rest, or, after them, a wife of the military class. No dependent 
women of a family, whose husbands are absent, should use litters, behold dancers, 
gaze at exhilarating pictures, decorate their persons, resort to the garden, drink 
spirituous liquors openly, gratify themselves with savoury drinks and food, sport at 
ball, wear perfumes, garlands or jewels, rub their teeth with colouring substances, 
or their eyelids with collyrium, nor use mirrors, nor any embellishments of dress." 

Note. — " Amongst all his wives,' 9 among the several wives of one man, a 
Brahmani and others, she who is of the priestly class should guard her own conduct. 
The father and mother should watch the conduct of the rest ; or, if they be not 
present, the wife of the military class should guard her own conduct and that of 
both the other wives. 

General Duties of all icomen. 


LXXXV. — When a maiden, her father ; when 
married, her husband ; and when old, her sons, should 




protect her. In their absence, the kinsmen (should take 
care of her.) The women are never independent. — 85* 


Besides, before marriage, " the father should protect the maiden 
from committing improper acts. After marriage the husband, in his 
absence, the sons, and in old age as well as in the absence of those 
mentioned above, the kinsmen should protect her. In the absence of 
the kinsmen, the king, on account of the following text of Afigirasa : — 
"On the failure of both sides (the husband's and the father's relations), 
the king is the supporter and master of women." Therefore for 
women there is never any independence. 


Compare VISNU (XXV) (12). " Not to act by herself in any matter, (13). 
To remain subject in her infancy, to her father, in her youth, to her husband, and in 
her old age, to her sons." 

MANU (V. 148) :— 41 In childhood a female must be subject to her father, in 
youth to her husband, when her lord is dead to her sons ; a woman must never 
be independent." 

The Duties of a Widow. 


LXXXVI. — Deprived of her husband, she should 
not reside apart from her father, mother, son or brother, 
from her mother-in-law or father-in-law, or from her 
old maternal uncles. Otherwise she becomes in- 
famous. — 86. 


Moreover, though " deprived of her husband/ 5 or bereft of her 
husband, she should not be without her father, &c. Because, being 
without their protection, she " becomes infamous," becomes blame- 
worthy. This is (the rule, in case the widow wishes to pass her life) 
as a Brahmachari or celebate. Because it is ordained in the Visnu- 
smriti (Ch. XXV. 14) : — " After the death of her husband (the widow 
should adopt one of these two courses) either to preserve her chastity 
(Brahmacharya) or to ascend the pile after him." There is great 
virtue in Anvarohana (or self-immolation along with the deceased 


Vyasa* has shown the same tiling, in the form of the parable of 
the she-pigeon " Devoted to her husband, she entered the raging 
fire, and thereafter she obtained her (dead) lord who was adorned 
with a variegated bracelet. Then afterwards the bird went in 
company with his wife to heaven, and enjoyed it with her being 
honored with all acts (of service.)" 

The Sati or 8 elf -immolation. 

To the same effects ^ajfikha and A/igirasa : — " She who follows 
her husband to another world, shall dwell in a region of joy for so 
many years as there are hairs on the human body, or thirty-five 
millions." Having premised this, they ($afikha and Aftgirasa) 
show the inseparableness of these couple in the following lines : — 
" As a serpent-catcher forcibly draws a snake from his hole, thus, 
drawing her lord from a region of torment, she enjoys delight 
together with him. There, having the best of husbands, herself 
best of women, praised by hosts of Apsaras, she partakes of bliss 
with her husband, in a celestial abode, as long as fourteen Indras 
reign." Similarly (only Aftgirasa.) — " Even though a man had slain 
a priest, or .returned evil for good, or killed an intimate friend, 
the woman expiates those crimes : she is not a widow because she 
dies embracing her husband's (dead body.) That woman who enters 
fire (sam&rohana) on the death of her husband, walks in the company 
of Arundhati, and excels in heavenly regions. As long as a woman 
(in her successive transmigrations) shall decline burning herself, like 
a faithful wife, on the same fire with her deceased lord, so long shall 
she be not exempted from (springing again to life in) the body of 
some female (animal)," 

To the same effect are Harita (and Afigirasa) : — " She who follows 
her husband (to death by anugamana purifies three families i.e., of her 
father, of her mother, and of her husband where she is given." 

Similarly (another Smriti) : — " That wife is to be known as 
Pativrata (devoted to her husband) who becomes pained when her 
husband is in pain ; who is cheerful, when he is happy ; who becomes 
faded and lean, when he goes abroad ; and who dies when he dies." 

This is the general duty (Dharma) of all women (of the same 

* Many books are attributed to the authorship of Vyasa, so it is difficult to 
pay to which particular work of his, the commentator refers, In the Veda Vyasa 
gmfiti (Ananda Asrama Edn, p. 362), the verse is given as follows 


caste as their husband), even those of Chandalas; except those who 
are pregnant or who have got infant children (or who are in their 
courses, or who are out-castes, or adulteress, or hate their husband 
&c.) because of the universal statement : — " She who follows her 
husband etc/' 

An objection: — The rule of Sati does not apply to Brahmana 
widows. — But there are texts (says an objector) which prohibit 
(Anugamana) (satism) for a Brahmani woman, such as : — " There is 
no anugamana or self-immolation for Brahmani woman ; for this is 
the command of Brahma. But among the other castes this anuga- 
mana is said to be the highest austerity. (Their duty is) to do their 
husband's good, while he is living ; and to commit suicide when he 
is dead. But that woman of the Brahmana caste, who follows her 
dead husband (by anugamana) does not lead either herself or her 
husband to heaven because of the sin of her suicide." 

Reply. — To this we reply that these and several other texts, 
relate to the ascending of a separate funeral pile, because of this 
special Smriti : ■ — " A Brahmana woman cannot follow her husband 
by ascending ' a separate funeral pile." From this it follows, that 
the women of the Ksatriyas and the rest are allowed to ascend a 
separate funeral pile. 

Another objection.- -Some, however assert : — 11 Because suicide is 
as much prohibited for women as for men, therefore, this direction 
for Anugamana (satism), like £>yena-sacrifice, is meant for those 
women (only) who through inordinate love of enjoying heaven, 
transgress a prohibitory rule of law (which forbids suicide), just as : — 
" By ^yena-sacrifice let him kill his enemies," is a direction for 
^yena-sacrifice given to those, whose conscience has been over- 
powered by constant thinking (bhavana) over this doing of injury 
and by anger (revenge)." 

Reply. — We say this is wrong. Because it has been described by 
some that ^yena-sacrifice (hawk) is injurious on account of its fruits ; 
because the conception (bhavana) which is to be accomplished through 
the instrumentality of the l^yena-sacrifice, and whose effect is injury 
of others, wants the sanction of law (because there is no Vidhi to the 
effect : — Thou must kill thy enemies :) but (on the contrary) there are 
prohibition (thou must not injure anybody, not even thy enemies). 
According to their opinion, because injury (to one's own self here) 
being a means to attain heaven, is commanded by the law relating 


to Auugamana (satism) (as was not the case in Syena-sacrifice), and 
because there is absence of all prohibition against it (while there are 
prohibitions against £>yona) there is clearly no analogy between 
$yona (sacrifice) and Auugamana (satism). The latter belongs to the 
same class as tho following ("Lot him kill the victim sacred to gods 
Agni and Soma "), a text which directly commands injury. 

Another Reply, — According to another opinion, "injury" 
means all those transactions which help death ; and therefore, the 
£>yena-sacrifico is itself an " injury," inasmuch as it is a transaction 
(sorcery) helping the death of another person. In matters of desire, 
men are naturally inclined towards the employment of all those 
means (which will gratify their desires), therefore (the texts declara- 
tory of such means) are not Vidhi, i.e., they have not the mandatory 
force. (A hungry man will naturally eat, therefore a text saying 
' let a man eat rice/ cannot be a Vidhi. It only shows a means? to 
satisfy hunger). 

Because of the natural propensity of injury, (in all men"! the 
^yena-sacrifice is prohibited, and is essentially injurious and leads 
to undesired results (hell). Not so, however, the law of Anugamana 
(satism), where death is ordained as a means for the attainment of 
heaven. Though there be natural inclination for heaven, yet all the 
transactions helping death, such as entering fire, &c, being merely 
subordinate acts necessary for the completion of the main act being 
commanded, are to be followed (merely as subsidiaries) so there is no 
room for prohibition (here). It is just like the text : — " Let him kill 
a white beast sacred to the god Vayu." Therefore, clearly, there is 
no analogy between the $yena-sacrifice and the Anugamana. 

Another objection considered. — As to the text: — "Therefore, 0 

dear, he should not die before the end of his natural life, for the sake 

of getting heaven," and the conclusion, that therefore, Anugamana 

(satism) is improper, as it is opposed to the ^ruti (Veda). We say, 

that it is not so. The text (" desirous of heaven he should not die 

before the end of his natural life") means that one, who wishes to 

attain Mohsa (final emancipation,) should not cut off the natural span 

of his life, with the object of getting heaven. Because, so long as 

life remains, it is possible to attain Mohsa (emancipation), by reaching 

Brahma, who is everlasting and eternal bliss, by removing mental 

impurities, through the performance of obligatory (nitya) and 

occasional duities ; and by self-knowledge through the hearing of 



scriptures (l^ravana) pondering over their meaning (manana), and 
realizing their sense (nididhyasana) by meditation. Therefore, life 
should not be cut short, for the sake of obtaining " heaven," which 
after all is but temporary, and whose joys are small. This is the 

Therefore, for the woman, who wishes not Molcsa (emancipation) 
and is desirous of getting heaven, which is not permanent and of 
small happiness, Anugamana is proper ; like other Anusthanaa 
(rel igious performances) for the attainment of particular desires. 
Therefore, nothing is blamable : (both views are correct : suicide for 
heaven or living for others \ 

Translator's note : — Next to Satism discussed in this verse, the matter which 
is now of his toricalj interest, the commentator, Vijuanesvara, has incidentally 
discussed a very important point of Mimamsa, viz t% what Yedik sentences have 
legal force. He has taken the case of Syena sacrifice, showing that though it is 
taught in the Veda that a man, who wants to kill his enemy, should perform this 
sacrifice, yet it is not a Vidhi or command. Another word used by him in this 
connection is "Bhavan&Z' We give the following quotation from Dr. Thibaut's 
Translation of Artha Samgraha regarding these points. 


Here the question arises What is duty (Dharma) ? What is its distinctive 
character (its definition) ? To this we reply : Sacrifices etc. only are duty (Dharma); 
and we define duty as that matter which has a purpose and is to be accomplished 
according to the Veda. The phrase " which has a purpose " serves to exclude from 
the things comprised in the definition matters which are themselves of the nature 
of a purpose fas f. i. the different results of the sacrifices, viz., paradise etc.) The 
phrase " which is to be accomplished according to the*Veda" serves to exclude 
from the definition matters like the act of eating (which is performed not on the 
authority of the Veda but on the prompting of a natural instinct). The word 
" matter M (artha ; which includes the idea of goodness or usefulness) serves to 
exclude actions like the sacrifice called "k'yena," which are to be considered as bad 
things (anartha) on account of their having a bad result (viz., the death of some 
enemy, for the bringing about of which the sacrificer himself will have to go to 

Compare Jaim, Nyay. M. V. pp. 14-15. But why then— might bo asked—are sacri- 
fices of the nature of the &yen& taught in the Veda ? To this question the Sabara- 
bhasya (p. 5) answers : 



(If now we be asked to point out in detail the appropriateness of our definition 
of duty, Dharma, we proceed :) Acts of duty (Dharma) as sacrifices etc. are enjoin- 
ed with reference to man by Vedic sentences (as f. i. " he who desirous of para- 



dise is to sacrifice M ) in which paradise etc. is pointed out as the result, Tho 
particulars aro as follows. The word " yajota M " ho may sacrifice " contains two 
constituent elements, viz., the root yaj (yaji) and the sufiix. The suffix again con- 
tains two elements as it expresses as well tho property of a verb as tho property of 
an optativo. Tho property of expressing a verb is common to the suffix of the ten 
moods and tenses (all of which when added to a root turn the latter into a verb) ; 
tho property of expressing an optativo exclusively belongs to tho optative suffix. ' 
Both elements express a creative energy (bluivand) only. By bhavand " creativ e 
energy " or " productive energy " or " tendency to realizo something ") we under- 
stand tho particular activity of some productive agent (bhavayitri) which tends to 
bring about the existence of something which is going to be (bhavitri) ; which is 
capable of future existence). Such productive energy is two-fold being either verbal 
(sabda) or actual (artha). By verbal bhavana we understand the peculiar activity of 
some productive agent which tends to make a person act ; it is expressed by the opta- 
tivo element (of words like " yajeta") ; for if some person hears a verb with an opta- 
tive termination there arises in his mind the exclusive notion "he (the speaker) ins- 
tigates me to act ; he is engaged in an energy tending to make me act. 1 ' (In this 
explanation of the element which expresses the bhavana we proceed) according 
to the general rule that whatever is exclusively understood in cosequence of some 
word being uttered is expressed by it (is the sense of the word) ; as f. i. in the 
sentence " bring the cow " the general character of the cow (gotva) is the sense 
of the word "cow". The peculiar activity (which has been mentioned above in 
the defintion of bhavana) is in the case of a.sentence belonging to ordinary worldly 
language some particular intention dwelling in the mind of a speaking person ; in 
Vedic sentences on the other hand when there is no speaking person it resides 
only in the words characterized by optative terminations etc. For this reason this 
bhavana is called verbal bhavana. 

This bhavana requires three constituent elements ; the matter which is to be 
accomplished (the result ; sadhya) ; the means by which the result is effected 
(itikartavyata) ; according to the three questions (suggested by each bhavana) : 
which is to be effected ? by what means is it to be effected ? how is it to be 
effected ? Here now the want of a result to be accomplished being felt there steps 
in the actual bhavana (arthibhavana) with its three constituent elements which 
we shall explain further on and fills the place of the wanted result, since here 
takes place a samanabhidhanasruti, i.e., a direct statement of the intimate connexion 
of two matters by means of the two being expressed by the same word, (the s&bdi 
as well as the arthibhavana being 1 expressed by the one optative form). (To 
supply the Srthibhavana, i.e., the peculiar energy of a person to which the sabdi 
bhavana instigates as that which is to be accomplished is more natural than to 
supply anything else as f. i. the sacrifice itself , because the optative form of words 
like "yajeta" expresses both bhavanas, from which circumstance the intimate 
connexion of the two is readily inferred). It might perhaps be remarked by some 
one that other matters too, as f. i. number (i.e. sigular, dual, plural) and time 
(present etc.) are expressed by the one optative affix and that therefore number, 
time, etc. likewise occupy the place of sadhya with regard to the verbal bh&van£. 
But such an assumption would be erroneous as number, time etc. are not fit to fill 
the place of the thing to be accomplished. If the want of an instrument (of the 
verbal bhavana) arises, the place of such a one is filled by the knowledge of the 
optativo form etc. The instrumentality of the optative does not lie in its producing 



the bhavana for the latter exists in the word even before the knowledge (by some 
person) of the optative form; bub rather in the circumstance of the optative form 
expressing the bhavana or its tending to bring about the result to be effected by 
the verbal bhavana (which result as remarked above is the actual bhavana). If 
finally the want of a mode (of the verbal bhftvana) presents itself, the place of such 
a one is filled by the praise or glorification (of the acts of duty, Dharma) which is 
found in the arthavada-passages. 

Actual (arthi) bhavana is to be defined as the peculiar energy (of some person) 
which refers to some action (as f. i. a sacrifice) which energy is engendered by the 
desire of some object. This actual bhavana is in words like yajeta-expressed by 
that element of the word which denotes the verb ; for the verb in general (indepen- 
dent of the different moods and tenses) expresses an energy. This bhavana too 
requires three constituent elements, the matter which is to be accomplished, the 
result ; the means by which the result is to be effected the instrument ; and the 
mode in which the result is effected ; according to the three questions (suggested 
by the actual bhavana as well as the verbal bhavana) : what is to be effected ? by 
what means is it to be effected ? how is it to be effected ? If the thing to be accom- 


plished is asked for, results of the nature of paradise step in as the things to be 
accomplished if the instrument is asked for, action like the sacrifice present them- 
selves as the instruments (by which the result is obtained) ; if the mode of action is 
asked for, all the subsidiary matters as f. i. the pray&jas (which form a part of the 
sacrifice) present themselves and point out the mode of action." 

Now are described the duties of a woman whose husband is dead. A woman 
should never be without the protection of some male member. This of course 
applies to the case of a woman, who chooses to survive her husband. If, however, 
she elects to follow her husband by Sahamarana (by burning herself on the same 
funeral pile with the body of her husband), or by Anugamana (by burning herself 
on a funeral pile separate from that of her husband, if he has died in some foreign 
country), then she should follow the rules of Satism. 

The duties of a widow are thus described in the Skanda Pur&na Kasi-khanda, 
Ch. V., 71 et. seq :— " If by some chance she does not follow her husband, she must 
still observe the rules of good conduct, for by the breach of these rules she falls into 
a lower region. (2) Through her fault her husband even falls from heaven, so also 
her father, mother and brothers. (3) The woman who, on the death of her husband, 
observes chastity as a widow, after death she rejoins her husband in heaven, and 
enjoys all delights with him there. (4) The tying of the braid of the hair during the 
lifo-timo of her husaband is for the object of binding her husband's love with these 
locks ; after the death of her husband the widow should therefore shave her head 
always. (5) She should tako her meals only once a day, and never twice. On every 
third night (of the waxing or waning moon) or fifth, and on the fortnight, she should 
fast. (C) And so also she may fast every month, or perform Chandrayana, or 
Krichchhra, or Paraka, or Taptakrichchhra oven. (7) Sho should sustain her life 
till tho lifc-brcath goes out of her body, of itself, by maintaining it with barley- 
meals, with fruits, herbs, or merely on milk. (8) A widow should never sleep on 
a raised couch, for, by so doing sho causes hor husband to fall from heaven. 
Thorefore, sho should sleep on ground, always wishing happiness to hor husband. 
(9) A widow should nevor anoint hor body, nor uso- perfumery or other fragrant 
uuguents. (10) Sho should daily offor Tarpana, to hor husband with Kusa, 



scsamum and water, reciting his namo and Gotra, as well as to his father and 
grandfather. (11) Sho should worship Visnu with tho idea that this is her husb.ind, 
and not with any othor idea. Sho should always mcditato on her husband through 
this form of Vismi, tho Lord ITari. (12) Whatovor thing was most dear to her 
huslnnd on earth (objects of food, drink etc.), that should bo given to a qualified 
Brahmana, with tho object of satisfying tho soul of tho deceased husband. 
(13) Sho should obsorvo particular vows in tho months of VaisYikha, Kartika and 
Magha. Sho should constantly rccito tho namo of Visnu, go to places of pilgrimages, 
and batho, and givo alms. (14) In tho month of Vaisakha, she should givo pitchers 
full of water; in tho month of Kartika, she should burn lamps full of ghee in a 
tomplo; in the month of Mfigha, sho should givo barley and sesamum, such gifts 
procure heaven-world. 

(15) In the month of Vaisakha, she should open Jala-chhatras where water 
should be distributed to thirsty travellers ; to Devas she should give Galantika (viz., 
she should place on the imago of the Deva, or on the Tulasi plant, a small water 
jar with a hole in the bottom, from which the water drops upon the object of 
worship placed below, as well as she should give a pair of sandals, a fan, an 
umbrella, thin clothes and sandal wood-paste, (16) together with camphor, betel- 
leaves and gifts of flower as well. She should give many water-vessels and flower- 
vessels. (17) She should give drinks of various kinds, grapes and plantain fruits. 
All theso should be given to good Brahmanas, saying, "may my husband be 
satisfied. ,, 

(18) In the month of Kartika she should eat barley food or only one kind of grain- 
food, and should discard brinjals, stirana roots (yams) and beans called Sukas r imbi, 
(barbati). (19) as well as oil, honey, bronze vessels, and pickles. (20) In the month 
of Kartika, if she observes the vow of silence, she should give a beautiful bell ; and 
if she observes the vow of eating on leaf-plates, she should give a vessel of bell- 
metal full Of ghee ; and if she observes the vow of sleeping on ground, she should 
give a couch together with all its accessories. (21) If she has renounced any 
particular fruit, she should give that fruit ; if she has renounced any particular 
essence, she should give that essence ; if she has renounced any particular grain, 
she should give that grain, or sali rice in general. (22) She should exert to give 
a milch cow well adorned with gold. On one side place all these gifts which are 
given, and on the other side place the gifts of the lamps full of ghee. (23) The gift 
of lamps full of ghee in the month of Kartika outweighs them all, and surpasses all 
other gifts, which do not come to its sixteenth part. The lamp should be either of 
gold, or silver, or copper or even of bottle gourd, if given with faith. (24) The 
wick should be given with oil coloured with safflower, and with concentrated 
mind ; and placing the lamp on the head, (25 and 26) and meditating the sun in the 
heart, she should recite the following mantra : — 

"Namas te Rudrarfipaya rasanam pataye namah, Varunaya namas te'stu hari- 
vasa namo's tu te.'' 

She should place the lamp on the water after meditating on the Devata and 
satisfying him. 

(2?) The bathing in the month of Magha should be done up to little after the 
sunrise, and, according to her power, she should observe all the rules of Magha- 
snana. (28) She should feed the Brahmanas, ascetics and hermits with food prepared 
in ghee, with laddus, phenikas (a kind of pastry), indarikas, (a kind of cake), vataka, 
(a round cake made of pulse fried in oil or butter) (29) She should offer other 



sweetmeats, prepared in ghee, and scented in camphor, and made pungent with 
pepper, and full of sugar juice in their inside, pleasant to the eye and sweet 
scented. (30) She should give loads full of dry wood to the Sannyasis (in the month 
of Magna) to warm themselves, and cotton-quilted coats and other warm 
dresses. (31) She should give other kinds of dresses coloured with maddar-wood 
and cotton quilts etc. She should give also fruits, betel-leaves, cloves etc. (32) 
So also blankets of various kinds, houses, soft shoes, and scented oil for rubbing 
the body. (83) She should make the puja of ghee and blankets, after having finished 
the great bath, so also black Agaru &c. with other kinds of incenses in a temple. 
(34) She should give lamps, with thick wicks, and with various kinds of 
uncooked food in a temple, reciting, " may the Lord in the shape of my husband 
be satisfied." (35) The widow, observing all these various kinds of vows and 
observances, should pass the months of Vaisakha, Kartika and Magka. (36) She 
should never ride on a cart driven by bullocks nor should she dress herself in 
boddices, nor other kinds of coloured dresses. (37) Devoted to the memory of her 
husband, she should do nothing without asking her son. Thus observing these 
rules continually, the widow even is considered to be auspicious. (88) Thus, 
endowed with Dharma, the faithful widow attains to the region of her husband, 
and never suffers the sorrows of widowhood hereafter. (39) There is no difference 
between that woman to whom her husband is a god, and between Ganga. She is 
directly like Uina accompanied with Siva. Let therefore wise man honour such a 

widow." 0 

(MANU Y.). 157. a At her pleasure let her emaciate her body by (living on) 
pure flowers, roots, and fruits ; but she must never even mention the name of 
another man after her husband has died. 158, Until death let her be patient (of 
hardships), self-controlled, and chaste, and strive (to fulfill) that most excellent 
duty which (is prescribed) for wives who have one husband only. 159. Many 
thousands of Brahmanas Who were chaste from their youth, haveigone to heaven 
without continuing their race. 160. A virtuous wife who after the death of her 
husband constantly remains chaste, reaches heaven, though she have no son, just 
like those chaste men. 161. But a woman who from a desire to have offspring 
violates her duty towards her (deceased) husband, brings on herself disgrace in 
this world, and loses hor places with her husband (in heaven). 162. Offspring be- 
gotten by another man is here not (considered lawful), nor (does offspring begotten) 
on another man's wife (belong to the begetter), nor is a second husband anywhere 
prescribed for virtuous women." 

Colebrooke's Digest of Hindu Law, Chap. III. Sect. I. 
CXXIII. ANG1RASA* : — (1) " That woman who, on the death of hor husband, 
ascends the same burning pile with him, is exalted to heaven as equal in virtue to 
ARUNDHATI. 2. She who follows her husband to another world, shall dwell in a 
region of joy for so many years as there are hairs ou tho human body, or thirty-five 
millions. 3. As a serpent catcher forcibly draws a snako from his hole, thus, 
drawing her lord from a region of torment, sho enjoys delight together with him. 
4. Tho woman who follows her husband to the pile, expiates tho sin of three 
generations, on the paternal and maternal side, of that family to which sho was 
given while a virgin. 5. Thero, having tho best of husbands, herself best of 
women, enjoying the best of delights, she partakes of bliss with her husband in 
a celestial abodo, as long as fourteen Indras reign. 6. Even though the man 

* Compare Daksa srafiti p. 80 (Ananda Aarama Edn.) Tr. 



k*d slain a priest, or returned evil for good, or killed an intimate friend, the 
woman expiates crimes : this has been declared by AiVGIRASA. 7. No other 
effqctual duty is known for virtuous women, at any timo after the death of their 
lords, except casting themselves into the samo (Ire. 8. As long as a woman, in her 
successive transmigrations, shall doclino burning herself, like a faithful wife, on 
the samo fire with her deceased lord, so long shall she bo not exempted from 
springing again to life in the body of some fcmalo animal. 9. When their lords 
have departed at the fatod time of attaining heaven, no other way but entering the 
same firo is known for women whoso virtuous conduct and whoso thoughts have 
boon do voted to their husbands, and who are agitated with the pangs of so-^ 
partition. " 

(VYASA CXXV). 1. " Learn the power of that widow, who hearing that 
her husband is deceased, and been burned in another region, speedily casts herself 
into lire : 2. Though he have sunk to the region of torment, be restrained in 
dreadful bonds, have reached the place of anguish, be seized by the imps of YAMA. 
3. Be exhausted of strength, and afflicted and tortured for his crimes ; stiN>asa 
serpent-catcher unerringly drags a serpent from his hole. 4. So does she draw her 
husband from hell, and ascend to heaven by the power of devotion. There, with the 
best of husbands, lauded by the choirs of APSaRaS. 5. She sports with her 
husband, as long as fourteen INDRAS reign." 

(BRAHMA-PUR A N A CXXVI). 1. No other way is known for a virtuous 
woman after the death of her husband ; the separate cremation of her husband 
would be lost, to all religious intents. 2. If her lord die in another country, let . 
the faithful wife place his sandals on her breast, and, pure, enter the fire. 3. The 
faithful widow is pronounced no suicide by the recited text of Rigveda : When 
three days of mourning are passed, she obtains legal obsequies." 

Note.— This applies to the Ksatriya woman, not to a JBrahmana. 

(BRIHASPATl OXXXII) " A wife is considered as half the body of her 
husband, equally sharing the fruit of pure and impure acts : whether she ascend the 
pile after him, or survive for the benefit of her husband, she is a faithful wife." 

(VISNU XXV). 14. " After the death of her husband, to preserve chastity, 
or to ascend the pile after him." 

(HARTTA CXXXVII :— " If a person keeping sacred fire dies, then the widow, 
taking up the half-burned wood (from the funeral pile), should perform the sacrifice 
called "the Stri-savana " with the hymns of the Queen of Serpent (Rigveda X. 189. 
1-S) and thus dwell in her husband's house. If a person not keeping the sacred fire 
dies, then she should perform the ceremony in the Laukika fire, and dwell under 
the protection of her father, or an another kinsman, leaving her husband's favourite 
abode, keeping her tongue, hands, feet, and other organs in subjection, strict in her 
conduct, all day mourning her husband, with harsh duties, devotion, and fasts to 
the end of her life, a widow victoriously gains her husband's abode, and repeatedly 
acquires the same mansion with her lord, as is thus described : * That faithful 
woman who practises harsh duties after the death of her lord, cancels all her 
sins, and acquires the same mansion with her lord/ 

Note.— The Sarpa-rajni hymn is the following :— 'Hither has come that spotted 
bull and has settled down before the mother ; and before the father on going up # to 
heaven. She moves along through the luminous spheres, breathing forth from his 
breaths : the mighty (bull) has illumined the sky.— He rules over the thirty 
domains ; and song is bestowed on the winged one, yea, with the light at the break 
of the day.' v 



The Duties of a wife. 


LXXXVII. — Devoted to the pleasure and to the 
good of her husband, of good conduct, with subdued 
passions, (such a wife) obtains renown in this world, 
and after death attains the best end. — 87. 

. mitAksarA. 

Besides, the author again enumerates general duties for all 
women. " Pleasant " is that which is in harmony with one's own 
inclination, without being reproachable ; and that which is beneficial 
in future, is " good." " Pleasant " and "good " form the compound 
in the original " pleasant-good." Intent or devoted to the pleasure 
and good of her husband. 

" Good conducted " is she whose conduct is beautiful. Such 
should she be. ^aiikha has enumerated (or illustrated) what conducts 
are good — " Such as she should not go out of the house without 
informing her relatives, she should not walk fast or without her 
upper garment (mantle). Nor should she converse with (strange or) 
other men with the exception of the shop-keeper (traders), mendicants, 
aged men and physicians. Nor should she expose her navel. She 
should cover herself down to her heels with clothes. She should 
not uncover her breasts. She should not laugh with open mouth. 
She should not hate her husband or his relatives (bandhus). She 
should not associate with harlots, crafty seducers and corrupters, 
nuns, fortune-tellers, and those that work in sorcery, charms or 
magical philter and jugglery, or those who are of immoral conduct ; 
because the character is perverted by keeping evil society." 

" With unsubdued senses," means conquering and restraining 
the senses, viz., she who has subdued hearing, &c, speech &c, and 
mind, &c "She obtains glory " (and) renown, "in this," world and 
attains " the highest end " in the next world. All these duties of 
women (as enumerated by ^aiikha) are to be understood to come into 
force after marriage. 

" Before initiation (a child) may follow its inclinations in 
behaviour, speech, and eating, is the rule of a Smriti (GAUTAMA 
II. 1), and it has been said, that " the law of marriage " stands for 
women in the place of initiation (therefore, before marriage, they have 
not these duties to discharge.) 


The Duties of a Husband having many Wives. 

The author now lays clown the rule in case of a person who 
has got many wives. 


LXXXVIII. — When there exists a wife of the 
same class (savarna), religions works are not to be per- 
formed by a wife of another class. When there are 
wives of the same class, then religious duties are to be 
performed by the eldest and not by the others. — 88. 


When a wife of the same class (as that of the husband) exists, 
then religious works are not to be performed by a wife who is not 
of the same class. When there are many wives of the same class, 
then the performance of religious duties or sacred ceremonies is to 
be done by the eldest wife leaving her, " the others/' viz. the middle 
one or the youngest are not to be deputed for the performance of 
such duties. 


Compare MANU (IX 85-87) :— 41 If twice-born men wed women of their own 
and of other (lower castes), the seniority, honour, and habitation of those (wives) 
must be (settled) according to the order of the castes (varna). (86). Among all 
twice-born men the wife of equal caste alone, not a wife of a different caste by any 
means shall personally attend her husband and assists him in his daily sacred rites. 
(87). But he who foolishly causes that (duty) to be performed by another, while his 
wife of equal caste is alive, is declared by the ancients (to be) as (despicable) as a 
Ch&ndala wife (sprung from the) Brahmana (caste)." 

If there be no wife of the same caste, then he may employ a wife of the lower 
class in attending to the sacred duty, but never a wife of the Stidra class should be so 
employed, because of the prohibition by VASISTHA (XVIII. 18) :• For a&fidra- 
wife who belongs to the black race, (is espoused) for pleasure, not in order to 
fulfil the law/ 1 

(KAT YaYANA, quoted in the Chhandogya Parisista) <« let him who has 
many wives employ one of equal class in^the case of the sacrificial fire, and in 
attendance on himself ; but if there be many such, let him employ the eldest in those 
duties, provided she be blameless (2). Or he may employ in such offices any one 
of them who is mother of an eminent son, who is obedient to his commands, affec- 
tionate, capable of good management, kind in discourse, and well disposed : (3) 
Or without partiality, he may perform the rites of religion with all his wives 
successively, in periods settled according to their precedence, or settled of 
his own authority to the best of his knowledge. (4) We know that the precedence of 
women originates in fortunate destiny ; nor can a husband, by a slight show of 
reverence, content wives of twice-born classes: (5) That woman gains a fortunate 
destiny, who, constantly obsequious to her husband, worships Bhav&ni in this world 




with many acts of austerity, and reverently attend the sacrificial fire." (KaTYa- 
YANA SMRITI. II. 19, 3-8; (Col. Dig. Vol. II p. 125). 

VISNU : — "If many wives of his own class be living, with the eldest alone 
should the husband conduct business relating to acts of religion, even though his 
younger wives be dearer to him ; but if there be no wife of equal class, the business, 
may, in a case of distress* be executed by that wife only who is of the class next 
below him : yet let not a twice-born ever perform holy rites with the aid of a Sfidra 
wife." (Col. Dig. IV. 1. XLIX). 

Note :— See S, B. E . Vol. VII) Visnu, XXVI, 1-3. 

(DAKSA IV. 14-15) :— (I) " The first is the wife married from a sense of duty 
the second promotes sensual gratification ; sensible, not moral effects proceed 
from her. (2) The first wife is called the wife whom acts of duty concern, provided 
she be faultless ; but if she be faulty, there is no offence in employing another wife 
endued with excellent qualities."* 

So also (MANU III. 18 ; VISNU XXVI, 7) :— " The manes and the gods will 
not eat the (offerings) of that man who performs the rites in honour of the gods, 
of the manes, and of guests chiefly with a (Stidra wife's) assistance, and such (a man) 
will not go to heaven." 

The Duties of a Widower. 

Having laid down the law for the wife whose husband is dead, 
the author now propounds the law for one whose wife dies. 

LXXXIX. — The husband having burnt his virtuous 
wife with Agnihotra fire, should take according to law 
as wife and a fire without delay. — 89. 


"Having burnt with Agnihotra fire," i.e. with the ^rauta Vedicfire, 
or in its absence, with the Smarta fire, his dead " wife " possessed 
of the above-mentioned qualities of being virtuous and well- 
conducted &c, " the husband " her lord, " should take again another 
wife, and another fire, according to law." Provided that, he has not 
yet begot any son, or has not completed the sacrifice, or is not 
entitled to enter another order of life (than that of a householder) 
and is not already possessed of any other wife. " Without delay " 
i.e. quickly. 

Because it has been ordained by Daksa (I. 10) " the twice-born 
should not remain Ana^rami (houseless or without belonging to a 
particular order) even for a single day. 

This (rule applies in the case of the death) of the wife, who had 
the right to join with her husband in the performance of fire-sacrifice 

* For differences in reading of these versos, see p. 70 of tho Anandasram 



(i.e. the eldest wife of the same class), and not of any other wife. 
Because it has been ordained : — " He who burns his second wife 
witli VaitAnika fire, while the first wife is living, commits the sin of 
drinking wine." Similarly he who on the death of his second wife 
(while the first is living) abandons the Agnihotra fire is to be known 
as a killer of Bnlhmarja as well as he who wilfully abandons such 
fire " and so on. This is to be understood (only to be applicable) in 
regard of giving fire (burning) to her who had not the right to join 
in the fire-worship with her husband. 

End of the chapter on Marriage, 


Balanibhatta next enters into the question as to the duties of a widower. Of 
course his primary duty is to rekindle the sacred fire, extinguished by the death of 
his wife, and marry again. But if for any reason, he does not re-marry, then also he 
must rekindle the fire according to the rule of .ASVALAYANA. The full method is 
given by BaLAMBHATTA, an abridgement of which is here given :— He should 
take the fire with the mantra, " May Agni Vaisvanara come forward from afar to 
our help, to hear our hymns of praise." " Sought after in the sky, sought after on 
earth, Agni, sought after, hath entered all the planets : Agni Vaiavanara, sought 
after, may guard us from injury by day and by night ! " On an auspicious lunar 
day, after performing his bath, and in the company of Brahmanas, and causing them 
to recite Punyaha, he should take the fire from his hearth, reciting Pranava, and 
place it on the Sthandila. Having kindled the fire there, according to the usual 
rites, he should perform Laja-homa into it, according to the marriage rites. Then, 
after reciting some Vedic mantras, he should continue to perform the usual 
ceremonies. * 

Then Balambhatta quotes Prayoga-parijata and Bhrigu, about re-marriage of 

But those who do not wish to re-marry, are told, by a text of VISNU, quoted in 
Prayoga-parijata, that the widower should not leave his daily fire sacrifices, but 
should continue them with a Kusa effigy of his wife. 

The widower should daily recite certain Yedic mantras. He is not to perform 
P&rvana Sraddha, but may perform Saiikalpa Sraddha. 

In connection with this subject is described the method also of the kindling the 
sacred fire by those persons who have left off the sacrifices, for some reason or 
other. Many persons now-a-days, whether Brahmanas or non-Brahmanas, have 
left off fire-sacrifice. They can resume it according to the ritual laid down therein. 

The following quotation from Aitareya Brahmana (VIII. 2, 9 and 10) is alfco^ 
relevant to this question :—{ 9) "They ask, should an Agnihotra who has lost hi& 
wife, bring the fire oblation, or should he not ? He should do so. li he does not do so*, 
then he is called an Anaddha man. Who is Anaddha ? He who offers oblations- 
either to gods, nor to the ancestors, nor to men. Therefore the Agnihotri who has- 
lost his wife, should nevertheless bring the burnt offering (agnihotram)^ There-is av 
stanza concerning sacrificial customs, where is said, " He who has lost hi& wif^ may 
bring the Sautramani sacrifice ; for he is not allowed to drink Soma V But he must 
discharge the duties towards his parents. H But whereas the sacred tradition; 
(sruti) enjoins the sacrifice,, let him bring the Soma sacrifice^ 



(10) They ask, in what does an Agnihotri who has no wife bring his oblations, 
with Speech (i.e. by repeating the mantras required with his voice) ? In what 
way does he offer his (daily) burnt offering, when his wife dies, after he has already 
entered on the state of an Agnihotri, his wife having (by her death) destroyed the 
qualification for the performance of the (daily) burnt offering ? 

They say, That one has children, grand-children, and relations in this world, and 
in that world. In this world, there is heaven (i.e., heaven is to be gained in this 
world by sacrificing). (The Agnihotri who has no wife, says to his children &c). 

M I have ascended to heaven by means of what was no heaven, (i.e., by the sacrifice 
peformed in this world)." He who does not wish for a (second) wife (for having 
his sacrificial ceremonies continously performed), keeps thus, (by speaking to his 
children, &c. in the way indicated) his connection with the other world up. 

Thence they (his children) establish (new fires) for him who has lost his wife. 

How does he who has no wife bring his oblations (with his mind) ? 

(The answer is) Faith and Truth the sacrifices The marriage of Faith and 
Truth is a most happy one. For by Faith and Truth joined they conquer the 
celestial world. 


The s'fidras are of two classes, Sat-Sfidras and Asat-S'fidras, or the high and low 
class of Sfidras. The Sat-S'udras were at one time Dvijas or twice-born, but owing 
to their having left the sacrificial rites &c. they have become s'fidra like. Accord- 
ing to Raghunandana, the Kayasthas of Bengal belong to this class of Sat-Sfidras. 
According to Balambhatta these Sat-Sudras are like widowers, whose sacrificial 
fire is extinguished. In this connection he lays down the rules of ceremonies to be 
performed by Sat-Sfidras. They are entitled to perform Vaisvadeva ceremony in 
the same manner as the widowers. Yajfiavalkya in verse 121 gives them the same 

According to the Viiyu Purana the Sat-Sudras may perform all the five Maha 
yaj fias, but with uncooked food. After the performance of the ceremony they should 
send these things in the house of the Brahmanas. 

According to Balambhatta these may perform also Homa ceremony in the fire 
with the mantra " Namas " with ghee, and with the help of a Br&hmana. 

In the Skanda Purana, Prabhasa Khan da, it is said that a Sfidra should not keep 
Sikha. But that applies only to Asat-Sfidras, The Sat-Sfidras are governed by the 
rule of VASISTHA (II. 19-21) : — 

(19) "Besides, agricultural, trading, tending cattle, and lending money at 
interest, (20) To serve those (superior castes) has been fixed as the means of liveli- 
hood for a S'fidra. (21) (Men of) all (caste) may wear their hair arranged according 
to the customs fixed (for their family), or allow it to hang down excepting the look 
on the crown of the head." 

So also MANU (V. 140) :— S'fidras who live according to the law, shall each 
month shave (their heads), and offer the monthly Sraddha ; their mode of purifica- 
tion (shall be) the same as that of Vaisyas, and their food, the fragments of an 
Aryan's meal." 

Ho should perform the worship of Dovas with the help of Brahmanas, and 
similarly hear the recital of the Puranas and Itihasas. 

According to VISNU ho should observe the universal rules of duty (II. 14-17.) :— 
M ANU (II. 14-17) :~" (14) For a Sudra, all brauches of art (such as painting and 
the other fine arts); (16) Forbearance, veracity, restraint, purity, liberality, self- 
oontrol, not to kill (any living being), obedience towards one's Gurus, visiting 



places of pilgrimage, sympathy (with tho afflicted), (17) Straightforwardness, 
freedom from covctousnoss, reverence towards gods and Brahmanas, and freedom 
from anger are duties common (to all castes). " 

[Translator's note :— The Sat-S'fldras may also cook tho food for tho Brahmanas. 
APASTAMBA (II. 2, 3, 1-0) :— " Pure men of tho first three castes shall prepare 
the food (of a householder which is used) at the Vaisvadeva ceremony. (2) The 
cook shall not speak, nor cough, nor spit, while his face is turned towards tho food. 
(3) Ho shall purify himself by touching wator if ho has touched his hair, his limbs, 
or his garment. (4) Or Sfldras may prepare tho food, under the superintendence of 
men of tho first throe castes. (5) For them is prescribed the same rule of sipping 
water (as for their masters). (6) Besides, tho (s'fidra cooks) daily shall cause to 
be cut tho hair of their heads, their beards, the hair on their bodies, and their 
nails. (7) And they shall bathe, keeping their clothes on. (8) Or they may trim 
(their hair and nails) on the eighth day (of each half month), or on the days of the 
full and new moon." 

These Sat-S'tidras may of course perform the Vaisvadeva ceremony in the kitchen 
fire, since they have no sacred fire, just as widowers do (APASTAMBA II. 2, 3, 
16) " (At the Vaisvadeva sacrifice) he shall offer the oblations with his hand, 
(throwing them) into the kitchen-fire."] 

Widowers by Fiction. 

The person who has forgotten his Sakha is called the Sakharanda. The person 
who does not know his Kalpa-sutra is called a Kalpa-randa. These Randas or 
widowers not knowing their Kalpa or Sakha, may follow the Baudhaya Sakha. 

In the Maharnava is given a detail of the countries in which particular Sakhas 
prevail. India is divided into two parts by the river Narmada. The country north 
of it is called the North, and the south of it is called the South. In the country south 
of Narmada are the following : — Apastambi, Asval&yani, Ranayani, Pippaladi. In 
the country north ^of Narmada are the following : — Madhyandini, Sankhayani, 
Kauthumi, Saunaki. 

In the countries bordering on the river Tungabhadra, the Krisna, and the 
Godavari, up to the Sadihari Hills, as well as up to the Andhra country, the Bahu- 
richa Brahmanas have Asvalayana Sakha. 

In the north in the country of the Gurjaras, the Rigveda is their Veda, their 
Brahmana is Kausltaki, and their Sakha is S'ankhayana. In the Andhras and in the 
south-east (Agneyi) countries up to the river Godavari to the sea, the Veda is 
Yajur-Veda, the Brahmana is Taittariya, and the Sakha is Apastambi. 

Beginning with the Saih&dri Parvata up to the Nairitya sea (south-western sea), 
the Sakha is Hiranya kesi under the domain of Parasur&ma. 

From Mayura Parvata up to the country of the Gurjaras pervading the north- 
west is the Maitrfiyana Sakha. In Anga, Banga and Kalinga, Kava and Gurjara, the 
Sftkha V&jasaneyi of the Madhyanandina recession. 

By the Risi Y&jnavalkya it was spread in all countries. This V&jasaneyi 
Veda with the first Eanva recension. 

Translator's notes. 

Compare MANU (V. 167-169) " (167) A twice-born man, versed in the 
sacred law, shall burn a wife of equal caste who conducts herself thus and dies 
before him, with (the sacred fires used for) the Agnihotra, and with the 
sacrificial implements. (168) Having thus, at the funeral, given the sacred 
fires to his wife who dies before him, he ma}' marry again, and again kindle (the 
fires). (169) (Living) according to the (preceding) rules, he must never neglect the 



five (great) sacrifices, and, having taken a wife, he must dwell in (his own) house 
during the second period of his life." 

The Re-marriage of widows. 

NaRADA (XIT. 97) :— " When her husband is lost or dead, when he has become 
a religious ascetic, when he is impotent, and when he has been expelled from caste : 
these are the five causes of legal necessity in which a woman may be justified in 
another husband." 

PARA3ARA (IV. 30) 4< When her husband is lost or dead, when he has become 
a religious ascetic, when he is impotent, and when he has been expelled from caste : 
these are the five causes of legal necessity, in which a woman may be justified in 

taking another husband. " 

VASISTHA (XVII. 74 et seq) If a damsel at the death of her husband had 
been merely wedded by (the recitation of) sacred texts, and if the marriage had not 
been consummated, she may be married again." 

The wife of an Emigraut may Re-marry. 

NARADA (XII. 98 et seq.) :— " (98) Eight years shall a woman wait for the 
return of her absent husband, or four years, if she has no issue ; after that time, 
she may betake herself to another man. (99). A Ksatriya woman shall wait 
six years, or three years, if she has no issue ; a Vaisya woman shall wait four 
(years), if she has no issue ; any other Vaisya woman (i.e., one who has no issue), two 
years. (100). No such (definite) period is prescribed for a Sfidra woman, whose 
husband is gone on a journey. Twice the above period is ordained, when the 
(absent) husband is alive and tidings are received of him. (101). The above series of 
rules has been laid down by the creator of the world for those cases where a man 
bas disappeared. No offence is imputed to a woman if she goes to live with another 
man after (the fixed period has elapsed)." 

GAUTAMA (XVIII. 15 and 17) " (15). (A wife must) wait for six years, if her 
husband has disappeared. If he is heard of, she shall go to him. (17). (The wife) 
of a Brahmana (who has gone to a foreign country) for the purpose of studying 

(must wait) twelve years." 

VASISTHA (XVII. 78 and 79) :— " (78). In this manner a wife or the Brahmana 
caste who has issue (shall wait) five years, and one who has no issue, four years ; a 
wife of the Ksatriya caste who has issue, five years, and one who has no issue, three 
years; a wife of the Vaisya caste who has issue, four years, and one who has no 
issue, two years ; a wife of the s'tidra caste who has issue, three years, and one who 
has no issue, one year. (79). After that among those who are united (with her 
husband) in interest, or by birth, or by the funeral cake, or by libations of water, or 
by descent from the same family, each earlier named person is more venerable than 
the following ones." 

(MANU IX. 76):— "If the husband went abroad for some sacred duty (she) 
must wait for him eight years, if (he went) to (acquire) learning or fame six (years), 
if (he went) for pleasure three years." 

Note:— Nanda says, " The meaning is that no sin is committed if she after- 
wards takes another husband." 

This is by the rule of Dharma fedstra. The law, however, as administered in 
the days of Chandragupta Maurya, was more liberal towards women. Thus in the 
Arthaa&stra of Kautilya, translated by R. Sharaasastry, B.A., at page 201, are given 
the rules about re marriage :— " Wives who belong to fc'fidra, Vaisya, Ksatriya or 


BrAhmana easto, and who havo not given birth to children should wait as long as a 
year for their husbands who havo gone abroad for a short time ; but if they are such 
as have given birth to children, they should wait for their absent husbands for more 
than a year. If they aro provided with maintenance, they should wait for twice 
the period of time jusfomcntioned. If they aro not so provided with, their well-to-do 
jnatis should maintain them either for four or eight years. Then the jnatis should 
leave them to marry after taking what had been presented to them on the occasion 
of their marriages. If tho husband is a Brahmana, studying abroad, his wife who 
has no issue should wait for him for ten years ; but if she has given birth to children 
she should wait for twelve years. If tho husband is of Ksatriya caste, his wife 
should wait for him till her death ; but even if she bears children to a savarna 
husband (i.e., a second husband belonging to the same gotra as that of tho former 
husband) with a view to avoid the extinction of her race, she shall not be liable to 
contempt thereof (Savarnatascha prajata na'pavadam labheta). If the wife of an 
absent husband lacks maintenance and is deserted by well-to-do jnatis, she may 
re-marry one whom she likes and who is in position to maintain her and relieve 
her misery. 

A young wife (kumdri) who is wedded in accordance with the customs of the 
first four kinds of marriage (dharmavivahat), and whose husband has gone abroad 
and is heard of, shall wait for the period of seven menses (saptatirthanykankseta) 
provided she has not publicly announced his name, but she shall wait for him a year 
in case of her having announced the name of her absent husband who is heard of. 
In the case of a husband who is gone abroad but who is not heard of, his wife shall 
wait for the period of five menses, but if the absent husband is not heard of, his 
wife shall wait for him for the period of ten menses. In the case of a husband who is 
gone abroad and is not heard of, his wife shall, if she has received only a part of 
sulka from him, wait for him for the period of three menses, but if he is not heard 
of, she shall wait for the period of seven menses. A young wife who has received 
the whole amount of sulka shall wait for the period of five menses for her absent 
husband who is not heard of ; but if he is heard of, she shall wait for him for the 
period of ten menses. Then with the permission of judges (dharmas thairvisrista), 
she may marry one whom she likes ; for neglect of intercourse with wife after her 
monthly ablution is, in the opinion of Kautilya, a violation of one's duty (tirtho- 
paradho his dharmavadha iti Kautilyah). 

In the case of husbands who have long gone abroad (dirghapravasinah), who 
have become ascetics, or who have been dead, their wives having no issue, shall wait 
for them for the period of seven menses ; but if they have given birth to children, 
they shall wait for a year. Then (each of these women) may marry the brother of 
her husband. If there are a number of brothers to her lost husband, she shall marry 
such a one of them as is next in age to, her former husband, or as is virtuous and is 
capable of protecting her, or one who is the youngest and unmarried. If there are 
no brother to her lost husband, she may marry one who belongs to the same gotra 
as her husband's or a relative. But if there are many such persons as can be selected 
in marriage, she shall choose one who is a nearer relation of her lost husband 


Chapter IV. — On the distinctions of castes (Varna) and 





Having "'ordained that a Brahmana may have four wives (of 
four different castes), a Ksatriya (similarly) three, a Vaisya (similarly 
two, and a f^udra one, it has also been said that sons should be 
begotten in them. Now the author tells the distinction as to what 
kind of son is produced in what woman, by what father. 


XC. — By men of the same caste (Varna) in women 
of the same caste (varna) are born sajati (sons of equal 
toirth or caste). In blameless marriages sons (are be- 
gotten) continuing the line. — 90. 



" By men of the same caste," such as Brahmanas and the rest, 
"in women of the same caste," such as Brahmani and the rest ; 
" Sajati " (equal in caste or birth to father and mother) " sons " are 

" This law is propounded for married women " (see verse 92 
infra), is a precept which occurs at the end of all these verses (V.92), 
and therefore by (the rule of Logic called) Upasamhara* (a proviso 
which occurring at the conclusion limits the signification of the 
preceding general proposition), married women of the same class are 
to be taken. The words " married women " being relative terms, 
it follows that the phrase, " by men of the same caste " means " by 
married men of the same caste. " 

The repetition of the word Savar^a (of the same class) in the 
Text is to make the meaning clearer. Therefore this is the sense con- 
veyed by the above passage :— Because of their being produced, 
according to the above-mentioned rule, in a married woman of the 
same caste by a married man of the same caste, therefore they are of 
(equal or) same caste (or birth). 

Therefore it follows that the sons known as Kunda, Golaka, 
Kanina, Sahodaja, &c, are Asavarna i.e., not of the same caste. 

* 44 Summarizing, rosumo, conclusion." M-W. 


They are to be distinguished on the one hand from sons of the same 
caste, and on the other hand from Anuloma and Pratiloma sons. 
They are entitled to practise the universal (dharmas) duties, such as 
ahiihsa, (harmlessness), &c. As there is this (text of the) Smriti (on 
the subject) : — " But all those born in consequence of a violation (of 
the law) are, as regards their duties, equal to Sftdras." MANU, X. V. 

" Born in consequence of a violation of the law " born of adult- 
ery. They are entitled to the duties (dharma) of ^udras, viz., serving 
the twice-born &c. 

An objector raises the question : — That if Kunda and Golaka be 
non-Br&hmanas then their exclusion from being invited to Sraddha 
ceremony is irrelevant (for Brahmanas only are invited to ^raddhas) 
and also illogical and unreasonable. Because he who is produced 
by a father of the same species r jati), in a mother of the same 
species (jati) belongs to the same species (jati), indeed, as from an ox 
and a cow is produced a cow, and from a horse and a mare is 
begotten a horse. Therefore, the proposition that by a Brahmana 
man in a Brahmana woman is produced Brahmana is not (whether 
they be married or not) consistent (the condition of marriage being 

Therefore, where the author (Yaj naval kya) having enumerated 
Kanina, Paunarbhava and other kinds (of bastard sons), adds, "This 
law is propounded by me in regard to sons of equal caste (sajati) 
<Book II. V. 131), he would contradict this text (if it were to mean 
that sajati sons can be of married couple only.) 

This (objection of the opponent) is not valid and has no force. 
The prohibition of inviting Golaka and Kunda in Sraddha, is for the 
purpose of removing the natural error, (which might otherwise arise 
from arguing) that the son produced by a Brahmana man in a 
Brahmana woman must necessarily be a Brahmana (and therefore, 
fit to be invited to Sraddha). As the Patita (an out-caste, degraded) 
has also been excluded from ^raddha, who by no possibility could 
have been invited. 

Nor is it opposed to reason, where caste (species, jati) is cogni- 
sable by sensuous perception, there it might be so (that a cow pro- 
duces a cow and an ox and ox). But the castes (jati) like Brahmana 
&c, (is not a matter of perception,), but a matter of convention 
(known by Smriti), as has been traditioned, (and a man gets a caste 
according to the Smriti direction). Thus though all Brahmanas are 



equal, yet they have got various Gotras ; as Kundinas, VatJistha, Atri, 
Gautama, &c, known by tradition (smriti). So, though all men are 
equal, yet the castes (jati) of Brahmanas &c., are defined by tradition 
(smarana). : 

On similar considerations depends the caste of father and 
brother (i.e., they are Brahmanas &c, because they had descended 
from parents who were Brahmanas &c.,) and so on. Nor is this 
explanation open to the objection of being an argument in a circle. 
Because this world is without beginning, (and these relations are 
eternal), like the usage (determining the relation between) the word 
and its meaning. 

As regards the objection based on the text of Yajnavalkya 
(II. 13. ) " This law has been propounded by me with regard to sons 
equal by caste " will be explained in its proper place as not being 
possible to explain it as a mere Anuvada &c. 

The Ksetraja son has the caste of her mother, as it has been 
so ruled on the law of Niyoga, and by the concurrent practice of the 
Sistas (eminent men held as authorities). Thus Dbritarasfcra, Pandu 
and Vidura, being Ksetraja sons, acquired the caste of their mother 
(i.e., were Ksatriyas, though their father was a Brahmana). Here let 
us finish, no use of further disquisition. 

Moreover, " in blameless forms of marriages," such as Brahma, 
Daiva', &c, " are produced sons who continue the line," being free 
from disease, long-lived, and endowed with religion and offspring. 

Translator's note.—Oooipare MANU (III. 42 ): — "In the blameless marriages 
blameless children are born to men, in blamable (marriages) blamable (offspring) | 
one should therefore avoid the blamable (forms of marriage), M 

(M ANU X. 5) : — " In all castes ^varna) those (children) only which begotten 
in the direct order on wedded wives, equal (in caste and married as) virgins, are to 
be considered as belonging to the same caste (as their fathers). " 

In verse II. 134 Yfvjnavalkya says after enumerating all kinds of sons 14 This 
law is propounded by me in regard to sons equal by class. ,, It is explained by 
Vijuanesvara there as follows 44 (38) The maxim is applicable to sons alike by caste 
(jati), not to such as differ in rank. (39) Here the damsel's son (kanina), the son of 
hidden origin (gftilhaja), tho son received with a bride (sahoiiaja), and a son by a 
twice-born woman (paunarbhava), aro deemed of like class, through their natural 
father, but in thoir own characters : for it has been said that they are not within 
tho dettnition of caste (jati) and class (varna)." 


Tho connocticn of this chapter with tho provious ono is through verse I. 57, 
where a Brahmana is allowed to have wives of four castes (varna), a Ktatriya throe 
varnas and so on. Tho question naturally arises, " what will bo tho jftti or caste of 
Ust? offspring of such mixed raarriagos ? " As a preliminary to answer this question 


1 - i - " " 

Ydjnavalkya recites this sloka, propounding heroin that whero tho husband and 
wife boing lawfully vvoddod produce a son, both of thorn being of tho samo 
varna or casto, tho son is of tho sarao casto, or Saj&ti. Tho word, son, in tho text, 
includes daughters also. In tho noxt vorsos, Yftjiiavalkya will explain the jfttis of 
children of mixed marriages, 

Tho repetition of tho word, savarna, in tho verso under discussion, is for the 
purposes of clearness only. It has also this additional sonso that thoro is a dis- 
tinction between var^ahood and j&tihood, for example, a person may bo a Br&hmana 
jfiti, but not of Brahmaua varna. In fact a Brahmana varna is a sub-class of 
Brfihmana jdti. A person of Brahmaua jati may bo of another varna. That boing 
so, tho word, varna, here is a technical term (rfidha). 

So also in MANU (X. 5) : — " In all castes (varna) those (children) only which are 
begotten in the direct order on wedded wives, equal (in casto and married as) 
virgins, are to be considered as belonging to the same caste (as their fathers). " 

In another view, the word, varna, is a larger term, including many jatis in them. 
There are only four varnas, while jatis may be infinite. 

To the same effect is the text of DEVALA " A person becomes a Brahmaua, 
who is begotten by a Brahmaua father and a Br&hmani mother, and has passed 
through religious sacrament. The samo is the case of Ksatriyas, VaLsyas, and SQdras 
born of the same class of mothers. " Hero also marriage is a necessary condition. 
Therefore a son produced in a lawfully wedded Brahmatri wife by a lawfully wedded 
Br&hmana husband a Brfthmaua is produced. So also is the case with Ksatriyas and 
the rest. 

A son produced by a lawfully wedded wife of a lower varna by a lawfully 
wedded husband of a higher varna is a Anuloma son, getting the title of MGrdhd- 
vasikta and the rest, but will not get the title of Brahmanahood and the rest. 

The sons produced on women of the same varna, but not wedded women, are 
Kundas and Ksetrajas &c. 

The sons produced on women of different varnas and. not wedded to the 
begetter are Pratiloma sons and of course they do not get the varna of Brahmana- 
hood &c. • 

Therefore the word, " Saj&ti, " means one having the same j&ti as its father and 
mother and that they must be married parents." 

If these progenies of mixed marriages do not belong to any of the four varnas, 
then what will be the dharmas of these people ? To this the commentator answers 
by saying that " they are entitled to practise the dharmas which are of universal 
application, 99 In other words, the special dharmas of the four varnas do not apply 
to these mixed progeny, but the universal dharmas of all humanity. That is to say, 
the progeny, of unmarried people cannot be classified under any varnas, and must 
be treated asSudras by virtue of Manu's text (X 41). 

To the same effect is YAM A ;— A child begotten by adulterous intercourse by 
a man of the same varna on a woman of the same varna, while her husband is alive, 
is called Kunda. Similarly, if her husband be dead the child is called Golaka. 
Both these (Kunda and Golaka) have no jati or caste. Similarly all children produced 
on wives of others, not of the same varna, are similarly callled Kundas, and 
Golakas. They, it is said nowhere, do not get the varna of their mother, nor is 
there any Sruti to the effect that they get the varna of their father, their 
children are not to bo taken in marriage in the lines of tho kinsmen of their 
father and mother." 

To tho samo effect is the text of BAUDHaYANA, who having premised 




Brahmanas and Ritvijas, goes on to say, " Haleyas, Yaleyas, Putrika-putras, 
Paraksetrajas, Sahoras, Kamin as, Anujas, Avara-dvi-pravarjas, should be avoided/' 

The son of a re-married woman, though a progeny of marriage, and consequently 
legitimate, yet is considered as a blameworthy offspring, because according to 
the text of MANU already quoted a re-married woman cannot be called a patni. 
Patni is that wife who joins her husband in religious sacrifices (See PANINI IV. 1. 33.) 
And MANU uses the word " patni " in his verse X. 5. 

Of course a Kbetraja son stands on a different footing. In his case also there 
is no marriage between the person begetting and on the woman given birth to child. 

In fact, the varnas like Brahmanas, &c , have nothing to do with birth, but with 
Smriti convention. Thus, NARADA, VASISTHA, VLSVAMITRA and the rest are 
considered as Brahmanas, though their mothers were non-Brahmanas. Therefore, 
the rule is that the varna Brahmanahood, &c, is the creation of Smriti only, and not 
of any physical birth. Thus as the word " ghata," which originally meant an earthen 
jar, has now come to mean a golden vessel also. 

Though the Keetraja sons, Dhritar&stra, &c, strictly speaking, were not of 
Ksatriya varna, yet the dharmas of the K atriyas, were applied to thorn on the 
strength of the text of VISNU, &c. 

« So also MANU which we have already quoted above. 

The four varnas were created from the four limbs of the primeval Puru?a. 
But in the Suta-samhita, Siva-mahatma-khanda, XI Adhyaya, the sages said :— 
"(1) O Adorable one, O best among the knowers of all SSstras, tell to us the rule of 
finding out 'the j&ti, according to the Veda alone." " (2) Suta said, " 1 shall'tell you 
respectfully the discrimination of jatis for the good of the world. Agastya also 
in ancient times having bowed to Siva, had put the same question to him." 
(3) In ancient times when in the partial' Pralaya all the high sages had come 
to an end, and the world was covered with darkness, and the great light, 
the thousand-headed Purusa, a fragment of Visnu, and called Visva and Narayana, 
slept on the ocean of milk, meditating on Rudra, that best knower of Brahmana. 
(5) O Brahmanas, there arose at some time from the navel of that sleeping lord 
a mighty lotus luminous as the morning sun. (6) The Lord Brahma, called 
Hiranyagarbha, the lord of the whole world, arose in that lotus in a most beautiful 
form. (7, 8) From the mouth of that Brahma, the Paramecin, arose high Brahmanas, 
best among the knowers of Veda, along with Brahmana women. From his hands 
arose with their respective women the lords of the earth (Ksatriyas), and from his 
thighs arose the Vaisyas along with their wives under the command of Siva, 
the Mah&deva, in accordance with the residual vasana of their past lives- From 
the two feet of that great Purusa arose the kudras along with their wives. 
(10) In their own respective wives through lawful method were born men of their 
own caste, but in women of lower origin through husbands of higher origin, were 
born the Anulomas. (11) While in women of higher origin by men of lower origin 
were born Pratilomas. The intermediate caste (antaralika) was born on varna 
women by anuloma method, while the outcastcs (vratya) were born on varna women 
through pratiloma connection. (12) A child born of a Brahmani married woman by 
a Brahmana through adultery is called a Kuntla, a child born of a widow Br&hmani 
woman by adultery with a Brahmana, is called Golaka." 

The whole chapter then goes on to give a list of various mixed castes. 

Those various sub-castes are fully described in that twelfth chapter of tho 
fciva-mahatmya Khamla of the Suta-Samhita. They will bo described in thoir 
proper places later on. 


Thus tho definition of Brahmana may bo oithor 4< ho who is born of parents, 
both of whom aro Brahmanas, or ho who descends from a stock which in tho beginning 
6f creation was declared as a Brahmana. A third class of Brahmanas is like those of 
Visvamitra and others who became Brahmanas by the fervour of their parents. 

Thus in tho Mahabhasya, on Stitra IV. 1. 104 of Panini, this point has been fully 
discussed. That SAtra is to tho following effect " Tho affix ^ comes after 
tho words ' Bida/ &c, in denoting a remote (Gotra) descendant: but after those 
words of this class which aro not the names of ancient sages, the affix I 3 * has 
tho force of denoting immediate descendant." 

Tho Mahabhasya commentary on this stitra shows that Visvamitra by his Tapas 
became a Risi, and not only ho but his father and grandfather also became ULis. 
Thus these Tapas Brahmanas are one class of Brahmanas. 

A descendant of a Brahmana father from a Brahmani mother, both being lawfully 
married with each other, is also a Brahmana, This is the general rule. 

The son raised on a Brahmani widow by her husband's younger brother by 
the method of Niyoga is also a Brahmana, though the parties in this case are not 
married to each other. This is the case of a Sastra created Brahmana. 

Thus there are three kinds of Brahmanas as is said in the following verse : — 
" Because a Brahma nahood depends either on Tapas or on Sruti, or on Yoni (birth), 
he who is devoid of Tapas or feruta is merely a Brahmana by birth." The word, 
"tapas," here, means u the performance of austerities like Chandrayana, &c" feruta 
means " the studying of the Vedas and the Veda iigas. M 44 Yoni" means 44 birth 
from a Brahmani mother begotten by a Brahmana father," Of course a person who 
has neither Tapas nor Srutam is a Brahmana merely by birth and therefore not 
a full Brahmana. 

He is merely a jati Brahmana and consequently he is entitled to all the kriyas 
or duties of a Brahmana. 

The Brahmana is also defined thus as regards his qualities 44 Gaurah 
suchya charah pingala-kapilakesah " iti. 

The Brahmana is of white colour and of sunny yellow hair and of pure conduct. 
Or the word 44 pingala-kapila-kesa " may be really two words, pingalah and kapila- 
kesah. In that case the verse should mean 44 the Brahmana is he whose colour is 
Gaura (white) or pingala (reddish brown), who is of good conduct and whose hair is 
of kapila (tawny) colour. 

Of the children born by asavarna marriages they are of twelve classes, six 
belonging to anuloma division and six belonging to pratiloma. 


Having described the classes (varnas) the author now describes 
the anulomas (the pure mixed castes.) 


XCI. — By a Brahmana in a Ksatriya woman is 
produced merely a Murdhavasikta ; in a Vaisya woman, 
an Ambastha ; and in a iiSudra woman, a Nisada or 
a Parasava even. — 91. 





Mfirdhavasikta is the name of that son who is produced by 
a Brahmana in his Ksatriya wedded wife ; on a wedded girl of Vaisya 
class is born the Ambastha, on a wedded $udra woman is born 
the son called Nisada. Nisada is also the name of a caste who live 
by catching fish and are pratiloma born. The Nisada of the text 
is not that Nisada. Therefore he has got an alternative name, 
the Nisada and Parasava (in order to distinguish him from the other 
Nisada.) The phrase " By a Brahmana " is understood everywhere 
in the above clauses. 

As to what has been ordained by ^afikha : — viz. } " The son 
begot by a Brahmana on a Ksatriya woman is even a Ksatriya. 
The son begot by a Ksatriya on a Vaisya woman is even a Vaisya, 
The son begot by a Vaisya on a fc^udra woman is even a ^ftdra/' 
This is declaratory of the fact that such sons have the duties (dharma) 
respectively of a Ksatriya, Vaisya, &c, and is neither meant to deny 
them the caste of Murdhavasikta, &c, nor for the declaration that 
they belong to or get the castes of Ksatriya, Vaisya, &c. Therefore, 
in matters of staff, skin, sacred thread, &c, relative to the initiation, 
&c, of Murdhavasikta and the rest, the ceremony is to be performed 
like those declared for a Ksatriya, &c. Previous to initiation they are 
to be known as (Kamachdra act as they like), &c, like the others. 


XCII. — The sons begot on a Vaisya and Sudra 
woman by a Ksatriya are called Mahisya and Ugra 
respectively ; by a Vaisya on a &udra woman, a Karana : 
this law is propounded with regard to married women. 


In Vaisya and ^ildra wedded wives are begot by a Ksatriya 
husband, sons respectively known as Mahisya and Ugra. The son 
produced by a Vaisya on a $£ldra wedded wife is called Karana. 
This law of nomenclature of Savarna (same class), Murdhavasikta and 
the rest, is to be understood to have been propounded or said iii 
regard to married or wedded wives. These six, viz. y Milrdhavasikta, 
Ambastha, Nisada, Mahisya, Ugra, and Karana, are to be known as 
Anulomaja-sons (produced by direct or smooth connection.) 



In the Sftta-Samhitl in tho same chapter aro described the anulomas in tho 
following terms :— " (10) In their own respective wives, through lawful method aro 
born nion of thoir own caste, but in women of lower origin through husbands of 
highor origin, aro born tho anulomas. (11) While in women of higher origin by men 
of lower origin aro born pratiloinas. Tho intermediate caste (antaralika) is born on 
varna women by anuloma method, while tho outcastcs (vr&tya) aro born on varna 
women through pratiloma connection. (12) A child born of a Br&hmani woman whose 
husband is alive by another Brahmana through stoalth (adultery) is called a Kunrla. 
Similarly a child born of a widow Brahraani woman by adultery with a Br&hmana 
is called a Golaka." 

Tho word "hi" means "merely." In the above verse of 91 of Y&jnavalkya 
the meaning is that Mftrdhavasiktas, &c, are merely Mtirdh&vasiktas, &c, thoy 
do not get the varna or caste either of the father or mother. Thus Parasurdma was 
a Murdh&vasikta, because his father was a Brahmana and his mother was a Ksatriya. 
He legally had no varna or caste, but through the great fervour of tapas, or through 
the grace of God he became a Brahmana in the sense that he obtained all the rights 
and privileges of a Brdhmana (dharmas of a Br&hmana), but he was not by j&ti 
a Brahmana, and his case was like that of Visv&mitra. This is the opinion of some. 

If on women of lower origin (varna) are begotten by men of higher origin by 
stealth but not by marriage, children, then those children have got peculiar 
designation of their own, as mentioned in the same Sflta-samhita : — ft (13) A child 
born of a wedded Ksatriya woman by a Brahmana Ksatriya husband is called 
Savarna or Mflrdhavasikta ; but the same child if born by stealth (by adultery 
with her) is called Naksatra-jivi. (14, 15) A son born through a Vaiaya wedded wife 
by a Brahmana husband is called Nis&da or Parasava, but the same child born of 
stealth through her is called a Kumbhakara whose another name is Urdhan&pita." 

To the same effect is MANU (X. 6):— " Sons, begotten by twice-born men 
on wives of the next lower castes, they declare to be similar (to their fathers, 
but) blamed on account of the fault (inherent) in their mothers." These are 
a Jittle higher than their mothers and lower than their fathers' castes. As 
MANU (X. 7) : — " Such is the eternal law concerning (children) born of wives, 
one degree lower (than their husbands) ; know (that) the following rule (is appli- 
cable) to those born of women two or three degrees lower. (8) From a Br&hmaua 


with the daughter of a Vaisya is born (a son) called an Ambastha, with the daughter 
of a Sudra a Nisada, who is also called a Parasava. (9) From a Ksatriya and the 
daughter of a Stidra springs a being, called Ugra, resembling both a Ksatriya and a 
fetidra, ferocious in his manners, and delighting in cruelty. (10) Children of a Brah- 
mana by (women of) the three (lower) castes, of a Ksatriya by (wives of) the two 
(lower) castes, and of a Vaisya by (a wife of) the one caste (below him) are all six 
called base-born (apasada)." 

In the verse 91 of Yajnavalkya the word used is "Sfidry t W' the locative singu- 
lar of SOdri. But the feminine of Sfldra is Sfidra, and the proper form ought to be 
is Sudr&yam. 

Nis&da is the name of a fisher caste also, and according to Vyasa he is the pro- 
geny of a SQdra man by a Ksatriya woman. He is of course a pratilomaja. 

To go on with Stita-samhita :— " (16) Begotten by a Brahmana father onas'fidrd 
woman is the F&rasava. The same begotten by stealth is Nisada." According to 
this view Parasava and Nisada, though same in their physical origin, yet the one is 
born of wedlock and the other is of illicit intercourse. Devala also gives a similar 


YA jna v alky a smriti 

explanation. In fact, the force of the word " va " in Yajfiavalkya's verse 91, is to 
indicate, that the terms, Parasava and Nisada, are not interchangeable, but are 
applied to offspring of wedlock and illicit intercourse respectively. 

The text of SAiVKHA quoted by Yijuane^vara is similar to the Sutras of Visnu 
(XVI. t-3) " (1) On women equal in caste (to their husbands) sons are begotten, 
who are equal in caste (to their fathers). (2) On women of lower caste than their 
husbands sons are begotten, who follow the caste of their mothers. (3) On women 
of higher caste than their husbands* sons are begotten, who are despised by the 

As regards the children born of Sudra women by men of higher caste the fol- 
lowing is the rule of MANU (X. 69-73) :— " (69) As good seed, springing up in good 
soil turns out perfectly well, even so the son of an Aryan by an Aryan woman is 
worthy of all the sacraments. (70) Some sages declare the seed to be more important 
and others the field ; again others (assert that) the seed and the field (are equal y 
important); but the legal decision on this point is as follows: (71) Seed, sown on 
barren ground, perishes in it ; a (fertile) field also, in which no (good) seed (is sown), 
will remain barren. (72) As through the power of the seed (sons) born of animals 
became sages who are honoured and praised, hence the seed is declared to be more 
important. (73) Having considered (the case of) a non-Aryan who acts like an Aryan, 
and (that of) an Aryan who acts like a non- Aryan, the creator declared, * Those two 
are neither equal nor unequal. 9 99 » 


The author now describes the pratilomajas (or the sons pro- 
duced by inverse connection). 


XCIII. — The son begot by a Ksatriya and a Brahmani. m 
woman is called a Suta, by a Vaisya is called Vaidehika, 
and by a Sudra a Chandala-outcast from all religions, 
(dharma). — 93. 


The sons begot on a Brahmani woman by a Ksatriya, Vaisya, 
and £>udra, receive respectively the appellation of Suta, Vaidehika 
and Chandala. Of these Chandala is an outcast from all religions. 

The reading in the text is ** Pratilornan aha. " Some, however, read it as 
" Pratiloraajan aha. " The moaning in both cases is the same. In the latter reading 
the word " pratiloma " is considered as an Avyayibh&va compound. The words " in 
the Br£hmani woman " are understood everywhere. 

Moreover (other pratilomas are prescribed thus). 


XCIV. — On a Ksatriya woman the son begot by a 
Vaisya is called Magadha, and by a S*udra is a Ksattara. 
On a Vaisya woman the son produced by a Sadra is 
called Ayogava. — 94, 



A Ksatriya woman by a Vaie'ya man produces a son called M&- 
gadha. The woman of the very same class by a $udra man gives 
birth to a Kgattdra. A Vaisiya woman by a $tidra man gives birth to 
a son called Ayogava. These six viz., SQta, Vaidehika, Chandala, 
Magadha, Ksattara, Ayogava, are pratilomaja. As regards their va- 
rious livelihoods, Ausanasa and Manu smritis may be consulted. 


In the case of these pratilomas the marriage is out of question altogether. 
Even if they pass through some ceremony of marriage, it is disapproved, and so the 
author does not use this word " vinn& " a married woman "with regard to these 
women. So the commentator disrespectfully calls them " yosit "-"women "—only. 

Compare also MANU (X. 11-16) " (11) From a Ksatriya by the daughter of 
a Brahmana is born (a son called) according to his caste (jati) a SOta ; from a Vaisya 
by females of the royal and the Brahmana (castes) spring a Magadha and a Vaideha. 
(12) From a Stidra are born an Ayogava, a Ksattri, and a Chandala, the lowest of 
men, by Vaisya, Ksatriya, and Brahmana females, (sons who owe their origin to) a 
confusion of the castes. (13) As an Ambastha and an Ugra, (begotten) in the direct 
order on (women) one degree lower (than their husbands) are declared (to be), even 
so are a Ksattri and a Vaidehika, though they were born in the inverse order of the 
castes (from mothers one degree higher than the fathers). (16) From a fe'udra spring 
in the inverse order (by females of the higher castes) three base-born (sons, apasada), 
an Ayogava, a Ksattri, and a Ch&nd&la, the lowest of men ; (17) From a Vaisya are 
born in the inverse order of the castes a M£gadha and a Vaideha, but from a Ksa- 
triya a Sfita only ; these are three other base-born ones (apas&da)." 

To the same effect is the Stita-samhitd (ibid). Consistent with its theory it 
divides pratilomas also into two classes each, those born openly (by marriage ?), or 
by stealthy intercourse :■— " (18). The wise called that offspring" " Sfita" which 
is born by a Brahmani with Ksatriya father (openly) ; the same begotten by stealth 
on her is called a " Rathakara." (21) A son begotten on a BrShmani by a Vaisya 
father (openly) is called by name Ksattri (nominative singular Ksatta); the same 
produced by stealth is called " Mlechchha, " O Brahmanas. (25) A son begotten by 
a Brahmani woman by a Stldra father (openly) is called a Ch&nclala ; the same begot- 
ten on her by stealth is called " bahya-dSsa. 99 (22) Begotten by a Vaisya father 
(openly) on a Ksatriyajwoman is called "Salika or M&gadha ; " the same begotten 
on her by stealth is called " Pulinda^" O Wise Ones. (19) On a Ksatriya woman by 
a Vaisya father is produced Bhoja by stealthy connection. (26) A son begotten by a 
fcfidra on a Ksatriya woman (openly) is called Vaideha or Pukkasa. The same 
by stealth is called Velaba. (27) A son begotten by a fe'udra (openly) on a 
Vaisyd woman is called *' patana-salika ;" by the same on her stealthily is produced 
a Chakri (Tailika). 

Thus these are. twelve altogether and all are Pratilomas/ 

As regards difference of varnas of these anulomas and pratilomas there is the 
following text of DEVAL A Among all these various (jatis) the children born 
from parents of the same varna are the highest ; next to them are the anuloma sons 
born in direct order by a father of a superior caste on a woman immediately infe- 
rior caste (varna). The lowest of them are the pratilomas considered as outcasts, 
having no yarpa, 



{Note:— (It must, however, be remarked here that Loma-harsana, the hero of all 
Pur&nas, was a pratilomaja.) 

With regard to pratilomas the sacraments are not allowed in their fullness. 
Compare MANU (X. 66 et. seq.) " (66) If (a doubt) should arise, with whom the 
pre-eminence (is, whether) with him whom an Aryan by chance begot on a non-Aryan 
female, or (with the son) of a Br&hmana woman by a non-Aryan, (67) The decision is 
as follows : ' He who was begotten by an Aryan on a non-Aryan female, may become 
(like to) an Aryan by his virtues ; he whom an Aryan (mother) bore to a non-Aryan 
father (is and remain) unlike to an Aryan.' (68) The law prescribes that neither of 
the two shall receive the sacraments, the first (being excluded) on account of the 
lowness of his origin, the second (because the union of his parents was) against the 
order of the castes/' 

B&lambhatta then gives the opinion of MEDHaTITHI about these anulomas and 
pratilomas, and then says Some hold that both these classes of sons those born 
by an inferior woman to a superior man, and those born by a superior woman to an 
inferior man are both asamsk&ryau. This word does not mean " they shall not re* 
ceive the sacraments " as given in the above translation of Mann. The force of 
negative article " a " in asamskaryau is to denote not absolute negation, but small- 
cess. These classes of anulomas and pratilomas are not totally debarred from all 
sacraments, but they receive them in a lower degree. The above verse 68 of *Manu 
should, therefore, be translated " The law prescribes that neither of the two shall 
receive the sacraments in full, but partially. " Thus the anulomas will get the 
Samskaras according to the class of mothers and the pratilomas will get the Sarhs^ 
k£ras described for the Sfidras. Thus says MANU (X. 41) :— " Six sons begotten (by 
Aryans) on women of equal and the next lower castes (Anantara), have the duties 
of twice-born men ; but all those born in consequence of a violation (of the law) are, 
as regards their duties, equal to Sfidras," 

Thus among the pure varnas and anulomas the following are entitled to be ini- 
tiated with the sacred thread :— (I) The pure Br£hmanas, (2) the pure Ksatriyas, (3) 
the pure Vaisyas, (4) the son by a Br&hraana on a Ksatriya wife, (5) the son of a 
Ksatriya by a Vaisya wife, and (6) son of a Br&hmaua by a Vaisya wife. These six, 
according to the opinion of Medhatithi and Kulluka, are entitled to initiation (Upa- 
nayana). All the other anulomas as well those born by illicit intercourse, as well as 
pratilomas, are to be treated as Sfidras, so far as initiation with sacred thread is 

So also is VASISTHA : —All these B&hyas are excluded from all good Dharmas 
except the Dharma of protecting creatures (See VASISTHA, Ch. XVIII about the 
mixed castes). 

As regards the livelihood to be adopted by these anulomas and others, Vijfift- 
noavara does not give any details, but refers the readers to Ausanasa and Manu. 
Thus says Usanas as quoted in Visvambhara's V&stu-sastra Mtirdhavasikta is born 
from a Ksatriya woman by a Brahmana husband. He is entitled to the Dharma of 
a Ksatriya with something more. Ho has to perform the ritual of Atharva-veda in 
all nitya and naimittika ceremony. He should manage horses, chariots and ele- 
phants, and drive them under tho order of the king. As a source of his livelihood he 
should adopt the profession of a physician. Ho should follow the Ayurveda and 
Ast&iiga and tho Dharmas detailed theroin. Or ho may follow the profession of an 
astrologer, or an accountant (Ganita), or tho Kftyiki vritti (Kayastha?). These last 
duties aro for tho caste called 41 Bhisak " begotten by a Br&hmana on a K§atriya 
woman, by stealth. He may bo anointed as a king like MOrdhftvasikta. Similarly, 


■ - ............ 

a son bogottou on a Ksatriya woman by a Ksatriya by stoalth is ovon a K§atriya, 
but ho is not entitled to bo anointed (as a king), " 

This Mtirdhftvasikta is entitled to perform all Vedic ceremonies liko Agni- 
hotra, Dars'a-ptirnamflsa, Jyotistoma &c. 

"Ambasta is the offspring of a VaisyA wife fo y a Br&bmana husband. His 
mode of livelihood is by agriculture and by medicine, and to bo a doctor of men, 
horses and elephants. 0 

Though this Ambasta is born of the seed of a Br&bmana, yet, his mother being 
of very inferior caste, he gets the dharma of Vairfya or of his mother's caste, and 
not of a Brfihraana. He is also entitled to the six duties. This Ambaf ta must be 
distinguished from the Ambasta known in the Gauda country. 

Usanas continued : — " The eon begotten by a Br&hmnna on a s'ftdra wife is 
called P&rasava. His another name is Mah£-Stidra. He is a little higher than 
Stidra. His livelihood is by following the trade of a goldsmith, and his method 
of bathing, purification &c k is the same as that of a Stidra." 

His another name is Nis&da. He is entitled to perform the ceremonies of 
Agnihotra &c. Because YASK A has so explained it. In fact, this Nis&da is counted 
as a fifth varna, immediately after the Stidra, according to the opinion of Aupa- 
manyava. See Nirukta, Naigama Kapda, III. 8. Thus Nisdda being the fifth caste is 
entitled to all the privileges of a Stidra caste, such as varata &c. * 

Us f anas continued ;~ The son begotten on a Vaisya wife by a Ksatriya husband 
is a Mahisya. He is an anuloina and entitled to eight duties, and to follow the 
sixty-four arts. He should perform vratas &c. like a Vaisya. His mode of livelihood 
should be by astrology, omenology (the science of birds), and music, or the science 
of sound. The eight Adhik&ras mentioned above are :— the eight modes of liveli- 
hood. Or, eight kinds of enjoyment viz., *' sweet scents, wives, dresses, music, 
chewing the betel, good food, good bed and flowers. The sixty-four arts mentioned 
above are given in the following verses : — 

Begotton on a Stidra woman by a Ksatriya father is Ugra of cruel deeds. He 
is expert in the use of weapons and missiles, and expert also in rules of war. His 
Dharmas are like those of Stidras and his livelihood is by the same (use of weapons 
and missiles). 

* In his Original Sanskrit texts. Vol. I, p. 177, Dr. John Muir 
writes If Aupamanyava was right, the Nishfidas also were admissible, to the 
worship of the gods in the Yedic age, as the ' five classes 9 are represented in various 
texts as votaries of Agni, M Tr. 


Another origin of Ugra is thus given :— " Begotten on a Stidra woman by a 
Ksatriya is the Ugra, expert in the science of battle, and his livelihood is also by 
the use of weapons and missiles.' 1 

This in ordinary language is called Raja-puta. 

"Begotten on a SMra wife, lawfully by a Vaisya husband, is, called 
" Vaitalika." He is also a karana, and has the Dharma of a Sfidra, He is engaged 
in describing the good qualities of kings and Brahmanas, and, his livelihood is by 
music and by kama-sastra." 

Another definition of Karana is this :— *' The son begotten on a Sfidra mother by 
a Vaisya father is called a Karana. His profession is that of a writer." This 
Karana is called Natava in vernacular, or a bard. 

All these anulomas are from married women. Those born by illicit connection 
are not to be considered as anulomas, but there is a separate class like Kunda and, 
Golaka. This is the opinion of some. As a matter of fact, they form separate j a tis 
as mentioned above. In the same class the daughters born by this anuloma connec- 
tion also get the same names :— " Murdhavasikta, Ambasta, Nisadi, ParasavS, 
Mahisya, Ugra, Karani." 

Pratilomas and their livelihood. 
In the same Usanas Smriti are also given the livelihood of the six kinds of - 

(1) SUTA. 

" On a Brahmani mother by a Ksatriya father is begotten Sfita by pratiloma 
method. He is entitled to all the Dharmas of a Ksatriya. He is a little less in 
status than the Ksatriya class. He is the driver of elephants, of horses and 
chariots. He is never entitled to the Dharma of a Vaisya." 

44 The dharma of Ksatriyas is to fight and to protect the subjects. That is also 
the dharma of a Suta. He is, however, debarred, because of his pratiloma birth, 
from the dharma of studying the Veda. ,, This is according to the Smriti. Another 
text about the Sfita is the following : — u Begotten by a Ksatriya on a BrAhmani 
girl by marriage is the Sfita by pratiloma vidhi. He is not entitled to the study 
of the Veda." 

Lomaharsana was also Pratiloma. He got the name of Lomaharsnana, because 
of his wonderful power of oratory which made the hairs (loma) of the audience 
bristle (harsana). This is the account given in the KQrma Purana. In the Vfiyu 
Purana thero is another account given of the birth of a Sflta, viz., that he was born 
in tho great sacrifice performed by Prithu, the son of Vena. He arose from the 
fire altar, according to another Puraaa. He, through his power of Tapas and 
through the grace of Vyasa, is entitled to tho study of tho Puranas. Through 
tho grace of Saunaka ho is entitled to the seat of Brahma priest (See the 
speech of Saunaka to Vallabhatta). Tho Sfttas aro entitled to becomo tho 
ministers of kings, horsemen and charioteers, so also arc they entitled to the study 
of tho Puranas, and to racite them. But the study of the Puranas and reciting thorn 
is not by birthright, but through tho grace of Brahmanas. But by their birth they 
are entitled to becomo ministers and charioteers, &c, as was tho case of Sanjaya 
and others. 


" Begotten on a Brdhmam woman by a Vaisya fatlior is the son called Vaidohika. 
His duty is to guard tho inner apartments of tho king's palace. In another placo 
tho duties of these Vaidohikas aro stated to bo to work in stones and wood and 
other arts as moans of their livelihood." In vornacular he is called " Sfttara,"or 


(3) chAndala. 

"Bcgotton on a Brahmani woman by a Sfldra socd is ChAmlala whoso very 
touch pollutes one, so that. a man must batho with all his clothes on if ho is touched 
by a Chfincl&Ia. Ho must livo on tho outskirts of the city and his duties are thoso 
of an oxocutioncr and torturer." 

MANU (X. 51-50) gives tho following account of CMnilalas " (51) But tho 
dwollings of Chfuulalas and Svapachas shall bo outsido tho village, they must bo mado 
Apapatras, and their wealth (shall bo) dogs and donkeys. (52) Their dress (shall bo) 
tho garments of tho dead, (they shall oat) their food from broken dishes, black iron 
(shall be) their ornaments, and they must always wander from placo to place. 
<53) A man who fulfils a religious duty, shall not seek intercourse with them ; their 
transactions (shall be) among themselves, and their marriages with their equals, 
^4) Their food shall be given to them by others (than an Aryan giver) in a broken 
cfish ; at night they shall not walk about in villages and in towns. (55) By day 
they may go about for tho purpose of their work, distinguished by marks at tho 
king's command, and they shall carry out the corpses (of persons) who have no 
relatives; that is a settled rule. (56) By the king's order they shall always 
•execute the criminals, in accordance with the law, and they shall take for them- 
selves the clothes, the beds, and the ornaments of (such) criminals." 

Usanas adds : — "The ornaments should be of lead or iron or black metal. 
Their necklace should be of beads and round their waist there should be cymbals. 
He should sweep the streets of the city in the morning and clean the privies. 
They should dwell segregated outside the village in the south-western direction 
on penalty of death." 

In another Smriti it^is said :— " If the Chandalos come out in day into the city 
owing to some necessity, they should cry out " Sinehola," and move in a very 
circumspect manner. 


u Begotten on a Ksatriya mother by a.Vaisya father is the son called Magadha, 
His profession is that of a bard, and is devoid of vratas &c. He is a little higher 
than a Sfidra, and his livelihood is by means of story-telling, oratory, and by 
being proficient in six kinds of languages, and in prose and poetry and in ornate 
styles.' ' In vernacular he is called Bh&ta. 

(5) KSATRI. 

"Begotten on a Ksatriya woman by a Stidra father is born a son called Ksatrl, 
popuarly known as a Nisada. He is outside the pale of all varnas. He is devoid of 
Sfldra conduct and addicted to sin. He carries a trap and a noose in his hands, and 
he is dexterous in catching wild animals. He roams in forests and is a killer of 
wild animals of the forest. He is full of anger, and his livelihood is by meat. 
He sells honey and that is also a means of acquiring wealth. The sound of his 
hunting-bell at midnight excites wonder. He hunts in two ways, both the birds in 
the sky, and beasts on earth." 

In Maharastra language he is called " p&radhi," and in the language of the 
Madhyadesa he is called Karav&la. Some give his profession as that of a Vetra- 
dhara or pratih&ra. 


"A Yaisya woman by connecting herself with a Sfldra begets a son called 
u Ayogava." He is lower in status than a Sfldra as regards his Dharma, and his 
livelihood is by working in stones and wood, as well as by paving the ground with 
small stones in mosaic." 


But according to Us £nas " Begotten on a KsatriyA woman by a Vaisya 
father is born Ayogava. His occupation is that of a weaver, and his livelihood is 
by selling cloth and working in bell-metal." 

The female children produced by this inverse order get also the same name, 
such as "Sfttfi, Vaidehi, Chandali, M&gadhi, Ksatri, Ayogavi," 

As the anulomas had the dharma of their mother, so their descendants by the 
father and mother of the same jati have the same Dharma. Thus says MANU 
(X. 25-26) (25) I will (now) fully enumerate those (sons) of mixed origin, who 
are born of anulomas and of pratilomas, and (thus) are mutually connected. 
(25) The S&ta, theiVaidehika, the ChAndala, that lowest of mortals, the Magadha, he 
of the Ksattri castle (j£ti), and the Ayogava, (27) These six (Pratilomas) beget 
similar races (varna) on women of their own (caste), they (also) produce (the like) 
with females of their mother's caste (jati), and with females (of) higher ones." * y 

Thus a son, begotten by a Sflta father on a Sfita mother, legally wedded to 
him, will be of a Suta jati. But by illicit intercourse, the son will be like a Sfidra. 
Similarly, as a son, begotten on a Mfirdhavasikta wife by a MQrdhav&sikta father, 
will be a MKirdhavasikta, But by illicit intercourse he will be like aSfidra. 

Thus MANU (X. 46 efr. seq.): —"(46) Those who have been mentioned as the base- 
born (offspring, apasada) of Aryans, or as produced in consequence of a violation 
(of the law, apadhvamsaja), shall subsist by occupations reprehended by the twice- 
born. (47) To Sfitas (belongs) the management of horses and chariots ; to Ambasthas 
the art of healing, to Vaidehikas, the service of women ; to Magadhas, trade ; (48) 
Killing fish to Nisfidas ; carpenter's work to the Ayogava ; to Medas, Andhras, 
Chunchus, and Madgus, the slaughter of wild animals ; (49) To Ksatriyas, Ugras, and 
Pukkasas, catching and killing (animals) living in holes; to Dhigvansas, working in 
leather ; to Venas, playing drums. (50) Near well-known trees and burial-grounds, 
on mountains and in groves, let these (tribes) dwell, known by certain marks, and 
subsisting by their peculiar occupations. (51) But the dwellings of Ch&nd&las and 
Svapachas shall be outside the village, they must be made Apapatras, and their 
wealth (shall be) dogs and donkeys. (52) Their dress (shall be) the garments of the 
dead, (they shall eat) their food from broken dishes, black iron (shall be) their orna- 
ments, and they must always wander from place to place. (53) A man who fulfils a 
religious duty, shall not seek intercourse with them ; their transactions (shall be) 
among themselves, and their marriages with their equals.' 1 

MANU has further described mixed castes produced by intermarriges between 
the anulomas. (X. 20-24) " (20) Those (sons) whom the twice-born beget on wives 
of equal caste, but who, not fulfilling their sacred duties, are excluded from the 
fcavitri, one must designate by the appellation Vrfityas. (21) But from a Vr&tya (of 
the) Br&hmana (caste) spring the wicked Bhfijjakantaka, the Avantya, the Vatadh&- 
na, the Puspadha, and the Saikha. (22) From a Vr&tya (of the) Ksatriya (caste), the 
Jhalla, the Malla, the Lichchhivi the Nata, the Karana, the Khasa, and the Dravida. 
(23) From a Vr&tya (of the) Vaiaya (caste) are born a Sudhanvan, and Acharya, a 
Karusa, a Vijanman, a Maitra, and a Satvata. (24) By adultery (committed by 
persons) of (different) castes, by marriages with womon who ought not to be 
married, and by the neglect of the duties and occupations (prescribed) to each, 
are produced (sons who owe their origin) to a confusion of the castes. 

"Of course all these Vr&tyas are true Br&hmanas, Ksatriyas and Vaisyas 
respectively. In Visvambhara's V&stu-sMstra those Vr&tya Brdhmanas are thus des- 
cribed u A Vr&tya Br&hmana begets on a BrAhmani a Bhrijja-kantaka son. A 
Bhrjjja-kantaka Br&hmana, begets on a BrAhmani and Avanta (avartaka) son. An 


Avantya (avartaka) Br&hmana bogots on a Brfihmani a Vatadhana (katadhana) son. 
A Vatadhana Brfthmana bogots on a BrAhmani a Puspa Bokhara. The occupation of 
these four classes of Vrfttya BrAhmanas is by singing and recitation of Kathfts in 
the vornacular language of the country, in the temples of Siva and Visnu." 

44 A son begotten by a Brfihmana on a Puspasckhara wifo is called Bhoja. His 
duty is to minister in the worship of the sun. A Brahmana bogots on a Bhojaka 
woman a son callod Dovalaka. He lives by ministering in the worship of Visnu." 

These are neither Anulomas nor Pratilomas, but true, though degraded, Brah- 
manas, just like Br&hmanas who drink wino. 


" A Brfihraana, who having entered the order of Sannydsin with tho vow of 
celibacy, breaks that vow and keeps a BrShraani widow, is considered a verily de- 
graded Brfthmana. The offspring of such union is a Dola or Karmachanddla whose 
touch defiles a man. His occupation is to dig wells, tanks, reservoirs and canals, 
for the sake of his livelihood." 

In vernacular he is called Koiri. 


" A pure Ksatriya woman bears to a Vrdtya Ksatriya the son called Sajjala 
following the Dharma of fc'udra. He gets wealth by teaching the sons of kings, the 
use of arras and weapons. Thus getting his livelihood he should preserve the 
Dharma of his caste." 

This Sajjala is the Jhalla of Manu (X. 22). 


" A son begotten by Sajjala on a Ksatriya woman is called Malla. He possesses 
great prowess and proud of his valour. He earns money by showing feats of strength 
to kings. He lives by profession of arms." 


" A Malla begets on a Ksatriya woman a Lichchhivi (silindhra). His livelihood 
is by massaging the body of men." 

He is a sort of barber, and his vernacular name is Mardani. 


" The Silindhra (Lichchhivi) begets on a Ksatriya woman a Nata whose profes- 
sion is the performance of dramas. He is called also Ksaratika, and Bahurupi or 

These Jhallas &c. are Vrdtya Ksatriyas like Vr&tya BrShmanas mentioned 
above, and are neither Anulomas nor Pratilomas, but pure, though degraded, Ksa- 

Note " According to this opinion of Bdlambhatta the Karanas and Kayasthaa 
are Ksatriyas though Vr&tyaka and degraded, and are neither Anulomas nor Prati- 
lomas. Though Silindhra is a N&pita or a barber by profession, not by caste, he 

should be distinguished from that Napita who is barber by birth, and is of course a 

That Ndpita is thus described : — A son begotten on a Sfidra girl by a Brdhmana 
father, and consecrated by him after the birth, is another class of NSpita, and his 
Dharma is that of a s'udra, though a little higher." 

j *— 

He is not really a Sudra, but a sort of degarded Anuloma. 

This Anuloma N£pita must be distinguished from a Ksatriya NSpita called 



Usanas thus gives the etymology of the word " Napita,"— "Because in birth and 
death impurity, and at the time of Diksa or initiation, he has to shave his body 
from Nabhi (navel) upward (urdhvam), therefore he is called " Napita." 

Note -.—This N&pita is of course, a Ksatriya, because he has got a particular 
time for Diksa or initiation like all twice-born castes, It is in this sense that 
Kayasthas are called Napitas by Usanas. The full text of Usanas is given below : — 

*>T*rc*j ^fcr ^t^rT fe^a severer: i 

^T^T^T^ ^If^ *«<TfcTO ^cTC^ H 

VERSE3 34-35. 

Here of coure Usanas describes the caste called Kulala or Kumbhakflra, tha 
offspring of Vaisya mother and Brdhmana father by stealth. He introduces the 
word " Kayastha " here, merely to show that a Kumbhak&ra may live by following 
the profession of a Kulala or Napita or Kayastha. 

Miscellaneous mixed Castes. 


1 The author now mentions other castes which arise by the inter- 
mixture of these cross-breeds or double hybrids. 


XCV. — By a (man of the) Mahisya class on a (woman 
of the) Karana class is begotten Rathakara. The Prati- 
lomaja and the Annlomaja are to be known as bad and 
good respectively. — 95. 


Mahi$ya is begotten by a Ksatriya man on a Vaisya woman. 
Karani is begotten by a Vaisya man on a i3fidr& woman. In that 
Karani woman, the son, begotten by a Mahisya father, would be 
a Rathakara by caste- Because there is a text prescribing all 
ceremonies like Upanayana (initiation &c.) for him. As says 

" From the Anuloma descendants of Ksatriya and Vaisya on 
females of immediately lower castes than themselves, is produced 
Rathakara, Ho has a right to sacrifice, give alms, and Upanayana 
(initiation) sacrament. His profession is to train horses, and learn 
the science of Chariot-making, carpentry and architecture. " 

Similarly, Anuloma cross-breeds between Mfirdh&vasikta and 
M ahisya, &c, who are descended from Brahmanas and Ksatriyas, 
give rise to other castes, who, it must be known, have also a right 
to Upanayana (initiation with sacred thread) and the rest ; because 


they are twice-born. As Cor the distinct appellations given to these 
castes (produced by double-crossing, other Smritis may be consulted.) 
This much has been said merely by way of illustration ; the number 
of castes, produced by the intermixture of various castes of cross- 
breeds is infinite, and it is impossible to enumerate them all. 
Therefore we stop here. 

It must be remembered that Pratiloma births are " bad " and 
Anuloma births are " good." 


Vasistha also gives a similar derivation of the Rathakara caste. He is, of 
course, an Anuloma, and though born of a woman likened to a Sfidra, yet he is 
entitled to Upanayana by force of a particular text of SANKHA. According to 
others, he is entitled to Upanayana &c. He is a mere artisan. 

Note: — Vijfianesvara is, however, of different opinion. According to him all 
Anulomas as well as the cross-breeds of all Anulomas in the direct order are 
considered as Anulomas, and entitled to Upanayana, and all privileges of the 
twice-born caste (Dvijatitvat). Tr. 

According to Jaimini the caste of Sudhanvachdrya, produced by a Vratya Vaisya, 
is also a Rathakara. 

MANU in X. 43 gives the general rule of how a Vratya may become a Vrisala 
by the non-performance of sacred rites, A Rathakara is to be initiated in the 
rainy season. 

Though Vijndnesvara has not entered into a detail of the mixed caste, yet we 
give some of them in brief for the instruction of others. 

(1 and 2) Apita and Pingala castes. 

In the Stita-samhitS, (s'iva-mahatmya Khanda, Chapter XII, verse 17) :— 
"Begotten by a Brahmana father on a Dausyanti woman is produced an Apita. 
Similarly, by a Brahmana father on an Ayogavi woman, is begotten a Pingala.' 9 
These are, of course, children of wedlock. Dausyanta is a progeny of a Stidra 
mother by a Ksatriya father. An Ayogava is a progeny of a s'fidra father by a 
Vaisyd woman. 

(3) Abhira. 

According to Visvambhara Vastu-sastra :— " A woman of Mahisya caste by 
intercourse with a Brahmana produces a son called Abhira. Their occupation is 
that of rearing cattle, enlarge cattle compounds, and to sell milk, curds, clarified 
butter, whey and other products of milk. Their Dharma is little less thaq that of a 

An Abhira is also an Anuloma. 

(4) Kumbhakara. 

A girl produced by a Ksatriya father on a Sfidra woman is called an Ugra. 
A Brahmana begets on such an Ugra woman a child called Kumbhakara. His 
Dharma is a little lower than that of a Sudra, and his avocation is that of making 
earthen pots (a potter). 1 ' He is also an Anuloma. 

(5) Kasara. 

Brahmana father on a Vaisya woman begets a daughter called AmbasthS. 

She in connection with another Brahmana, by stealth, produces a child called 



KasarS. He should always worship the goddess, K&likft, and his occupation is to 
work in bell-metal (kamsa). His Dharma is like that of a Sftdra. In popular lan- 
guage he is called "Kasera." He is also an Anuloma. 

MANU gives another origin of Abhira caste (X. 15) :— " A Brahmana begets on 
the daughter of an Ugra an Avrita, on the daughter of an Ambastha an Abhira, but 
on a female of the Ayogava (caste) a Dhigvana." 

(6) Mausfcika (Kah£ra). 

" A Brahmana by connection with a S&dra woman begets a daughter, Nisada, 
She (a Ni&ada) by connection with a Br&hmana produces a son called Maustika. 
These Maustikas are carriers of king's litters (Dola). They also carry Chhfiraias 
and Kavadi* (kinds of vehicles carried on shoulders, or perhaps umbrellas ?). They 
sell fuel, wood, and have no particular Dharma. They are called Paustika also, 
and shoulder-carriers^" They are popularly called Kaharas. 

(7) Gopta (Vandivana). 

" Begotten by a Br&hmana father on a Magndhi woman is Gopta whose duty is 
to guard the prison." Magadhi is the daughter of a Vaisya father by a Ksatriya 
wife. This Gopta is called, in vernacular, Yandiyan. 

(8) Chhatrapam. 

" A daughter of a Vaisya father by a Br&hmini wife is a Vaidehi. She married 
to a Br&hcnana produces a son called a Chhatrapa. His occupation is that of carrying 
the royal umbrella. He is called V§hi in popular language. His occupation is that 
of selling drinks." Some say he is a Pratijoma and other say he is an Anuloma. 

(9) Digvana (Mochi). 

"Ayogavi is the daughter of a Vaisya woman by a Sfidra fathter. She 
(Ayogavi) married to a Brahmana gives birth to a Digvana. His profession is to 
fleal with leather and to serve horses. This is his livelihood. He is a maker of 
saddles, reins, etc. He is popularly called Mochi. 

(10) Tamra-kuttaka (Lambara). 

"The progeny of a Sfidra woman by a Ksatriya husband is a daughter 
Parasavi. This P&rasavi by a Ksatriya husband gives birth to a child called 
" Tamra-kuttaka 1 9 (copper-beater). He is to associate with Kas&ra. His livelihood 
is by making copper vessel. His another name is Kinn&ta$a." Hp is popularly 
known as Lambara. 

(11) Vaitaiika. 

" By a Vaisya father on a Sfldra woman, the wife of another, is born a soi* 
called " Vaitaiika." His livelihood is by K&ma-sastra, and by following the occupa-: 
tioi) of a bard and panegyrist. 1 ' 

(12) OholQka or Loha-k&ra. 

" A Ksatriya on a Mfigadhi woman produces a son called ulAka (or " Oholflka v ) 
or Loha-k£lra, or iron smith. His profession is to deal in iron." Ho is an Anuloma, 
higher than other raixod castes, but lower than the four purp castes. He is a}sq 
called " Uluka. " 

(13) Vatsara. 

"Karani is the daughter of a Sftdra woman by a Vaisya father. A Karani 
married to a Vaisya produces a Vatsara. His Dharma is lower than that' of a Sfldra, 

* Meanings of these two words are not given in any lexicon. Tr f 


His occupation is to protect the cow and lo6k after their grazing in the pastures. 
Ho is a grazier*" Ho is also an Anuloma. 

(14) Mfll&-k&ra (garland-makor.) 

"AMfihisya is a son of Vaisya father and a Ksatriya mother. He, married 
to a Nis&da woman, begets a son called " M&l&-kfira, " or garland-makor. Ho earns 
his livelihood by stringing flowers and leaves. His Dharma is lower than that of a 
Sudra, and he is entitled to sevon sacraments." According to others a M&l&-k&ra," 
is tho son of a Pdras'avi woman by a M&hisya father. Ho is also an Anuloma. 

(15) fc&laka or Manju (Maniy&ra). 

" By a M&l&kAra male on a Kararu woman is begotten a son called S&l&ka, 
whoso occupation is that of boring the gems (Manis)." He is called popularly 
u ManiyAra. " 

j (16) Vena. 

" An Ambastha is born by the union of a Brahmana father and a Vaisyd mother. 
Similarly, a Vaideha is the offspring of a Vaisya father and Br^hmani mother. A 
Vaideha marrying an Ambastha girl begets a son called " Vena/ 1 He is devoid 
of Sfidri dharma, and his livelihood is by Writing on Hari-mekhala, and by 
engraving on hari-mekhala." MANU (X. 19) : — " Moreover, the son of a Ksattri by 
an Ugra female is called a Svapacha ; but one begotten by a Vaidehaka on an 
Ambastha female is named a Vena ,7 . 

• « 

Note Vena, otherwise called Baruda, is a basket-maker according to tho 
commentary of Manu. 

He is a Pratiloma. (Hari-mekhala appears to be the name of a caste, as we 
learn from the next verse). Tr. . 

(17) Mardaka (Drummer). 

" The son of a Vaideha by an Ambastha female is a Hari-mekhala. The 
daughter of a Ksatriya by a Vaisya female is a Mahisya, The son of a Vaisya by a 
Ksatriya female is called Magadha. The son of a M&gadha by a Mahisya female is 
called M&rdaka. He is outside the Stidra Dharma, and his livelihood is by singing 
and by learning the four kinds of musical instruments." He is a Pratiloma and 
player on Mridanga. 

(18) Sairandhra. 

" An Ayogavi is the daughter of a Sfldra "father by a Vaisya woman. This 
Ayogavi gives birth to Sairandhra son by Kayastha father. He is lower than a 
Stidra caste, and should serve the twice-born. He should wash their feet and 
work in braids of hair. He should anoint the bodies of men with sandal pastes, and 
massage them. He is to deal in musk and other scents, and produce novel objects 
of luxury and toilet. A woman of Sairandhra caste is called Sairandhrika, or a 
maid-servant. 11 According to another text :— " A Sairandra is the son of a Karana 
father by an Ayogavi mother, and his occupation is that of making perfumery, 
and dealing in flowers, and sandals and other toilet requisites like fragrant 
powders etc." A Karana is the son of a Vaisya by a Sfidra female. (The Karana 
and the Kayastha seem to be used synonymously here. Tr.). 

According to MANU (X. 32) " A Dasyu begets on an Ayogava (woman) 
a Sairandhra, who is skilled in adorning and attending (his master), who, (though) 
not a slave, lives like a slave, (or) subsists by snaring (animals)." Having an 
Anuloma father he is also an Anuloma. 



MBat ' 

(19) JSdhika Chari or Mevadfi. 
11 The son of a Brahmana by Sfidra woman is called Paras'ava. He is called also 
Nis&da in the world. An XJgra is the daughter of a Ksatriya by a Stidra. This 
Ugra married to the above-mentioned Nisada, produces a son called "jadhika." 
He is excluded from s'tidra dharma. He is the carrier of letters to the twice-born 
by swiftly running on foot, from one country to another." This J&dhika is called 
Chari, runner also, and in the language of the Madhya-desa, he is a known as 
Mevada. He is also an Anuloma. 

(20) Ksemaka (Darwan). 

« A Ksatta (Ksattri) is the son of a s'fidra father by a Ksatrin i mother. An 
frgra is the daughter of a Ksatriya father by a Sfidri woman. This Ugra married to 
Ksatta husband gives birth to a son called Ksemaka. His occupation is that of 
guarding the door. His other name is Pratih&ra." But according to MANU (X. 19) 
he is called Svapaka :-" Moreover, the son of a Ksattri by an Ugra female is 
called a Svapaka." 

He is popularly known as a Darwan or door-keeper in Hindi. He is a 

(21) Kusilava (Ministrel) 

u The daughter of a Vaisya father by a Brahmani mother is called a Vaidehika. 
The son of a Brahmana father by a Vaisya mother is an Ambastha. The Vaidehi 
female married to an Ambastha male gives birth to a Kusilava. His profession 
is that of dancing and singing, and going about from country to country. He is 
called also Charana. He is also an Anuloma." 

(22) BhasmSnkura. 

"The Saivas, and the / Pasupatas following the path of Yoga, when having 
attained a certain stage, fall down from it, and connect themselves with Sfidra and 
other public women, they give rise to children called " Bhasmankuras." A Bhas- 
mankura keeps matted hair and besmears the body with ashes and worships the 
feivalinga. (He is the priest of the Siva temple) and maintains himself with the 
offerings made by the pious to that temple." 

He is an Anuloma and is called Gurava in the Mah&rastra language. 

(23) Maitreyaka. 

" The son of Vaideha father (the progeny of Vaisya by a Brahmani) by an 
Ayogavi mother (the daughter of a Stidra father by a Vaisya mother) is Maitreyaka. 
His occupation is to ring the bell in the morning, and to awaken the citizens with 
auspicious songs, in the tune of Lalitft, Bhairavi &c." So also MANU (X.33) :— (t A 
Vaideha produces (with the same) a sweet-voiced Maitreyaka, who, ringing a bell 
at the appearance of dawn, continually praises (great) men." 

Ho is a Pratiloma and is called " tokankftra " in tho Mah&rastra language. 

(24) Sflta (Cook, Confectioner). 

"A Sftta (son of a Brfthmani mother and Ksatriya father) begets on a Vaidehi 
(daughter of a Brahmani mother by a Vaisya father) a son called Sflta whose occu- 
pation is to produce four kinds of food, to prepare various kinds of meat dishes and 
sauces &c. His Dharma is that of a Sfldra, and ho is expert in the art of cooking. 
He is a worshipper of Pdrvati, Nala, and Bhima. Ho is also called Supa-k&ra." 

Ho is a Pratiloma. 


(25) Bhrukumsa (or Bhpitkumsa). 

" An Ayogava (son of a Vaisya father by a Sftdra mothor) begets on a Mftga- 
dhika (daughter of a Ksatriya mothor by a Vaisya father) a son callod M Bhrukumsa " 
whose occupation is to train women in singing and dancing." 

Ho is an Anuloma. 

(20) Kauiati (BahurQpi). 

" The son of a Silindhra father (the issue of a Malik dra father on a Ksatriya 
mother) by a Ksatriya mother, is Kauiati or a mimic. " 

(27) Sikiligara or Nirmandala. 

Ho is tho son of an Abhira or of a Maldkfira by a K&yastha woman. His occu- 
pation is to make baskets and leaf-plates and arrows. 
He is a Pratiloma. 

(28) Salmala (Tamboli). 

" The daughter of a Ksatriya mother by a Vaisya father is called " Bandina." 
This Bandini by a Brahmana produces a son called " Mangu." This Mangu begets 
from a Kumbhak&ra's wife a son called " Salmala." He is a betel-leaves seller." 
He is an Anuloma, and is called a T&mboli in the language of Madhyadesa. 

(29) Andhasika. 

* The son of a Vaidehaka father (progeny of a Br&hmani woman by a Ksatriya 
father) by a Sudra mother is an Andhasika. His occupation is to sell cooked food 
in the market.' ' 

He is a Pratiloma and is called Bhatih&ra in vernacular language. 

(30) Chhagalika. 

" A katadhana father begets on a Mangu woman a son called Chhagalika or 
Ajapala. He lives by keeping goats." 

He is a Pratiloma and is called Gadariya in the vernacular language o£ 

(31) Sayya-palaka. 

u The progeny of a Mangu and a Sairandhra is a Sayya-palaka. His duty is to 
prepare beds of kings/' 

The son of a Sairandhra father by a Ksemaka woman (a Pratihari or Darwan 
woman) is also called Sayyap&laka. 

He is a Pratiloma. 

(32) Mandalaka. 

" Woman of Karmachand&la caste gives birth by a Puspasekhara man to a son 
called " Mandalaka." He is a hunter of a king and lives by training dogs." 

He is a Pratiloma. Karmachand&la is an oflspring of a widow by an ascetic. 

(33) Sandolika (dyer). 

"By a Bandini mother and a Sfldra father is produced Sandolika who is called 
also Suchaka. His occupation is that of dyeing cloth into variegated colours with 
dyes like that of madder plants (manjistha*) &c. His process of beautifying cloth 
is twofold. One is through dyes and the other by thinking over the figures o£ 
embroidery with his hand. He is, therefore, called Suchaka also (Is he an embroi- 
derer in cloth by needle-work or a tailor ?) " 

He is an Anuloma and is called Rangdli or Chhipi in the language of Madhya- 

* Rubia tinctoria, Linn. 



(34) Krodhika or Kukkutaka. 

" The son by a s'fidra father cn a Nisada woman is a Krodhika or Kukkutaka. 
His occupation is to work in all mills and to superintend the manufacture of coins 
like Nanaka. This is his means of livelihood, and working in eight metals He is 

equal to an Antyaja." 

Compare MAND (X. 18) :— " The son of a Nis&da by a Stidra female becomes a 
Pukkasa by caste (jati), but the son of a Sfidra by a Nis&da female is declared to be 
a Kukkutaka. 1 9 

(Note :— The phrase " N&nak&nam vidh&yata " may mean either " the making of 
Nanakas or making them standard coins by laying down the proper weight &c. He 
is a Pratiloma. Tr.) 

(35) Manjftsa, Ranjuka, or Rajaka, or Mandflsa. 

" An Ugra begets on a Vaidehika a son called Maujflsa, or Rajaka, who is first 
among Antyajak&s. His profession and mode of livelihood is by washing clothes-" 

He is an Anuloma, because an Ugra is a son of Ksatriya father andSudr& mother, 
while a Vaidehika is the daughter of a Vaisya father and Brahmani mother. 

(36) Mauskalika or an oilman. 

" The child of an Ugra father and a Parasava mother is Mauskalika. He 
drives the oil-pressing machine and is better than other castes, and his livelihood 
is declared to be the selling of pure oil. He is sin-born, because he injurs sesamum 
by pressing oil out of it, and thus making a horrid noise with his machine. There- 
fore a Mauskalika should always be made to reside outside the city." 

a So far as the noise of an oil-press, or of a sugar-cane press goes, no sacred 
rites should be performed therein, nor in the presence of a Stidra, or of an out- 

He is called a Teli in popular language, and he is an Anuloma. 

(37) SGtradh&ra. 

" The wife of a Rathak&ra by connection with an Ayogava gives birth to a son 
called Stitradh£,ra, or manager of theatrical company. He lives by the earnings of 
his wife, he is an actor, and skilled in dramatic art. He always makes Stitras like 
Jalamaniialika (musical instruments ?) &c, which cause wonder among men." 

He is callod " Garudi " in the vernacular language. 

(38) Kuruvinda or weaver. 

41 The wife of a Kukkuta in connection with a Kumbhak&ra, gives birth to a son 
called 14 Kuruvinda." He weaves silken clothes for his maintenance, and is equal 
to an Antyaja." 

He is a Pratiloma, and is called 44 Jul&ha " in vernacular language. 

(39) b'arabaraka. 

" A Nati woman called also Veni in (sexual) intorcourso with an Avartaka, gives 
birth to a son called "S&mbaraka," a wool-weaver. Ho is lower than an Antyaja, 
and is maker of sacred clothes of wool/' 

Ho is called S£li or maker of shawls in vernacular. 

(40) Sauvira, or Nili-Kart&, or Kos'ati. 

" An Abhira by Kukkati woman gets a Sauvira, He is a maker of silken clothes 
orTasara. That is his moans of livelihood. Born in the roverse way, viz., by a 
Kukkuta father and an AbhirA woman, ho is also callod, " Nili-Karta," and hisoccu- 
pation and livelihood is also by weaving clothes." 

He is called "Kosata " in Bengali language. 


(41) Sftiikhilya. 

"A Sfwikhilya is tho son of a Mdrgfl, or MardilikA, woman by a Napita father. 
ITo is a low casto and shavos hairs of private parts, and extracts blood by cupping 
and leeching. " 

Ho is called " Toriva " in vernacular language. 

(42) NApita or Barber. 

" A Nfipita Is tho offspring of Ugrfi mothor and Mdgadha father. His profession 
is to shave and trim boards and hairs of tho head, and live by the profession of 
barber, and should dwoll within tho village, and servo all othor castes. " 

(43) Bandhula. 

" Thomson of a Maitroyaka (actor) by a J&dhik& woman is callod " Bandhula, " 
tho lowest of all castes. His profession is to search for gold in tho dust of the 
workshop of a goldsmith. n 

He is called Jh&r& in vernacular. 

(44) Pfimaula. 

"A Paustika begets on a Nisada woman a son called " PAmsula," whose pro* 
fession is to weave hempen clothes." 

(45) Aurabhra, or 6hepherd. 
,( A Chh£gali woman produces through Bhrijukantha husband a son called 
M Aurabhra." He is the maker of various kinds of blankets, and the rearer of 

jsheep. " 

He is called Dhanagara in vernacular. 

(46) Mahangu or Camel-Driver. 
" An AvartS woman produces by a Ksemaka husband (a Darwan is called a 
Ksemaka) a son ealleci Mahangu, a driver and keeper of camels." 

(47) Romika or Salt-Maker. 
" An Avarta woman by a Mallabha man produces a son called u Romika. " His 
profession is to bring saline water, and dry it in big cauldrons to manufacture salt, 
or, to bring saline water, keep it enclosed in a piece of field, and dry it by exposure 
to the sun, and thus manufacture salt. His livelihood is by selling such salt. " 

(48) Meda. 

"A Karav&ri or a Kola woman produces by a Vaidehaka man a Meda. He 
lives in forests and hills and subsists on fruits, and is wildly dressed, and suffers 
from disease of rheumatism." 

He is called " Gai." 

(49) Kaivartaka. 

"A Kaivartaka is born of an Ayogavi mother and a Parasava father. By making 
nets he catches fish and other water animals for the sake of his livelihood. His 
occupation is that of a boatsman, and of carrier through rivers, and to ferry men 
across rivers, and tlyis earn money for them." 

Kaivarta is also called " Dasa, 99 living by occupation of boats. 
(50,51 and 52) Some low castes (Dasa), Karavara, Andhra and Meda. 

" A Charma-kara is produced by a Karavari woman through a Nisada husband. 
Similarly, a Karavari arid a Nisada woman by a Vaidehaka husband produce Andhras 
and Medas respectively, who dwell outside the city." 

Compare (MANU X. 34, 35 and 36) :-(34) A Nisada begets (on an Ayogavi) a 
Margava (or) Dasa, who subsists by working as a boatman, (and) whom the inha- 
bitants of Aryavarta call a Kaivarta. (35) Those three base-born ones are severally 
begot on Ayogavi womon, who wear the clothes of the dead, are wicked, and. eat 



reprehensible food. (38) From a Nis&da springs (by a woman of the Vaideha caste) 
a E&ravara, who works in leather ; and from a Vaidehaka (by women of the Kar&vara 
and Nis&da castes), an Andhra and a Meda, who dwell outside the village, " 

(53) Pukkasa. 

16 A Pukkasa is a son of a Nis&da father by a Sfidr& mother. His Dharma is like 
that of Antyajas. His livelihood is by killing wild animals, and hunting with hawks 
and falcons. " 

Compare MANU (X. 18). 

He is called Koli in vernacular. s 

(54) E&rivara. 

"Earivara is the son of a Dhikvani woman (Mochik ft woman) and a Nis&da 
father. He is lower than the Antyaja caste, and his livelihood is by making of 
shoes, and harnesses, and saddles of horses, and hide armours for men, and he deals 
in the hides of cows and buffaloes. 99 

He is called li Oh&m&ra in Hindi. 

(55) Pauskala. 

" An Abhira woman by a Vena man produces a son called Pauskala. He is called 
Adharma also, excluded from all Dharmas. His livelihood is by preparing spirituous 
liquor, and selling it. He is called Sautskala or Saundika also." 
He is called " Ealvara " in the vernacular language. 

(56) Mangustha, 

" Mangustha is the son of Kaivarta father and J&ndhika mother. He is an 
untouchable man. He is called R&jaka also, and his livelihood is that of breaking 
Eatakas ? (the side or ridge of a hill or mountain, and powdering it especially.) He 
cooks food also for dogs." 

He is called " Chfirna-k&ra " also. 

(57) Chitra-Eara. 

" The Chitra-k&ra is the son of Eumbha-k&ra father and Dhikvani mother. His 
occupation is that of painting pictures of various kinds. " 

(58) Einksuka. 

" The Einksuka is the son of Dhivara father and Euruvinda mother. He is an 

Antyaja, and his livelihood is by bamboo leaves." 

He is called "Buruda " li Kuruda " in the vernacular. 

• • 

(59) Ahitundika. 

" He is the son of Vaidehi mother and Nisada father. His occupation is that of 
playing the snakes and earning his livelihood thereby. He carries big poisonous 
snakes round his neck. M 

He is called " Gdrudi " as well as " Dindima" in vernacular. 

Compare MANU (X. 37) :— " From a Ch&nd&la by a Vaideha woman is born a 
Pandusopaka, who deals in cane ; from a Nisada (by the same) an Ahindika." He 

is an Antyaja. , 4 

(60) Saunaka. 

" He is the son of a Earma-chandftla by a Dasa woman. Ho is a butcher, who 
maintains himself by killing goats and sheop, and selling their meat. He is lower 
than an Antyaja." 

Ho is called "Ehatik " in vernacular. He is called u Sainika " also. 

(61) Pdndusopftka. 

44 Ho is the son of a Vaidehi mother by a Earma-ch&nd&la fathor. He belongs 
to Burutla, and deals in cane and bamboo-cutting/ 1 
Compare MANU X, 37 alroady quoted above. 


(62) Yadhika. 

<4 Ho is the son of a hunter (Vyadha) and Ahitundika mother. His occupation 
is to kill rats by dragging thom out of their holos in the ground. Ho bogs for his 
maintenance from people." 

[This caste may bo omploycd by our municipalities in killing rats in these days 
of the plague. Tho YAdhika uood not beg for his livelihood. Tho rat-killing would 
be a paying profession. Tr.] 

(63) Yavana or Taruska. 
44 Ho is tho son of a Vena father and a Meda mother. Ho is most cruel of men, 
A Ch&ml&la is merciful as compared with him." 

(64) S'vapdka. 

" Ho is the son of ChAndala father and Pukkasi mother. He drives cows, asses f 
dogs (dead) outside the village. (His profession is to throw dead corpses of these 
animals outside tho city)." 

Note He is called Mah&r in ordinary language. 

Compare MANU (X. 19), where a Svap&ka is said to be the son of a Ksatriya by 
an Ugr& female, and in X. 51-56, are to be found the occupations of those Chandalas 
and Svapdkas. 

(65) Bom or ]}omba. 

44 He is the son of a Chand&la father by a Nisada mother. He is called also 
Antyavasayi, and he is employed in cremation-grounds, and lives by the garments of 
the dead, and earries the dead carcasses of animals.'' 

Compare MANU tX. 39) " A Nisada woman bears to a Chandala a son (called) 
Antyavasayin, employed in cremation-grounds, and despised even by the so excluded 
(from the Aryan community). " 

(66) Plava. 

"He is the son of a ChAndala father and Andhra woman. He is called Mahddi 
also. He carries the dead carcasses of horses, camels, asses &c, outside the city, 
and lives on the flesh of such animals." 

(67) Manga. 

He is the son of a Chdndala by a Meda woman. He is like a Svapaka, untouch- 
able, and a criminal. His livelihood is by making ropes of cow-hide." 

(68) Durghata. 

44 He is the son of Dhikvam mother and Ayogava father. He is an Antyaja." 

(69) Kinasa. 

" He is the son of Dindima father and Saundiki mother." 

(70) Mlechchhas. 

44 All Mlechchhas are born from Meda women by Sailindhra fathers/ 

(71) Sopaka. 

44 But from a Chandala by a Pukkasa woman is born the sinful Sop&ka> who lives 
by the occupations of his sire, and is ever despised by good men." (MANU X. 37.) 

44 Then Manu, in X, 40, gives a general rule about these Sankara castes : — 
41 These races, (which originate) in a confusion (of the castes and) have been 
described according to their fathers and mothers, may be known by their occupations, 
whether they conceal or openly show themselves." 


The following seven castes are called Antyajas :— (1) Rajakas, (2) Charma- 
karas, (3) Natas, (4) Burudas, (5) Kaivartas, (6) Mertas, and (7) Bhillas. 




MANU (X. 43-45) :— (43) "But in consequence of the omission of the sacred 
rites, and of their not consulting Brdhraauas, the following tribes of Ksatriyas have 
gradually sunk in this world to the condition of Sfidras (Viz.). (44) the Paundrakas, 
the Chodas, the DravidaS, the Kambojas, the Yavanas, the Sakas, the P&radas, 
the Palhavas, the Chinas, the Kiratas, and the Daradas. (45) All those tribes in this 
world, which are excluded from (the community of) those born from the mouth, 
the arms, the thighs, and the feet (of Brahmana), are called Dasyus, whether they 
speak the language of the Mlechchhas (barbarians) or that of the Aryans/' 

Thus there are infinite number of castes and sub-castes, and the general rule 
about them is given by MANU (X. 24) " By adultery (committed by persons) of 
(different) castes, by marriages with women who ought not to be married, and by 
the neglect of the duties and occupations (prescribed) to each, are produced (sons 
who owe their origin) to a confusion of the castes." 

All these are explained in Sftta-Samhit& also. Thus in Siva-M&h&tmyaKhanda, 
Ch. 12, verses 28 et. seq., we find :— " The son of a Mfirdh&vasikta by Ambastha female 
is called Agnoya-nartaka, similarly, the son of a M&hisya by a Karana female, is 
called Daksa, Rathakara, Lohakara, Karmakara, Silp^-vardhat•L ,, All these are names 
of one and the same caste following different professions. 


8Ata-Samhita\ ibid, verse 41 1 — " Bandika is the name of a son, begotten by 
a Vr&tya Brahmana on a Brahmani woman," 

Here we shall digress a little, and describe ten kinds of Brahmanas. 

The Br&hmanas are of ten kinds, '* (1) Deva (god-like), (2) Muni (sage-like), 
(3) Dvija (regenerate), (4) Raja (king-like), (5) Vaiaya (trader-like), (6) Sfidra 
(servant-like), (7) Bid&laka (cat-like), (8) (beast-like), (0) Mlechchha, and 
(10) Chfind&la. 

(1) Deva. 

"He, who is a professor, devoted to his religion, always content, master of 
his senses, who knows the truth about the Vedas and the Sfistras, he is called 

(2) Muni. 

He who subsists on forest products, on uncultivated fruits and roots, and lives 
in forests, devoted to h is ritual, is a Muni-Br&hmana. 

(3) Vaisya 

He, who is devoted to trade and commerce, and rears cattle, and is a cultivator, 
is a Vaisya Brfihmana. 

(4) &udra 

He, who livos by profossion of arms or by profession of writing, or is a temple 
priest, or a village priost, or runs on errands, or cooks food, is a bfldra BrAhmana. 

(5) Marj&ra (Tho Cat Brfihmana.) 
He, who meddles injuriously in tho works of othors, is hypocrite, is intent on 
accomplishing the sol fish ends, and is always cruol, is a Cat-Hrfihmana. 

(«) Beast 

He, who has no distinction between clean and unclean food, in clean and uncloan 
spcoch, in proper and improper intorcourso with women, is a Beast Br&hmana. 

(7) Mlechehha 

He, who is bold and fearless in demolishing temples, in digging out wells, 
reservoirs, tanks, etc., is a Mlechchha Brahmana 


(8) Chflmlflla 

He, who doos not perform Sandhya three times a day, ho, who does not study 
the Vodas, and is devoid of othor religious acts, is a Chdnddla BrAhmana. 

(1) Nfipita. 

To revert to the Suta-Samhita (ibid, verso 32):— 14 The son of a Nisdda by 
a Brdhmani woman is a N&pita." 

There are three kinds of Ndpita, 44 Ordha-ndpita," defined in verse 15 of 
the Sftta-Samhita, the " Simple Napita," defined in this verso, and the 4< Adho-ndpita," 
dofiuod in the next vorse, viz., a son begotten by a Nisdda on a Ksatriyd woman. 
The food of these Ndpitas may bo oaten assays Ydjrlavalkya in verso 166. According 
to 8AIVKHA the simple Napita is a Pratiloma. 

(2) Venuka. 

He is the son of a Ndpita father by a Brdhmani mother, 

(3) Karma-kara. 

He is the son of a Ndpita father by a Ksatriyd woman. 

(4) Taksa Vritti. 

The son of an Ugra by a Brdhmani woman is a Tak.;a or carpenter. 

(5) Samudra. 

He is the son of an Ugra by a Vaisya woman. 

(6) Bhdga-labdha. 
He Is the son of a Dausyanta by a Br&hmani woman, 

(7) Rajaka. 

He is the son of a Vaideha by a Br&hmani female. 

(8) Charma-kdra. 
He is the son of an Ayogava by a Brdhmani woman. 

(9) Svapacha. 

He is the son of a Chandala by a Brdhmani woman. 

(10) Guhaka. 
He is the son of a Svapacha by a Brdhmani woman. 

AH these ten jdtis are begotten by Pratilomas on Brdhmani women. Among 
them the following are considered to be Chdudalas (I) Guhakas, (2) Svapachas, 

(8) Bhillas, (4) Taksa-vrittis, (5) Napitas, (6) Rajakas, (7) Charma-kdras, (8) Bandikas, 

(9) Venukas, (10) Bhdga-labdhas, and (11) Bahya-dasas. They are Chdnddlas. 

Now the sons begotten by Pratilomas on Ksatriyd women. 

(1) Salla. 

He is the son of a Vrdtyaka Ksatriya by a Ksatriyd female. He is called also 
Matta and Malla. 

(2) Pichchhila. 

The son of a Malla by a Ksatriya female is called Pichchhila. 

(8) Nata. 

The son of a Pichchhila by a Ksatriya woman is called Nata. 

(4) Karana. 

The son of a Nata by a Ksatriyd woman is called Karana. 

(5) Karma. 

The son of a Karana by a Ksatrij r d woman is called Karma, 

16) Dramila. 

The son of Karma by a Ksatriya woman is called Dramila. 




(7) Adho-napita. 

The son of a Nisada by a Ksatriyft woman is called Adho-n&pita. 

(8) Khanaka. 

The son of a Mfigadha by a RsatriyS woman is called " Khanaka. 1 9 

(9) Udbandha. 

The son of a Khanaka by a Esatriy& woman is called " Udbandha."* 
Now the sons produced on a Vaisya woman. 

(1) Sudhanvana. 
A Vr&tya Vaisya begets on a Vaisya woman a Sudhanvao* 

-(2) Avarya. 

A Sudhanvana begets on a Vaisya woman an Avarya, 

(3) Bharusa. 

An Avarya begets on a VaiSy& woman a Bh&rusa. 

(4) Dvijanman. 

A Bhfirusa begets on a Vaisyfi woman a Dvijanman. 

(5) Maitra. 

A Dvijanman begets on a Vaisya woman a Maitra. 

(6) Satvata. 

A Maitra begets on a Vaisya woman a S&tvata. 

(7) Su-nisSda. 

A Nisftda begets on a Vaisya woman a son called " Su-nis&da.' 7 

(8) Mani-kfira. 

A son begotten on a Vaisya woman by stealth is a Mani-kfira. 

(9) Dantaka-venava. 
He is the son of a Chandfila by a Vaisya woman. 

(10) Asvamika. 

The son of a Dantaka-venava by a SGdra woman is an Asvamika. 

Now the sons of a SGdrfi woman. 

(1) Manavika. 

The son of a Sfldra father by a Sfldra mother by stealth is Mfinavika. 

(2) Kukunda. 

The son of a Magadha by a Gfldrfi woman is Kukunda. 

(8) Bhairava, 

The son of a Pratiloma Nisada by a Sfldra woman is Bhairava. 

Now the sons of a Maitra woman. 

(1) Matanga. 

The son of a Vaideha by a Maitrfi woman is called " Mfitanga." 

(2) Sfita. 

Tho son of a M&tanga by a Maitra woman is called " Sfita." 

(8) Dasyu. 

Tho son of a SAta by a Maitra woman is Dasyu. 

(4) M&la-kfira. 

The son of a Dasyu by a Maitrfi woman is M&lfi-kfira. 

(5) Kaivarta. 

Tho son of a Pratiloma Nisftda by a Maitrfi woman is a Kaivarta. 

Now tho sons by a Tailikfi woman. 

(I) Kfiru. 

The son of an Ayogfiva by a Tailikfi woman is called 14 Kfiru. " Ho soils clothes 
of bluo and other colours. 


(2/ Charma-jivi. 
Tho son of a Nisada by a K&vu woman is Charma-jivi. 


Tho Anulomas are six, viz., (1) MurdhSvasikta, (2) Mfthiflyn, (3) Karana (4) 
Ambastha, (5) Nisada, otherwise called Parasava, and (6) Ugra. Tho following tablo 
Shows their origin 


(1) Brahmana 

(2) Ksatriya ... 

(3) Vaisya 

(4) Brahmana 

(5) Brahmana... 

(6) Ksatriya ... 

(1) Ksatriya ..« 

(2) Vaisya 
(8) Stidra 

(4) Vaisya 

(5) Sfidra 

(6) Stidra 




. • . 


• • • 


• • . 


• « • 


• • • 

. • « 

• • * 




• . . 


. • . 


• • • 


• . . 


• . . 





. « . 

« . . 

* * • 




. • . 




Nisada (P&raaava). 


Vaisy m 

Among the Pratilomas the Chind&la alone is untouchable. They are entitled, 
with the exception of Chandaia, to the sacraments also according to the caste of 
their mother. Among these the Ayogavas, the Ksattas, and the Chand&las are lower 
in scale than the SAdras, and are not entitled to perform filial duties, such as Srad- 
dha &c. of their father. 



(1) Brahmana 

(2) Do. 
(8) Do. 

(4) Nisada 

(5) Sftdra 

(6) Ksatta 

(7) Vaideha ... 

(8) Vratya Brahmana 

(9) Vratyaka Ksatriya 
(10) Vratya Vaisya 




• mm 




• • • 

. • . 


♦ « • 










« • • 


. • • 


• •• 



• »• 







. • « 


Salla etc. 
Sudhanva etc. 

Note -Vratyas are those who have not been initiated in the Gayatri. 

(11) Dasyu 

(12) Vaideha 

(13) Nisada 

(14) Nisada 

• • . 

• « • 


. • • 

• ♦ . 




(15) Vaideha 

(16) Chandala .. 

(17) Nisada 

(18) Chanclala ... 

(19) Chandala... 


• • . 




I Do. 



• . . 

» • . 







• . . 






Karavara (leather-tan 





Note The Pratilomas like Sflta and the rest are not entitled to Upanayana 
v sacrament, as says MANU (X. 45 et. seq.) :— « (45) All those tribes in this world, which 
are excluded from (the community of) those born from the mouth, the arms, the 
•thighs, and the feet (of Brahmana), are called Dasyus, whether they speak the 
language of the Mlechchhas (barbarians) or that of the Aryans. (46) Those who 
have been mentioned as the base-born (offspring, apasada) of Aryans, or as produced 
in consequence of a violation (of the law, apadhvamsaja), shall subsist by occupations 
reprehended by the twice-born. (47) To Sutas (belongs) the management of horses 
and chariots ; to Ambasthas, the art of healing ; to Vaidehakas, the service of women ; 
to Magadhas, trade ; (48) Killing fish to Nis£das ; carpenters work to Ayogava ; to* 
Medas, Andhras, Chunchukus, and Madgus, the slaughter of wild animals ; (49) To 
Ksattris, Ugras, and Pukkasas, catching and killing (animals) living in holes; to 
Dhigvanas, working in leather; to Delias, playing drums. (50; Near well-known 
trees and burial-grounds, on mountains and in groves, let these (tribes) dwell, known 
(by certain marks), and subsisting by their peculiar occupations." 

[Translator's note: -B&lambhatta then gives a long dissertation about K&yas- 
thas. According to the modern theory, there are no ruling Ksatriya kings in this 
Kali Age. All Ksatriyas, therefore, now, belong to one of these three classes, 
according to Bhavisya Pur£na, viz., (1) Brahma-ksattfis, (2) K&yastbas, and (8) 
R&jpfits. The Brahma-Ksattris are descendants of that queen of king Chandrasena, 
who fled away to a forest, from the fear of Parasur&ma, and took shelter in the herm- 
itage of the sage Dalbhya. Parasurama pursued her there, and wanted to kill the 
child she was bearing in her womb, but at the intercession of Ddlbhyahe promised 
to save the child on condition that the child should never learn the art of war, or the 
use of arms. Dalbhya promised this and the son so born to the queen was trained 
as a Br&hmana, and became the founder of the race of K&yasthas known as Chandra- 
seni Kayasthas, the modern Prabhus of Bombay. This is one class of K&yasthas. 

The second class are Chitraguptiya K&yasthas, descendants of Chitra-gupta, 
a son of Brahma. Both these classes of Kayasthas are, of course, Ksatriyas, and 
about them B£lambhatta says :— " Tatr&dyayoh Jrsatra-dharm&bhavepi ksatriyatve 
na viv£dah," " about these two there can be no dispute about their Ksatriyahood, 
though they are not following the Dharmas of Ksatriyas.' 1 

The third class of K&yasthas are Pratilomas, and lower than the Stidras in 
social scale. They are descendants of MahisyS girl by Vaideha father. They are 
described by Chhagala. 

Of course, the high caste Kdyasthas of D. P., Behar, and Bengal are not Prati- 
lomas, for even those who call them Sfldras take always care to describe them as 
Sat-stidras (See Raghunandana, Udvaha-tattva, etc). The Sat-sfidra is one who is a 
pure descendant by Sfidra father and fefidra mother. He is not a Pratiloma or mixed 
caste, as says USANAS (49) 


Now a consideration (of the origin and caste of the) Kayasthas. 
Rays CHHAGALA "(1) A MfihisyA girl by a Vaideha husband produces a son 
called " Kayastha." His occupation is now being determined." 


Notr A Mfihisya is a progeny of Ksatriya father by Vaisya female. A 
Vaidoha is the son of a Vaisya father by Brahmani female. " (2) Ho (K&yastha) 
should practise tho profession of writing tho vernacular characters. Ho should be 
a mathematician, knowing Arithmetic as woll as Algebra (Bija-p&ti). (3) By this 
profession (of writing and accounts) is to be the livelihood of Kayastha. This is tho 
special mode by which ho serves tho four castes, for writing of letters is verily the 
service of four castes. (4) So also occupations of trade and art are also mentioned 
as his moans of livelihood. Ho is lower than the SOdra caste, and is entitled to 
five Samsk&ras." 

Note : — Ho is a Pratiloma. The five Samskaras are :— (1) J&ta-karma, or birth 
ceremony, (2) Nama-karma, or the name-ceremony, (3) Vapanam, or the tonsure- 
ceremony, (4) Karna-vandhanam, or the ear-boring ceremony, and (5) Udv&ha, or tho 

But in the Bhavisyottara 44 (1) The Ksatriyas have three denominations viz., 
(1) Ksattri, (2) K&yastha also, (8) the son of a woman other than the principal queen 
of a king, and he is called Raja-putra." 

Thus the Ksatriyas have three divisions :— (1) Ksattris called also Brahma- 
Ksattris, (2) K&yastha, (3) Raja-putra, Tho first two (Brahma-Ksattris and Kayas- 
thas) are thus described in the Skanda Purana : — 44 He is called Brahma-ksatt f i who 
through fear (of Parasur&ma) went to forest/' 

The second class namely K&yastha, is mentioned in the story of the flight of 
the queen of Chandrasena, and how she was saved by the sage Dalbhya, the 
Pur&na goes on to say : — 

14 Then Rama said to D&lbhya, ' You know the purposes of my coming here for 
I am the exterminator of all the Ksatriya race, but thou hast asked from me the 
life of this child in the womb, therefore, he will be called K&yastha (kSya, womb or 
body and stha existing). By this name of Kayastha will be known this auspicious 
child." Thus Kayastha was produced by Ksatriya father on a Ksatrini wife, and 
having performed his Upanayana ceremony, D&lbhya treated him as his son. 

He gave to him the Dharma of the Kfiyastha, that which is called the Dharma 
of Chitra-gupta." 

This will be explained clearly further on. 

In another Purdna also it is said :~ 44 Chandrasena was the son of Nala, and 
he had a righteous son named 44 K&yastha, M and who obtaining the Dharma of the 
Kftyastha, then became by name a K&yastha. M 

The Dharma of Chitragupta will be explained further on. 

The Skanda Pur&na thus gives one origin of the twofold Kayasthas, viz., of 
Brahma Ksatris and Chandrasenis. The Brahmaksattris are those Ksatriyas who 
fled from the wrath of Parasurama to forests, and there abandoning the profession 
of arms lived like Brahmanas, and were called Brahma-Ksattris. The Chandraseni 
KAyasthas are descendants of king Chandrasena, whose queen had taken shelter in 
the hermitage of Dalbhya. 

Another origin of these twofold Kayasthas is given in the Padma Purana/ 
Spisti Khanda, in the Chapters on Renuka-mahatmya. 

(Then Balambhatta gives the story of the origin of Chitragupta from this 
Padma Pur&na). 

(I) In the beginning of creation Brahrad, in order to be informed of the good 
and evil deeds of living creatures, went into meditation for a short time, and from 
his entire body (Kaya), there oozed out (2) a divine male of refulgent form, holding 




a pen and ink-pot in his hands, and who was kept concealed in the form of a picture 
(Chitra, picture, Gupta, concealed) within the heart of Brahma, by the Devas. (3) 
So he was called Chitra-gupta, and he stood in front of BrahmA, and he was employ- 
ed by Brahma and other Devas, after a little meditation, in the presence of Yama, 
the king of the dead, (4) to write good and evil deeds of all living beings. Brahmft 
gave him a share also in the Bali offerings made by all before taking their food, 
(5) Since he (Chitragupta) arose from the body (Kaya) of Brahma he is called 
K&yastha, and became the founder of that caste (j&ti), which became divided into 
various gotras in this world. (6, 7 and 8) Chitragupta married the daughter of 
Daksa, called Daksayani, and by her he begot a son called Yichitragupta, who 
married Sv&ksa, daughter of Manu, and by her he had a son, Dharma Gupta, who 
married G&ndhfiri and had by her a son called Rudra-Gupta, who married 
Apsaras and had by her four sons, Mathur, Gauda, Nagar and Naigama. These four 
are respectively known also K£yastha, Sakta, Maulika, and MahesVara. Their 
Gotra is K&syapa, and their Dharma is to bath.e twice a day, and to perform Sandhya 
three times a day, and to fast in honour of Chaudi on the Astami and Chaturdasi 
days, and to keep the vrata on Tuesday and during the Nava-r&tra days, and to 
perform Tarpana and the five great sacrifices according to rule," This is the origin 
of Chitraguptiya Kayasthas. 

According to another legend Chitragupta arose from the body of Kali at the 
time of the churning of the ocean. 


Having thus mentioned the origin of Chitragupta Kayasthas and their Dharmas, 
the Padma Pur&na, then, goes on to describe the origin of Chandraseni Kayasthas 
in the story of Parasur&ma. " (1) Parasur&ma, having thus killed K&rtyavirya- 
Arjuna with his sharp arrows, ran to kill all other Ksatriya heroes or kings. (2) 
Then all Ksatriya nobles ran away through his fear, some entered the Pat&la, some 
took shelter in sky, (3) some abandoning their children put on the dress of Br&h- 
manas, and became hermits in forests in fear of Paras'urama, (4) thus remaining 
there some became Natas (actors), some became Nartakas (dancers), some became 
Vaitalikas (bards), thus the heroic kings through fear of Parasurama (5) came to be 
known as Brahma-ksatriyas, because they had run to the forests through this fear. 


" The pregnant queen of Chandrasena took shelter in the hermitage of Ddlbhya, 
where Parasurama followed her. Dalbhya showed honour to him by giving him seat 
and water to wash his feet, and Argbya offering. Then Dalbhya Muni gave him at 
noon with great respect food to eat. Before taking food and performing Gandusa, 
Parasurama taking wator in his hand, reqnested D&lbhya to grant him a boon. 
D&lbbya Tlisi promised to grant the request, (whatever it might be), and he in his 
turn asked a boon from Parasurama who also promised to grant it. Then those 
took their food with groat pleasuro, and after finishing their meals, thoso two began 
to converse on various topics. Then Dalbhya said, * Now ask the boon, O mighty 
one, which thou didst make mo promise." Parasurama said : — <; In thy hermitage, tho 
pregnant wife of the groat-souled, Ksatriya royal Sago, Chandrasena, has taken 
shelter. Givo her to mo, O Groat Sage, so that I may kill her." Then D&lbhya 
called tho queen to his presence, who came and stood there trembling through fear, 
and gavo her to Parasurfima, whereupon he was much pleased. Ddlbhya, seeing her 
thus frightening and shaking through terror, addressed Parasurama, thus ' Grant 
mo the boon, O Lord, which thou didst promise mo. 1 


' What thou hast asked from mo, O Brftbmaiia, boforo wo began our meal, I shall 
grant thco whatever thou mayost ask.' 


'O Teacher of tho world, O Divine Rama, that which! had intended to ask 
from beforo, is that you may grant to mo the lifo o£ this child who is in the womb of 
this woman. You can cortainly do so.' 


•Sinco, O Daibhya, thou knewest from boforo why 1 had como to thy hermitage, 
my object being to exterminate all Ksatriyas, and sinco thou hast asked from mo to 
save the life of this child who is still in tho body . (Kayastha) of his mother, (though 
thus circumvented by thee) I grant thee this boon, and thereforo this child will get 
tho name of " Kayastha. " Thou must debar, him, however, from following tho evil 

profession of arms.' % 

Then Daibhya, being pleased, thus addressed Bhiirgava (Parasurama) :— ' I have 
no doubt regarding this. The child will never follow tho evil path of the Ksatriyas. ' 
Thus the hero Parasurama sparing that child still in the womb, went away from 
that Asrama— that Lord, the destroyer of Ksatriyas. Then Parasurama, having come 
to know from Narada that many Ksatriya kings were living in disguise, 
went and killed them also, though they had no arms. Thus Kayastha (son of 
Chandrasena) was born of a Ksatriya mother and Ksatriya father. Daibhya, having 
performed his initiation (Upanayana), treated him like his own son. And by a 
command of Parasurama, Daibhya excluded him from Ksatriya Dharma, and gave 
him the Dharma of Chitragupta, called the Kayastha Dharma. Thus the son of 
Chandrasena, born in the dynasty of Nala, got the name of Kayastha as well as the 
profession of Kayastha, viz., to follow the profession of writing (in the courts) of 
kings He married a daughter of Chitragupta Kayastha family, and his descendants 
were called (Chandraseni) Kayasthas and their Gotra was that of Daibhya. Being 
taught by Daibhya they became all righteous, truth-telling, consecrated with all 
Samskdras, and continually devoted to Sraddha and Homa,with the utterance of 
Pranava, a*d with Veda, Sannyasa, and Kunda excluded. Always following good 
conduct and devoted to the worship of Hari and Hara, doing honour to Devarsis 
and Pitris and guests, they are devoted to the performance of Yajnas giving gifts, 
and undergoing penances, and always performing Vratas and visiting Tirthas. 


Thus there are three kinds of Kayasthas, viz., (1) Chitraguptiyas, (2) Chandra- 
Beniyas, and (3) The Sankara-jata or Pratilomas mentioned before. . 

[Translator's note :-Then Balambhatta gives at length the ritual of worship- 
ping Chitragupta. We omit that here, more so, as Balambhatta himself does not 
believe in the authenticity of this ritual. He comes therefore to this the following 

But this (ritual or the story of Chitragupta) appears to be imaginary, and 
having no foundation in authority. Therefore, what has been said before is right 
(viz., Ksatriyas are of three kinds, Brahma-ksatri, Kayasthas, and Rajputs). Even 
now-a-days Brahma-Ksatriyas are found distinguished by their manners and customs. 
In the Madradesa, in' the province of Vahika, they wero disarmed by Parasurama 
and were made to renounce the Dharma of Ksatriyas, as mentioned in Puranas. 

The Chandraseniyas are now-a-days found in tho Deccan, and are well-known 
by the naino of Parabhus. They follow the profession of Kayasthas, and under 


the command of Parasurama, Dalbhya made them renounce the Ksatriya Dharma. 
The others (Chitraguptiya Kayasthas) exist in all countries, and are well-known as 
such. These two, (Chandrasemyas and Chitraguptiyas, or Brahmaksatriyas and 
Chandraseniyas), though debarred from Ksatriya Dharma, are Ksatriyas, and there 
is no dispute about their Ksatriyahood, as says the Brahma Purana :— " The kings 
will follow the customs of Vaisyas and will maintain themselves by earning money 
and agriculture, as well as by the profession of writing and by other good and bad 
professions. Some of them will keep long locks of hair, others will be shaven-headed 
—these Ksatriyas towards the end of the Yuga. " 

So also in the Skanda Purana :— " Afraid of being killed by Parasur&ma, re- 
nouncing the Dharma of Ksatriyas, and following the Dharma of Vaisyas or of the 
Brahmanas, these Ksatriyas will maintain themselves by following the profession of 
writing or painting various kinds of pictures, or engraving on stones, and other 
such professions. " 

The Rise and Fall in Caste. 
Having mentioned one cause, by which castes (varna) are 
determined in the verse 90, beginning with " by a man of the same 
class (varna) in a woman of the same class (varna) are produced 
Sajdti Sec," the author now mentions another cause by which a 
higher varna might be obtained. • 


XCVI. — The rise in caste jati (comes), be it under- 
stood, by the fifth or seventh birth even ; by confusion 
of profession (comes) equality. Adhara (lower) and 
Uttara (higher) like the former. — 96, 


"Castes" jati, such as Murdhavasikta and the rest. Their 
"rise," or attainment to the rank of the caste (jati) of Brahmanas 
&c, (is meant by the phrase) "rise in caste, " (jatyutkarsa) "birth" 
(yuga), means generation. " In seventh or fifth, " and by the use of 
, the word " api " (even) in the text, is to be known sixth also. This 
alternative (of fifth, sixth, or seventh) is subject to adjustment 
(vyavasthita)/ This is the adjustment : the daughter begot by a 
Brahmana on a 3udra woman is Nisadi ; she (Nisadi) is married by a 
Brahmana and gives birth to a certain daughter. The latter is also 
married by a Brahmana and gives birth to a daughter, and so on, 
till the sixth daughter, who will give birth to a Brahmana as 

Similarly, the daughter, begotten by a Brahmana on a Vaitfy3 
woman is an Ambasthi. She is married by a Brahmana and gives 
birth to a daughter, and soon in the above manner, 'till the fifth 
daughter gives birth to a Brahmana as sixth, 


r — 1 — ■ ■ 

Similarly a Mfirdhfrvasikta (the daughter of a Brahmana by a 
Ksatriyfl, woman). In the above manner, a daughter fourth in 
descent will produce a Brahmana who will be fifth in generation. 

Similarly a woman of Ugra caste (Ksatriya father and ^fidra 
mother), and one of M&hi§yfi caste (of Ksatriya father and Vai^ya 
mother) married by a Ksatriya will give birth to a Ksatriya in the 
sixth and fifth generations (respectively, according to the above- 
mentioned method.) 

Similarly a woman of Karani caste (VaiiSya father and £>fidra 
mother), being married by a Vairfya, will give birth in the fifth 
generation to a Vai^ya. 

Such is to be understood in other cases also* 

Moreover — "By acts done against rule" — means, " on the 
confusion of occupations by which livelihood is obtained.' 5 Such as, 
when a Br&hmana cannot maintain himself by following his principal 
means of livelihood, he may maintain by following the occupation of 
a Ksatriya in the alternative. If he cannot live even by that, he may 
adopt the profession of a Vai^ya ; if he cannot live by that even, he 
may adopt the profession of a l^fidra. 


A Ksatriya also unable to maintain himself by following 
the profession of his class may adopt the Vaisfya's profession or 
the ^fidra's profession. 

A VaisJya also, who is unable to live by the profession of his 
class, may adopt the $fidra's profession. 

This is called the "confusion of profession " — In case of such 
confusions, when on the removal of the distress, one does not 
renounce such profession, then in the fifth, sixth or seventh generation, 
" there takes place equality." By adopting the profession of that 
low caste by which he was maintaining himself, he is even degraded 
to an equality with that caste. 

Such as, a Brahmana, living by a fJfidra's profession, and 
without renouncing it, he begets a son,' that son also maintaining 
himself by following the same profession begets a son, and this is 
again repeated ; by this way in the seventh generation a 3fldra is born. 

Similarly, living by adopting the VaisJya's profession, a Vaijiya 
will be born out of the original in the sixth generation.* 

* So a Brfihmana living by tho professiou of a Ksatrija begets a Ksatriya in 
the fifth generation. Tr. 



So also a Ksatriya living by the profession of a i^fidra becomes 
a £i>udra in the sixth generation, and living by a Vaiisfya's profession 
becomes a Vaisya in the fifth generation. 

So also a Vaisya living by a Lucira's profession, and without 
renouncing it, produces in the fifth generation, through the mediation 
of his sons, &c, a ^udra. 

" Adhara and Uttara like the former " — The meaning of this is 
that Hybrids (Varnasamkara) have been mentioned while describing 
the Anulomas and the Pratilomas. Double hybrid castfes have been 
shown by typical illustration of Rathakara. Now is shown the caste 
produced by varna Samkirna-Samkara (i.e., by the intermixture of 
pure castes with hybrids and double hybrids.) 

" Adharottara " in the text, is a compound of Adhara plus Uttara. 
As sons begot in a Mfirdhavasikta woman by a Ksatriya, Vaisya and 
^udra, so in an Ambastha woman by a Vaisya and £$fidra, in a Nisadi 
woman by a ^udra, are Adhara (falling) Pratilomajds. 

Similarly, sons produced in Milrdhavasikta, Ambasthfi and 
Nisadi women by a Brahmana in Mahisya and Ugra women, by 
Brahmana or Ksatriya, in a Karani woman by a Brahmana, Ksatriya 
or Vaisya are Uttare (rising) Anulomajas. So is to be known in 
other cases. These Adharas and Uttaras are to be understood like 
the former, bad and good respectively, i.e., the Adharas are bad and 
the Uttaras are good. 

Here ends the chapter on Disquisition about classes and castes. 

Translator's- note :— Compare MANU (X.' 64) :— " If (a female of the caste), 
sprung from a Br&limana and a Sudra female, bear (children) to one of the highest 
caste, tho inferior (tribe) attains the highest caste within the seventh generation." 

So also aPASTAMBA (II. 5-11):— " (10) In successive births men of the lower 
castes are born in the next higher one, if they have fulfilled their duties. (11) In 
successive births men of the higher castes are born in the next lower one, if they 

neglect their duties." 

Comparo GAUTAMA (IV. 22) :— " In the seventh (generation men obtain) 
a change of caste, oithor being raised to a higher ono or being degraded to 
a lower ono." 

Dr. Buhler adds the following noto to MANU (X. 64) "According to Medh&tithI, 
Govinda, Kulluka, and Raghavendra, tho meaning is that, if tho daughter of a 
Brahmana and a fe'Gdrft femalo and her descendants all marry Br&hmanas, tho 
offspring of tho sixth female descendant of tho original couplo will bo a Brahmana. 
While this explanation agrees with Haradatta's comment on tho parallel passage of 
Gautama, Narayana and Nanda take tho vorso vory difforently. They say that if 
a Parana va, tho son of a Br&hmana and of a &tidr£l female, marries a most excellent 
Paras'avd fomalo, who possessos a good moral character and other virtues, and if his 
descendants do tho same, tho child born in tho sixth generation will bo a Brfihmaua. 


Nanda quotas in support of his view Baudhayana 1. 10, 13-14 (loft out in my translation 
of tho Sacred Books of tho Bast, II, p. 197), nisddona nisadydm & pafichamaj jater 
apahanti (jato'pahanti) fc'Gdratfim tarn upanayot sasthamyftjayot, (offspring), begotten 
by a Ni§fida on § Nisadi, romovos within five generations tho Sfidrahood ; one may 
initiato him (tho Qfth descendant), ono may sacrifice for tho sixth." This passage of 
Baudhfiyana, tho reading of which is supported by a now MS. from Madras, clearly 
shows that Baudhayana allowed tho malo offspring of Brahmanas and 8Qdr{L females 
to bo raised to tho level of Aryans. It is also not possible that tho meaning of 
Manu's vorso may bo tho same, and that tho translation should be, * If tho offspring 
of a Br&hmana and of a SOdrd female begets children with a most oxcellent (malo of 
tho Brahmaua casto or the female of the Pdrasava tribo), tho inferior (tribo) attains 
tho highest casto in tho seventh generation. Tho chief objection to this version, 
which consists in tho fact that Srejasa, ' with a most excellent,' stands in tho 
masculine, may be mot by Manu's peculiar use of the masculino instead of tho 
feminine above in verse 32, where fiyogava is used for ayogavyam," 

Chapter V. — On the duties of a Householder. 


Intending to show that the ^rauta and Smarta works are to be 
performed in fire, the author now describes what works are to be 
performed in which sort of fire. 


XCVII. — The householder should daily perform the 
Smarta work in nuptial fire, or even in the fire obtained 
at the time of taking the heritage ; and the &rauta 
ceremony in Vaitanika fire. — 97. 


The ceremonies ordained by the Smritis, such as Vai^vadeva 
sacrifice &o. and the profane work, such as the daily cooking of food 
that also should be performed by the householder in nuptial fire or 
the marriage consecrated fire; or in the fire brought at the time of 
partition (of heritage). The fire should be consecrated by the pre- 
paratory rite as described in the following : — 

" The fire should be brought from the house of a Vaisya," &c. 

The word " api" (even) in the original means on the death of 
the head (lord) of the family; when the fire is brought and con- 

Therefore on the expiration of these three periods (if the fire 
be not brought) then he becomes a sinner and should perform 
Prdyaschitta (penance). 

The ceremonies ordained by the ^rutis, such as Agnihotra, &c, 
should be performed in the Vaitanika fires, i.e., in the fires known 
as Ahavaniya and others {Garhapatya and Ddk^indgni). 

Now the author describes the duties of a Gfihasta (house- 


XCVIII. — Having attended to bodily wants and 
made purification according to rule, the twice-born 
should perform his morning prayers after having clean- 
sed his # teeth. — 98. 


* ■» 


" Bodily wants " or necessary (calls of nature). Having finished 
these according to rule (" Morning and evening with sacred thread 
on the ear, facing the east " &c. verse 16); and having performed 
purification according to the following rule (" Destructive of stink • 
and sticking," &c. verse 17), the twice-born, after cleansing his 
teeth should say his morning prayers. 

The rule about the tooth-brush is this: — "The branch of 
a thorny or a juicy tree, twelve fingers long and of the thickness of 
the little finger, bruised at one end of it to the length of the half the 
joint of a finger, is said to be a tooth-brush, and the tongue-brush 
should be of the same. 55 By specifying the branch of the tree, the 
grass, stone, finger, &c. are prohibited. Paldsa (Butea frondosa), 
asvattha (Ficus religiosus), have been prohibited in other Smritis 
which may be seen. 

The following is the hymn of the tooth-brush. 

" 0 lord of woods (tree) give thou to me long life, strength, 
fame, power, offspring, cattle, wealth, divine wisdom and intelli- 
gence." (Apastamba Mantra Patha, II. 13. 2 and Karma Pradipa 
I. 10. 4.) 

Though the Sandhya worship has already been mentioned 
in the chapter on Brahmacharya, yet its repetition here is in order 
to establish (the fact that the prayers of a Grihasta householder 
should be) preceded by the brushing of the teeth. As there is 
prohibition " A Brahmachari (student) should avoid brushing the 
teeth, dancing and songs."* 


XCIX. — Having worshipped the fires, let him 
repeat the mantras (hymns) sacred to the sun with con- 
centration. Let him study the meaning of the Vedas 
and of the various &astras. — 99. 


After having completed the morning prayers, he should offer 
sacrifice according to the prescribed rules to the fires named Ahava- 
niya and the rest or to the Aupa&ina fire. After that he should 
repeat the sun-deity hymns (Udutyam jata vedasam Sec.) 

" With concentration " means with mind not straying. 

* Consult " The Daily Practice of the Hindus/' 




After that he should study or learn the meaning of the Vedas 
by reading Nirukta (Vedic Dictionary), Grammar, etc. 

By the use of the word " cha " (and) in the text it is meant that 
he should revise what he has learnt. 

He should also acquire the various ^astras like the Mim&msa 
etc. which treat of duties (dharma), worldly concerns or wealth 
(artha) and health. 


C. — He should then go to the ruler for the sake of 
attaining Yogaksema, then having bathed he should 
satisfy and also worship the gods and pitfis. — 100. 


After that he should " go " or approach the " ruler " endowed 
with the quality of being coronated &c, or any other irreproachable 
wealthy person, " For the sake of yoga-ksema " the getting of that 
which one has not is " Yoga," the preservation of that which one has 
is " Ksema," i.e., for the sake of acquisition and preservation. By 
the use of the word " go to " in the text, service has been prohibited. 
Service is the performing of commands by taking wages* It is 
prohibited as it is dog-livelihood. 0 

Then at noon having bathed in rivers etc., according to the rule 
prescribed by his own ^astra, he should offer libations of water to 
the gods mentioned in his Grihya-sfitras, to the pitris (Manes) and 
the Risis (irfiplied by the use of " Cha " (and) in the original through 
the fords or tirthas known as Devatirtha, (Pitri-tirtha etc. see v. 19). 

After that he should worship according to the prescribed rules 
with sandal paste, flowers and rice the gods HARI, HARA, HIRAN- 
YAGARBHA, &c, or others as he may prefer with the hymns of the 
Rig, Yajus or the Sama Veda specifically addressed to those deities 
or by joining the word nmaali ("salutation) to the 4th declension 
(dative case) of the name of the god (as namah HA RAY A namali 
HARAYE &c, salutations to HARA, salutations to HARI, &c.) 


CI. — Let him repeat the Vedas, the Atharvam and 
the Puranas along with the Itilidsas according to his 
power, for the sake of obtaining perfection in the sacri- 

* Some Mss. of Mitftksarfi quote from Manu IV, G. "Service is called Svavritti 
(a clog's mode of life) ; therefore one should avoid it." Tr. 


fice of Japa (muttering of prayers), as well as (repeat) 
the science of spirit (or self). — 101. 


After that ho should repeat, according to the prescribed rule 

and his power, the Vedas, the Atharvam, the ItiMsas, the Puranas, 


all of them or some, as well as the spiritual science, for the sake of 
attaining perfection in the sacrifice of Japa. 


OIL— -The Bali-karma, the Svadha, the Homa, the 
study of the Vedas and honouring the guests are the 
great sacrifices to the Bhutas, the pitris, the gods, the 
Brahman and men. — 102. 



1. Bali-karma (animal sacrifice) is Bhuta-yajfia (sacrifice to 
the ghosts). 2. The svadha (giving of food after pronouncing the 
word svadha) is pitri-yajna. 3. (Sacrifice of food to fire) is Deva- 
yajfia (sacrifice to gods). 4. Svadhyaya (study of the Vedas) is 
Brahma-yajna. 5. " The honouring the guest " is Manusya-yajfia, 

These five great yajnas should be daily performed, because 
they are permanent duties (Nitya). 

As to the declaration of fruit (which results from the perfor- 
mance of these), i.e., for the purpose of asserting the holiness of these 
sacrifices and not to establish their Kamya nature (or being op- 
tional, i.e., these duties are not optional though their fruits have been 
enumerated, the enumeration of fruit being a sign generally of op- 
tional duties). 


CIIL— From, the remainder of the food offered to 
the gods, let him offer the Bhuta-Bali. Let him throw 
on the ground for dogs, Chandalas, and the crows. — 103. 


Having performed Vaisvadeva fire offering according to the 
rules prescribed by his own Grihya Sutras with the remainder of that 
food he should offer Bali to the BJuUas. 

The specification of the word Anna (food) is for the purpose of 
excluding uncooked food. 




After that according to his ability he should place food on the 
ground for dogs, Chandalas and crows. 

By the use of the word " Cha " (and) in the text, are included 
the worms and the pdpa-rogins (inflicted with diseases as signs of 
punishment for past sins). As has been said by MANU (Chap. III. 
V 92), — " Let him gently place on the ground (some food) for dogs, 
crows and insects," 0 outcasts Chandalas, those afflicted with diseases 
that are punishments of former sins. m 

This is to be done both in the evening and morning. Because 
it has been said in A^ralayana Smriti : — " Let him sacrifice morning 
and evening 

Here (there is a diversity of opinion), some say that the rite 
known as VaisJvadeva offering is for the purpose of Purusartha (at- 
tainment of the end of man or virtue), as well as a preparatory rite 
to sanctify the food. For from the text «pt m*i srra: ft*~T 3§*n3, 

it appears that this is a rite to sanctify the food. And because 
after enumerating " these are the five great sacrifices " and (ending 
with) " they should be performed daily, " by defining them as per- 
manent duties, it is found that (the VaisVadeva ceremony) is for 
Purusartha (the end of man or virtue). 

This (opinion of the opponent) is not reasonable. In the case 
of its being for " Purusartha " (end of man), it cannot be for the sake 
of Annasamskara (sacrament of food). For, in the case of its being 
a rite for the sanctification of materials, the rite of VaisVadeva is for 
the sake of the food. In the case of its being for Purusartha (virtue) 
the material is for the sake of the VaisVadeva rite. Thus, there 
being mutual contradiction (these two cannot exist at the same time). 
Therefore it being for the sake of Purusartha is reasonable. (Because 
of the text [Manu II. 28] ) :— " By the great (sacrifices) and by 
(Ssrauta) rites the body is made fit for (union with) Brahman (or 
made divine)." So says the Manu Smriti : — 

" But if another guest comes afterwards, when the VaisVadeva 
offering is finished, the householder must give him food according to 
his ability ; but not repeat the Bali offering " (Manu III. 108). 

It being for the sake of Purusartha (virtue), the rite termed as 
VaisVadcf a is not to be performed for every cooking. Therefore the 
two periods (" then the morning and the evening ") have been shown 
as Utpattiprayoga. 

* Also Murkamleya Purfinam XXIX. 23 (Jivauanda's edition). 


" They should bo performed daily " is an adhikcira vidhi (entit- 
ling or empowering rule or precept). Thus everything is irreproach- 
able, i 1 1 « • 


CIV. — Food should be given daily to Manes and 
the men, also water. The study should be daily done. 
The food should not be cooked for self. — 104. 


The food should be given daily according to ability to Manea 
and men. In default of food, kandas (bulbs), roots and fruits &c, in 
default of these, water should be given ; because of the word " api " 
(in the original translated by " also ") which is meant to indicate 
fruits, roots, &c). 

The study (of the Vedas) should be daily performed in order 
not to forget. 

Food should not be cooked for one's own sake. The word Anna 
(food, lit. cooked rice) is used to indicate here all edible substances. 
How then ? For the sake of gods (manes, men, &c.) the food should 
be cooked. 


CV. — Children, the bride, the old, the pregnant, 
the sick, the damsel, the guest and the servants are to 
be fed, the couple (husband and wife) eating last. — 105. 


The married but living in the house of her father is called Sva- 
vasini (the bride).* The rest are well known. The children &c. and 
the guests and servants &c. " are to be fed, " being fed, the husband 
and wife should eat last (or the remainder). 


CVL — The food should be made non-naked and 
ambrosial by the twice-born diner by Aposana from the 
above and below. — 106. 


The food should be made non-naked and ambrosial by the 
twice-born eater, from the above and below with the ceremony known 



as Aposana. The specifying of twice-born is for the purpose of 
making it a general rule for all orders like Upanayana &c. 

[Translator's note— For Aposana, see verse 31.] 


OVII. — (In the event) of the guests of all classes 
(coming together, they all) ought to be given according 
to ability and precedence. A guest is not refused even 
in the evening. With speech, room, grass and water 
(hospitality is to be shown). — 107. 


After the VaisVadeva worship, men of the classes of Br&hmanas, 
&c. coming as guests at one and the same time, should be cherished 
according to their precedence of Brahmanas &c. and according to 
ability. If a guest arrives even in the evening, still he is not to be 
refused or not to be turned away. As it has been said by Manu : — 

" Grass and room for resting, water, and, fourthly, a kind word 
these things never fail in the houses of good men. " (Manu Ch. III. 
101). Though there should be nothing to eat in the house, still he is 
to honour the guest with speech, room, grass and water. 

The Beggar. 


CVIIL— With honours alms are to be given to the 
Bhiksus (beggars) and to the Suvrata. Those friends, 
relatives and kinsmen who come in time, should be fed. 


To a Bhik§u (beggar or SannySsi) alms should be given gene- 
rally. To a Suvrata (the Brahmachari and the Yati) with honour ; 
having said welcome, alms are to be given according to the rule 
u after having poured water, alms are to be given. 99 

" Alms " is of the size of one mouthful, and a mouthful is of 
the size of a pea-hen's egg. As in the ^atatapa Smriti : — 1 Alms is 
of the size of grasa, four times that is putfzala, fourfold of that again 
is Rarhtdy and thrice that is Agra 9 

The friends, relatives and kinsmen who arrive at the time of 
dinner, he should feed. " Friends "are friends. " Relatives " those 


by whom a girl is taken or given. The relatives of father and 
mother are Bandhus or kinsmen. 

Beef -offering to the honoured guest- 


CIX. — Let him show a learned Brahmana, a big bull 
or a big goat as well as good treatment, precedence, 
sweet food and kind speech. — 109. 


A big "bull " an ox, or a big goat, he should show to a £>rotriya 
(learned Brahmana) who has been described already. By saying, 
" This is presented by us for you " for your satisfaction not as a gift 
or for consumption. As " All this is your honour's," (which is a 
mere polite speech and does not mean that everything really belongs 
to the addressee). Because it is impossible to give to every learned 
Brahmana a bull. And because there is the prohibition : — " A 
thing though legal but not conducive to heaven and unpopular, 
should not be practised." 

After that good treatment must be shown. 
Good treatment " is the giving of welcome address, seat, 
water to wash the feet, the hands and the mouth. 

He having been seated, to sit after (or behind) him is precedence. 

" Sweet food " delicious dishes. 

" Courteous speech " such as " we are blessed by your coming 
to-day," &c. 

Again in case of an Asrotriya Brahmana the rule propounded 
by GAUTAMA, (For an Asrotriya (ignorant) water and seat) is appli- 

The annual Feast on Beef. 


CX. — Once a year Argha is to be given to the Snataka, 
the Acharya, the king, the friend and the son-in-law, 
again the Ritvija at each sacrifice. — 110. 


The Snataka (is of three kinds : —(1) The Vidya Snataka. (2) 
the vrata Snataka, and (3) the Vidya- Vrata Snataka. 

He who returns (from studentship) after having completed the 
Vedas, but not having completed the Vratas (vows) is a Vidya-Sna- 



taka. He who returns after having completed the vows (vrata) but 
not having completed the Vedas, is a Vrata-Snataka. He who returns 
after having completed both is a Vidya-vrata-Snataka. 

" The Acharya ,! as has been defined before. " The king " will 
be defined subsequently. The " Priya " means friends. The Viva- 
hyah means son-in-law. 

By " Cha " (and) is meant to be included the father-in-law, the 
father's brother, the mother's brother, &c; as in the Asvalayana 
Smriti : — " Let him prepare Madhuparka, after having elected a Rit- 
vija on the arrival of the Snataka, the king, the Acharya, the father- 
in-law, the father's brother, and the mother's brother." 

These Snatakas and the rest once a year when coming to one's 
house, " arghya is to be given," i.e., they should be fully worshipped 
with Madhuparka, and ought to be saluted. 

By the word Arghya, Madhuparka is indicated. 

The Ritvija as has been previously defined, is to be worship- 
ped at each sacrifice with Madhuparka even before the end of the 


CXI. — The way-farer is to be known as an Atithi 
(guest). The &rotriya and the versed in Veda are two 
who ought to be respected by. a householder desirous of 
heavenly (Brahma) regions. — 111. 


One who is on the road is to be understood a guest. The ^ro- 
triya and the one versed in the Veda when on the road should be 
known to be two guests who ought to be honoured by the householder 
who is desirous of attaining Brahmaloka (region of Brahma). Though 
by mere studying one becomes a ^rotriya, yet here by the word 
" ^rotriya " is meant one who has committed to memory as well as 
understood the meaning of the Vedas. One who has mastered the 
meaning of the Vedas is called a Veda-paraga (versed in Veda.) 
Should give feast but not hanker after other's feasts. 


CXIL — Let him not be inclined to another's food 


without irreproachable invitation. Let him avoid the 
abuse of speech, hand and feet as well as too much eat- 
ing. — 112. 



Ho whoso inclination is for another's food is said to be inclined 
to another's food. Ho should not even be inclined to another's food, 
except in irroproachablo invitation, because of the Smriti : — " He 
should not decline an invitation, which is irreproachable." 

"Abuse of speech, hand and feet." The original "speech, 
hand and feet " is a compound of three words, speech, hand and 
feet. He should avoid their abuse. " Abuse of speech " such as 
impolite or false speech. " Abuse of hand " as slapping the arms on 
the stirrup, saddle, &c, (while riding). " Abuse of feet" as leap and 
bound. By the word " Cha " (and) in the original is meant he should 
avoid abuse of the eye, &c. As in Gautama Smriti (IX. 50) : — 

" He will keep his organ, his stomach, his hands, his feet, his 
tongue, and his eyes under due restraint." 

He should avoid excessive eating, because it produces ill health. 

The honouring of guests while they depart 


CXIII. — He should follow the satisfied SVotriya guest, 
' till the boundary (of his village, &c.). The rest of the 
day he should pass in the company of learned men, 
friends and kinsmen. — 113. 


Having satisfied the before-mentioned £>rotriya guest and the 
Veda-versed guest with food, &c, he should follow behind them or 
escort them till the boundary of the village. 

After that, having taken food, he should pass the rest of the day 
in the company of men learned in history, Puraijas, &c, of friends 
versed in poetry, stories, &c, and of " kinsmen " skilled in pleasing 
and acceptable conversation. . 

The Evening Prayer. 


CXIV. — Having performed the evening prayers 
(Sandhya), and offered oblations to the fires, and wor- 
shipped them, having dined abstemiously being sur- 
rounded by his dependents, let him go in. — 114. 



Then having performed the evening Sandhya according to the 
before-described method and having offered oblations to one or more 
fires, and having worshipped or being seated near them, and being 
surrounded by the dependents, the before-mentioned brides, &c, 
(V. 105), he should take food. 

By the word "Cha" (and) is indicated that he should finish 
pondering over the household matters, like income and expenditure, 
&c. After that he should enter in or go to sleep. 

The Morning Duties. 


CXV. — Having risen in the Brahma hour, let him 
think over the good of the self. Let him not abandon 
the religion (dharma), wealth and pleasures at their 
proper time, according to his ability. — 115.* 


Then having arisen in the Brahma hour ; having awoke at the 
latter end of the night, let him think over the good of his soul that 
which he has done, that which he wishes to do, as well as the doubts 
(which might have arisen in connection with) the meaning of the 
Vedas. Because at that time the mind being tranquil and not 
agitated, it has the capacity of reflecting truth. 

Then he should not abandon Dharma (religion), wealth and 
pleasures, at their appropriate time and according to his ability. 
The sense being that he should attend to them as far as possible. 
Because they are Purusartha (ends of human life). As said GAU- 
TAMA (ix. 45) : " Let him not pass idly (any part of the day, 
be it) morning, midday, or evening, but according to his ability, he 
shall make each useful by the acquisition of spiritual merit, or of 


wealth, and by taking to pleasure." 

Here, though attending to these has been ordained generally, 
yet pleasures and wealth must be sought without contradicting 
Dharma (religion). They (wealth and pleasures) should' be attended 
daily, because they are based on religion. 

The Persons worthy of honour* 

* Compare M&rkandeya Purana, XXXIV. 17. 




CXVL — Are to be respected in their order (men 
possessed of) science, arts, age, relation and wealth. A 
Sudra even having these, deserves respect in old age. 


"Science" as has been defined before. "Acts" are either 
S>rauta or Sm&rta. "Age" older than one's own self and above 
sevehty years of age. " Relations " extensive connection with kins- 
men. "Wealth" village, gems and the rest. Possessed of these 
are to be " respected n or honoured in their order. A $udra even 
having, or being rich in, these (science, acts, relations and wealth), 
possessing some or all of them, deserves respect in " old age, " above 
eighty years of age. Because it is ordained in Gautama Smriti (VI. 6): 
" Even a $ildra of eighty years and more (must bo honoured). 

The Rule of Road. 
YAJ navalkya. 

CXVII. — To the aged, the loaded, the ruler, the 
Snata (the bathed), the woman, the diseased, the bride- 
groom, the cart-man, way should be given. Among 
them the ruler is to be respected, and a Snata (the 
bathed) is to be respected by a king. — 117. 


" The aged " whose body is on the eve of decay and is well 
known. "The loaded," one carrying a load. "The ruler/' the 
king, not alone the Ksatriya. " The Snata (the bathed)," the student 
who has bathed after completing both the Vedas and the Vratas. 
"The woman" is well known. "The bridegroom," one who is 
going to be married. "The cart-man," the carriage driver. 

By the word " Cha " (and) is to be included the drunkard, the 
insane, &c. Because it has been ordained by Safakha : " To the 
child, the aged, the drunkard, the insane, the impure body, the load- 
bearer, the woman, the Snata (the bathed), the ascetic, &c, &c." 
To these road should be given. He should himself step out of the 
way when these persons come from the opposite side. When the 
aged, &c, come at the same time with a ruler on the way, the ruler is 
to be respected. They should give way to the ruler. The Snata 



(bathed) is to be respected by the king. By the specification of 
Sn&taka is denoted every sort of Snataka, and does not mean merely 
the Br&hmana. Because the latter is always honourable. As said 
by ^afakha : " Now the way should be first given to the Br&hmana, 
some say to the king. But that is not right. The Brahmana sur- 
passes the king, being the spiritual guide and the eldest, therefore 
way should be given to him." 

When the aged, &c, mutually confront together in the way at 
the same time, then special consideration must be made for a person 
who is comparatively older in age or has greater learning, &e, * 

The Duties of Ksatriyas and Vaisyas. 
The Brahmana's livelihood. 


CXVIII. — Sacrificing for himself, studying and 
giving alms (are the duties) of the Vaisyas and Ksatriyas ; 
acceptance of gifts is an additional act for the learned 
Brahmana, so also sacrificing for others, and teaching. 


Sacrificing for himself, study and liberality are the general 
duties of the Vaisyas, Ksatriyas, Brahmanas and the twice-born 
Anulomas (the two latter being implied) by the word "Cha" (and) 
in the text. 

In addition to these, the Brahmana has the receiving of gifts, 
sacrificing for others and teaching others. " So also" indicates that 
the employments ordained in other Smyitis are to be included. 

As said by Gautama (X. 5) : — 

"Agriculture and trade are also lawful for a Brahmana, and usury as well, 
provided he does not do tho work himself. 

44 The Ksatriyas and the Vaisyas may teach others when 
directed by tho Brahmanas." Not of their own will. As has been 
ordained by Gautama (VII. 1-3) : — 

1. The rulo for tiraos of distress is that aBr&hraana may study undor a teacher 
who is not a Brfihmana 2. A student is bound to walk behind and to obey (his 
non-Br&hraanical teacher). 3. But when tho course of study has been finished, 
the Brfihmana pupil is more venerable than his teacher. 

These aro the six duties of the Brahmanas in times of non- 
distress. Of these the former three, viz. } the sacrificing for himself, 
c^c, (study and alms) are for the sake of Dharm a (religion) ; the 


acceptance of gifts, &c, are for the sake of livelihood. As has been 
said by MANQ (X. 10): "But among the six acts ordained for 
him three are his means of subsistenance, viz., sacrificing for others, 
teaching, and accepting gifts from pure men." 

The sacrifice and the rest must necessarily be performed, not 
so the receiving of alms, &c. Because it has been ordained by 
Gautama (X. 1-3) : — ■ 

1. 44 (The lawful occupations common) to (all) twice-born men are the studying 
tho (Veda), offering sacrifices (for their own sake) and giving (alms). 2. Teaching, 
performing sacrifices for others, and receiving alms (are) the additional (occu- 
pations) of a Br&hmana. 3. But the former three are obligatory on him. 

The livelihood of Kqatriyas and Vaisyas. 


CXIX. — The chief duty of the Ksatriya is the 


protection of the subject. For the Vaisya are ordained 

usury, agriculture, trade and tending of the cattle. 

—119. i, , , , 


For a Ksatriya protection of the subject is the chief duty, both 
for the sake of Dharma (religion) and of livelihood. 

For a Vai^ya, usury, agriculture, trade, tending cattle are the 
duties ordained for the sake of livelihood. " Usury" is the investment 
of wealth for the sake of increment Sale and purchase for the sake 
of making profits is " trade/' The rest are well known as has been 
said by Manu (X. 79) :— 

a To carry arras for striking and for throwing is prescribed for Ksatriyas, to 
trade, to rear cattle, and agriculture (are prescribed for Vaisyas) ; as a means of 
subsistence; but their duties are liberality, the study of the Vedas, and the per- 
formance of sacrifices. " 

The livelihood of the Siidra. 


GXX. — For a &udra serving the twice-born ; unable 
to live by that, he may "become a trader, or may live by 
various arts, promoting the good of the twice-born 



For a Siidra the service of the twice-born is the chief duty, both 
for the sake of Dharma (religion) and of livelihood ; of this the service 



of the Brahmanas is the highest Dharma,^ as ordained by Manu 
(X. 123) : — 

" The service of Brahmana alone is declared to be an excellent occupation 
for a Stidra. n 

When, however, he cannot procure his livelihood by serving 
the twice-born, then he may earn his bread by the profession of trade, 
or, by various arts. • 

" Promoting the good of the twice-born : " — The sense being 
by such works which are not inconsistent with the service of 
the twice-born. Such w r orks have been enumerated by Devala : — 

14 The duties of a Stidra are the service of the twice-born, avoidance of sin, 
maintenance of wife, &c, and the rest, agriculture, tending the cattle, carrying 
loads, transacting sales, painting, dancing, singing and playing on (various instru- 
ments like) flute, harp, drum, &c, &c. M 

The universal duties of the Twice-born. 


CXXL— He should be wife-loving, pure, maintain- 
ing the dependant, and be engaged in the &raddha, and 
the ceremonies, and with the Mautra " Namali" he should 
perform the five sacrifices. — 121. 


He wlio " loves " has connection with his " wife " only and not 
any others' wife or a public woman is such as (is indicated by 
the term wife-loving.) " Pure " possessed of external and internal 
purity ; like a twice-born. He should maintain his dependants. 
"Engaged in the $raddhas and ceremonies": — The ^raddhas are 
Nitya, Naimittika and Kamya. The ceremonies are the Vratas or 
rites of a Snataka (a student of Veda) and (such of them) which are 
not prohibited. He should be engaged in these. f 

With the mantra called " Namah " he should " perform " or 
practise the above-mentioned five* great sacrifices daily. Some 
describe the Namah mantra to be the following :— " To the Gods, 
to" the Manes, to the great Yogis, salutations with Svahas, Svadhas 
always salutations, salutations (Namah)." Others say the word 
"Namah" alone should be uttered, "This should be done in 
Vitivadeva and profane (worldly) fire, and not in the nuptial fire," 
Buch say the Ach&ryas. 


The universal duties of all men. 

The author now describes the general duties (Sadharana 


CXXLL— Harmlessness, veracity, non-stealing, 
purity, controlling of the organs, liberality, self-con- 
trol, mercy, and forgiveness, are the means of religion 
for all.— 122. 


" Harmlessness " — non-doing of " harm " or injuring living 
beings. " Veracity n — truthful speech, not causing pain to anybody. 
6 i Non-stealing " — not taking of things not given. " Purity" — ex- 
ternal and internal. "Control of organs" — employment of the intellect 
and the organs of action in lawful objects. " Liberality " — removal 
of the pain of living creatures by giving food and water. " Self- 
control "— repression of the internal organ (mind.) " Mercy " — pro- 
tecting the afflicted. " Forgiveness " — non-emotion of the mind 
under injury. 

These are the means for the acquisition of Dharma for all men 
beginning with the Brahmana and ending with the Chandala. 


CXXIII. — He should practise behaviour worthy of 
his age, intellect, wealth, speech, toilet, instruction, birth 
and calling, with uprightness and without cunning. 



" Age " — Infancy, youth, &c. " Intellect " — natural under- 
standing in profane and sacred transactions. " Wealth " — riches, as 
houses, fields, &c. " Speech " — speaking. " Toilet " — orderly dispo- 
sition of clothes, garlands, &c, " Instruction " — acquaintance with the 
science of acquiring the chief end of humanity, " Birth " — family. 
" Calling " — acceptance of gifts, &c, for the sake of livelihood. 

He should " practise," adopt, " behaviour," conduct, " worthy of" 
or appropriate to these, i.e., age and the rest. Such as an old man 
(should behave) worthy of his (age) and not like that which would 
be fit for youth. Such should also be understood with regard to 
intellect, &c, &c. 



■ " Uprightness " — not crooked. " Without cunning " — with- 
out malice. 

The Srauta or Vedic Mites — The Kdmya Karmas. 
Thus having described the Smarta ceremonies, the author now 
describes the Srauta ceremonies. 


CXXIV. — That twice-born who has more than 
triennial supply of food may drink the Soma. He who 
has more than one year's food may perform the Soma- 
antecedental sacrifices. — 124.* 



. He alone who has food which is sufficient to supply the 
necessities of life" for three years or " triennial supply," or more than 
that, may drink Soma juice ; and not a person of smaller means. 
Because the following fault is heard : — 

" The twice-born who having small means drinks Soma, though he is a Soma- 
drinker, yet does not receive its fruits." (Manu, XI. 8.) 

This restriction is in case of optional Soma-sacrifice, the perma- 
nent Soma-sacrifice, of course, must necessarily be performed. 

He who has food sufficient for one year may perform the 
Soma-antecedental sacrifice. That which precedes Soma- sacrifice 
is Soma-antecedent ; relating to such, is "Soma-antecedental." What 
are they ? Fire-sacrifices, full and new moon sacrifices, Pasu 
sacrifice, Chaturmasa sacrifice and their modifications. He should 

perform these. 

The Nitya or obligatory Srauta Karmas. 

Having thus spoken of the optional (kamya) Srauta works, 
the author now speaks of the permanent Srauta works. 


CXXV, — Once a year the Soma (sacrifice), so the 
Pasu (sacrifice) once an equinox, the Agrayana and the 
Chaturmasya sacrifices should be performed also. — 125. 


Once every year the Soma-sacrifice is to be performed. " The 
Pa^u once an equinox," the Pasu sacrifice is to be performed on every 
equinox, respectively termed the southern (autumnal) and the 

* Compare Manu, XI. 7-8. 


northern (vernal) equinox. " So " means once every year. 
Because there is Sinpti : — " He should sacrifice with Parfu (beasts) 
once every year. Some say once every six months." 

The Agrayana sacrifice should be performed on the ripening 
of the grain, and the Chaturm&sya sacrifices must be performed 
once every year. 

The 'Niggardliness in feast-giving. 


CXXVI. — These being not possible, the twice- 
born should perform the Vaisvanari sacrifice. Sacrifice, 
productive of fruit, should not be performed deficiently 
when there are means. — 126. 


When " These " the above-mentioned Soma, &c , which are 
permanent sacrifices (Nitya), be not possible, at that time he should 
perform the Vai^vanara sacrifice. Moreover, what is denominated a 
deficient sacrifice that should not be done when there is wealth. 
That which is " productive of fruit " or which is performed for the 
attainment of a certain object (Kamya), that may not be performed or 
ought not to be performed with deficient means. 


CXXVII. — He is born a Chandala who performs a 
sacrifice by begging from a Sudra ; he who does not 
give away what has been collected for the sake of sacri- 
fice, becomes a vulture or a crow. — 127. 


He is born a Chandala in his next birth who begs from a l^Odra % 
for the sake of performing a sacrifice. He, again, who having 
(collected money) by begging for the sake of sacrifice does not give 
away or abandon all, becomes for a hundred years a vulture or 
a crow. As said Manu (XI. 25) : — 

"A Brahmana who, having any property for a sacrifice, does not use the 
whole (for that purpose), becomes for a hundred years a vulture of the kind called 
Bh&sa or a crow." 

" Vulture" — falcon. " Crow 55 is well-known. 
The religious householder takes no thought of to-morrow. 




CXXVIII (a) .— Kusula-Kumbhi, Dhanyah ; Trya- 
hikah or even Asvastana.— 128. 




" KujJula," granary. "Kumbhi," certain jar. The word 
Ku^ula-kumbhi is a compound of Kus'ula and Kumbha. He who 
has corn (Dhanya) of the measure of a granary or an earth era jar, is 
designated by the above term (Kudula-Kumbhi-Dhanya). He should 
either be a Ku^ula-Dhanya or a Kumbhi- Dhanya. He who has corn 
sufficient to maintain his family for twelve days is a Kusula-Dhanya. 
A Kumbhi-Dhanya is one who has corn sufficient to maintain his 
family for six days. He who has corn sufficient for three days is 
Try&hika. He who has corn for to-morrow is a ^vastana. He who 
is not a ^vastana (has not food for morrow) is an Asvastana. i 


CXXVIII(6) — He may even live by gleaning 
grains or ears of corn. Among these the subsequent 
ones are better. — 128. 


Gleaning of ears (silam) is the collecting of the fallen and 
abandoned stalks of rice, &c. Picking up of each individval aban- 
doned grain is (Unchchha) " gleaning of grains." &lam and Uiichhah 
form the compound ^ilonchhah (in the original meaning gleaning 
of ears of corn or grain). He should subsist by gleaning of grains 

and ears of corn. 

The householder may live by the four methods of Kusfila- 
Dhanya, &c. " Among these four kinds of Brahmanas Kusfila- 
Dhanya &c." those who have been mentioned " subsequently " or 
afterwards are " better " or more excellent or more praiseworthy 
(than those that go before). < 

Though this has been mentioned in the context of the twice- I 
born, yet it is applicable only to the Brahmana, because of their 
possessing knowledge, patience, &c. So also Manu (IV. 2) :— i 

u A Brahmana must seek a means of subsistence which either ^ 
causes no, or at least, little pain (to others), and live by that, except « 

in times of distress." 

So also after premising the Brahmanas he (Manu IV. 7)^ j? 
ordains :— " Let him be a Ku^Qla-Dh&nya or a Kumbhi-Dhanya. ,, J 


From the declaration like these &c (it follows that it applies to the 

This has been said in respect of the highly self-controlled 
Yayavara,* and is not meant to apply to the Brahmanas in general. 
Had it been so, then there would bo contradiction between this and 
the text, " that Brahmana who has more than a triennial supply of 
food may drink Soma" (V. 124). m 

So two sorts of householders are spoken of in those passages. 
As said Devala : — " The householder is of two sorts, the Yayavara 
(wandering, nomad) and the Salina (settled dwelling- in houses). 
Among these two, the Yayavara (wandering householder) is better 
because to him is prohibited sacrificing for others, teaching, accept- 
ing gifts, heritage, and keeping of stores. He who is engaged in 
six kinds of duties (see V. 118) and is possessed of servants quad- 
rupeds, houses, villages, w r ealth, and corn, and following the people 
is a Salina (settled householder). " ' 

The Salina (settled householder) is again of four sorts : — One 
who sustains himself by six means, by sacrificing for others, teaching, 
accepting gifts, agriculture, trade, and tending of cattle. 

The second is (who lives by) three modes viz., sacrificing for 
others and the rest (two that have been above enumerated). 

The third (who lives by) sacrificing for others and teaching. 

The fourth who lives by teaching 'alone. As said Manu 
(IV. 9). 

" Of these some are devoted to six works, others to three, another to two, 
and the fourth gets his living by Brahma sacrifice." 

Similarly the text, " The acceptance is an additional mode for 
the Brahmana " points out the livelihood of a Salina (settled house- 
holder). For a Yayavara : — " He should live by gleaning of ears of 
corn and grains. " 

Here ends the chapter on the duties of a Householder. 

* " A vagrant mendicant, saint, a Brahmana who has preserved his household 
fire (?) " M. W. 


Chapter VI. — On the Vratas to be observed by a 

Snataka Brahmana. 


Thus having described the ^rauta and Sinarta duties of a 
householder, now, the author ^describes the self-imposed duties 
(Vratas) of a Snataka beginning from bathing (after completing the 
Vedas) which must necessarily be performed by a Brahmana and 
which consisting of precepts and prohibitions have been mentally 
determined upon. 


CXXIX. — He should not attempt to get wealth 
which would prevent the study of the Vedas, nor from 
here and there, nor by adverse professions and he 
should always be contented. — 129. 


The means of getting wealth by acceptance of gifts &c. for a 
Brahmana have already been indicated. The author now adds a 
qualification to that. 

"He should not attempt to get" he should not seek for, 
" wealth " which is preventive of the study of the Vedas ; though it 
be not prohibited. 

" Now from here and there " not from a person whose character 
and conduct is not known. " By adverse professions " " adverse" e.g., 
sacrificing for persons for whom sacrifices ought not to be made &c. 
"Professions." e.g. % Dancing, singing &c. adverse (means) and (unworthy) 
professions (form the compound word in the original). " Adverse 
professions." " By such means he should not attempt to get wealth " 
is understood. The repetition of the word " not " in the text is for 
the sake of (Paryudasa negation). In this chapter on Snataka the 
" not " is everywhere used in the sense of (Paryudasa) only. Besides, 
even in the getting of wealth, he should be " contented " or satisfied. 
By the word cha (and) " self-control " is indicated. As in the Manu 
Smriti (IV. 12) :— 

" Ho who doskos happiness must strivo af tor a porfoctly contented disposition 
and control himsolf." 

May take gift from a King dec. 



GXXX. — He may ask for wealth from a king, a 
pupil, a sacrificer, when afflicted by hunger. He should 
avoid hypocrites, sceptics, heretics, and those who act 
like a heron. — 130. 


" Afflicted " pained by hunger, the Snataka (student) may take 
wealth from a "king " with whose history he is acquainted, from a 
"pupil " (who will be defined further on), or from a "sacrificer" and 
one from whom sacrifice can be made (without reprehension). 

By using the phrase " afflicted by hunger " it follows that a 
person who has obtained by partition etc. property sufficient to main- 
tain his family, should not seek for wealth from anywhere else. 

Besides he should avoid hypocrites, sceptics, etc. in all works, 
whether worldly, Vaidic (religious) or Sastriya (belonging to Sastra or 
law). By the word alia (and) in the original is indicated persons who 
are engaged in prohibited acts, who are cat-natured knaves. As said 
Manu (IV. 130) :— 

" Let him not honour, even by a greeting heretics, men who follow forbidden 
occupations, men who act like cats, rogues, logicians, and (arguing against the 
Vedas) those who live like heron." 

" Hypocrite " who performs merely for the object of pleasing 
the world. " Sceptic ": — Who raises doubt everywhere through the 
force of his reasoning. " Heretic " — who has chosen (or entered to) 
(Atframa) orders of life reprehended by the learned Traividyas 
(versed in three sciences). "Who act like a heron " : — Whose occu- 
pation is like that of a heron, as said Manu (IV. 196) : — 

" That person, who with downcast look, of a cruel disposition, is solely intent 
on attaining his own ends, dishonest, falsely gentle, is one who acts like a " heron." 

"Who follow forbidden occupations " who are addicted to 
(illegal and immoral) prohibited acts. " Who acts like cats " : — 
he whose actions or nature is like that of a cat. His definition 
is given by Manu (IV. 105). " (A man) who, ever covetous, 
displays the flag of virtue, .who is a hypocrite, a deceiver of the 
people, intent on doing injury, (and) a detractor from the merits of 
all men, one must know to be one who acts like a cat." 

The association even with such persons being prohibited, it 
foil ows a fortiori that one should not himself become like them. 

His other Duties. 





CXXXL — He should wear white clothes, keep short 

hair, beard, and nail, be pure, should not eat in the 

sight of his wife, nor with a single cloth nor (after 

having) finished. — 131. 


Besides ; " white " — washed, "clothes" garments. He who 
wears such is called " white-cloth-wearer " (in the original). He who 
"keeps short" or clips short the hair, the' beard, and the nail, is 
(indicated by the compound in the original) " short-hair-beard-nailed." 

. " Pure " mental and physical. He should become sweet-scented 
by bathing and by anointing the body with unguents, by incense, 
and garlands. As said Gautama (L 2). 

" The Sn&taka shall be always pure, sweet-smelling, and bathe frequently." 

By enjoining sweet-smelling objects, the prohibition of a 
scentless garland follows (as a matter of course). So also Gobhila 
(III. 5. 15. 16.) 

" He should not wear a scentless wreath except a wreath (chain) of gold and 

A Snataka should always be so. This is when he possesses 
property. As ordained by Manu (IV. 34) : — 

"Nor should he wear old or dirty clothes, if he posesses property 

He should not eat in the " sight of his wife," i.e., when she 
remains in his presence, from the fear of begetting weak offspring. 
So also the ^ruti. 

" He should not eat in the presence of (his) wife, otherwise the offspring 
becomes weak." 

Therefore, eating together with her has been remotely dis- 
allowed. Nor (should he eat) with a single cloth on, nor " finished " 
nor after having risen from the seat ; (The word " should " eat is to 
be supplied). 


CXXXIL — He should run no risk, nor of a sudden 
speak unpleasantly, nor what is hurtful or untrue, and 
he should not be a thief or a usurer. — 132. 


Besides. He should never " run " or do, " risk " acts involving 
danger to life, such as going over etc., a country infested by tigers, 


thieves, etc. " Of a sudden " without cause, he should not utter any 
language which is harsh, unpleasant and cause distress. Nor also 
hurtful or untrue speech though pleasant. By " Cha " (and) is 
indicated uncivil and loathsome speech. Phrase c< lie should not speak 
suddenly " joins with the above. Jokes etc. are (of course) excepted 
(from this prohibition). Because there is a Smriti : — 

" One may even joke with his Guru without crookedness. " 

He should not be a " thief " or take anything belonging to 
another without his permission. " Usurer " : — One who lives by 
illegal (prohibited) interest. He should not be a usurer. 


CXXXIIL — He (should be) Daksayani and (wear) the 
Brahma' thread, have bamboo, and water-pot. He 
should keep the right side towards Gods, earth and the 
cow, Brahmana and the trees. — 133. 


Besides. " Daksayana " Gold. He who wears gold is called 
a Daksayani. The " Brahma-thread/ ' the sacred sacrificial thread. 
He who has it is called the wearer of Brahma-Sutra. " Bamboo "keep 
bamboo stick and " water-pot." The verb " should be" joins all 
the above. Here the repetition (of the injunction for the wearing) of 
the sacred thread, having mentioned it already in the chapter on 
Brahmacharya, is to indicate the taking of a second sacred thread. 
As said by Vasistha (XII. 9.) : — 

a But Snatakas shall always wear a lower garment, and an upper one, two sac- 
rificial threads, (shall carry) a staff and a vessel filled with water." 

Though here it is a general expression that he should wear 
gold, yet it specifically applies to the wearing of an ear-ring. Be- 
cause of the Manu-Smriti (IV. 36.) 

€i He shall carry a staff of bamboo, a pot full of water, a sacred string, a bundle 
of Kusa grass, and wear two bright golden ear-rings/ 1 

So he should keep the right side towards the " good/ 5 the 
image of god, the " earth " taken from (a sacred place of) pilgrimage, 
the " cow," the " Brahmana/' and the " trees " like AsJvattha (Ficus 
religiosa) etc. When he should pass by (these objects) he should 
keep his right side towards them. So also the place where the four 
roads meet etc. As ordained by Manu (IV- 39.) 

" Let him pass by (a mound of) earth, a cow, an idol, a Brahmana, clarified but- 
ter, honey, a cross-way, and well-known trees, turning his right hand towards 




CXXXIV. — Let him not ease himself in the river, the 
shade, the road, the cattle-shed, water, or the ashes, nor 
towards fire, the sun, the moon, the twilight, the water, 
a woman, or the twice-born. — 134. 


u Let him not ease himself " should not void urine and faeces, 
in rivers etc. So also the cemetery etc. As said ^afikha : — 

a He should not ease himself on cowdung, ploughed land, sown land, green 
grass, funeral pile, cemetery, ant-hill, road, granary, cave, hill and banks of rivers. 
Because they support living creatures." 

So also he should not ease himself " towards fire etc." facing 
fire and the rest. Nor ever by seeing these. As said Gautama (IX. 

12. u Facing or within sight of wind, fire, Brahmanas, the sun, water, images 
of the gods and cows, he shall not eject urine or faeces, or other impurities." 

13. He shall not stretch out his feet towards divine beings. " 

Excepting these places, let him void excrements or urine 
covering the ground with grass that is not fit to be used at a sacri- 
fice. As said Vasistha (XII. 13.) 

" Let him ease himself after wrapping up his head and covering the ground 
with grass that is not fit to be used at a sacrifice." 


CXXXV. — Let him not look at the sun, a naked 
woman, and who is united in sexual intercourse, nor 
at urine or faeces, nor when unclean, at the Rahu and the 
stars. — 135. 


Though it is a general proposition that he should not look at 
the sun, yet the looking at the rising, the setting, the eclipsed, the 
reflected through water and the mid-day sun only is prohibited, 
not always. As has been said by Manu (IV. 37) : — 

" Let him never look at the sun, when ho sets or rises, is eclipsed or reflected in 
water or stands in the middle of the sky." 

He should not look at a " naked woman " except at the time 
of intercourse. As says Asvaldyana. 

" Except at the time of soxual intercourse." 


" United in sexual intercourse " who has just completed the 
intercourse. After finishing intercourse he should not look even on 
a non-naked woman. 

By the word u Cha " (and) i3 meant when she is engaged in 
eating etc, (he should not then look at her). As said Manu (IV. 43 
and 44) : — 

u Let him not oat in the company of his wife, nor look at her, while she eats, 
sneezes, yawns, or sits at her ease. 

" A Brahmana* who desires energy, must not look at (a woman) who applies 

collyrium to her eyes, has anointed or uncovered herself or brings forth a child." 

He should not look at urine and ordure. So also being unclean 
he should not look at the Rdhu and the stars. By u Cha " is meant, 
he should not look at his reflection in water. Because of the text : — 
<c He should not look at his reflection in water. This is the precept." 


CXXXVL— Uttering the whole of the Mantra begin- 
ning with " Ayam, me Vajrah,"* let him walk uncloaked 
in the rain-fall, and . let him not sleep with the head to- 
wards the west. — 136. 



" In the rain-fall " when it is (rainy) he should utter the 
Mantra: — " Ayarp me Vajrah, papmanam apahantiu." ("May this, 
my thunderbolt drive away evil.")t 

" Let him walk uncloaked — he should go without covering. 
Because there is the prohibition : — " Let him not run in the rain-fall." 

And he should not sleep with the head towards the west. 

By " Cha " (and) is meant that he should not lie naked. " He 
should not lie down alone, in a solitary house and naked." So also 
ordained by Manu (IV. 57.) 

" He should not sleep alone in a solitary house.' * 


CXXXVII. — Let Mm not throw into waters the 
spittle, gore, ordure, urine, and semen. Let him not 
warm his feet at the fire, and let him not step over 
it.— 137. 

* Parskara Grihya Sutra II. 77. 

t The full text of the Grihya Sfltra is as follows 

"If it rains, he shall go without an upper garment, and shall say, ' May, this, 
my thunderbolt, drive away evil.' " 



" Spittle " — (any thing ejected from the mouth) saliva. "Gore " 
— blood, " Ordure "—faeces. The rest are well-known. He should 
not throw these in waters. So also chaff etc. As said ^aAkha. 

" Chaff, hair of the head, faeces, ashes, bones, phlegm, nails, hair of the body, 
etc., he should not throw into water. He should not strike the water with hand or 
feet. " 

He should not warm the feet at fire. Nor also should he step 
over fire. 

By " Cha" (and) is meant that he should not throw spittle and 
the rest into fire ; and he should not blow etc., a fire with mouth. 
So also Manu. (IV. 53-54) :— 

53. " Let him not blow a fire with his mouth, let him not look at a naked 
woman ; let him not throw any impure substance into the fire, and let him not 
warm his feet at it." 

54. " Let him not place (fire) under (a bed or the like), nor step over it, nor 
place it (when he sleeps) at the foot (end of his bed), let him not torment living 


CXXXVIIL— Let him not drink water out of his 
joined palms; let him not awake the sleeping, let him 
not play with dice, with unlawful acts ; and let him not 
lie down with diseased persons. — 138. 


Let him not drink water out of his " joined palms " or the two 
hands brought in contact with each other. The specification of 
water indicates by metonomy all drinkable substances. 

"Let him not " awake " or cause to rise a " sleeping " person 
who is superior to him in knowledge etc. Because of the specific 
injunction : — " Let him not awake his betters/' 

" Let him not play with dice " and the like. Let him not play, 
with u unlawful acts " as jumping over catties and the like. 

Let him not "lie down," let him not sleep with " diseased per- 
sons " or>those suffering from fever etc, in one place. 


OXXXIX. — Let him avoid forbidden acts, the 
smoke of the burning corpse, crossing the rivers, and let 
him not sit on hair ashes, chaff, charcoal, and 


potsherds. — 139. 



Let him avoid acts forbidden by the usage of a country, village 
or family, as well as the smoke arising from the burning of the 
corpse. (Let him avoid) crossing the river by swimming ("let him 
avoid" is to be joined with the above). 

Let him avoid sitting on hair, etc. By Cha (and) is meant bones*, 
cotton, and impure objects. 


CXL. — Let him not report a drinking cow, let him, 
not enter any place by an improper entrance. Let him 
not receive (any gift) from (an) avaricious king trans- 
gressing the scriptures. — 140. 


He should not report a cow that is drinking the milk, etc., of 
another person to such person, nor should he interrupt her. He should 
not enter, by an improper entrance or bad road, any city, village, or 
temple. He should not receive anything from a miserly and law-, 
transgressing king. 


CXLI. — As regards receiving a gift (the following 
five should be avoided), a butcher, wheel-man, flag-man, 
prostitute, and a king. Each succeeding is ten times 
more wicked than the one preceding respectively. — 141. 


As regards receiving of gifts when obtainable (the following 
should be avoided). Of the five, butcher, etc., those that succeed are 
ten times more wicked than those that precede. 

11 Butcher " — Engaged in the killing of living creatures. 
(" Suna " means killing animals, one whose profession is this, is 
called " Sun! "—butcher.) " Wheelman "-Oilman. " Flag-man "— 
wine-seller. "Prostitute" — Public woman. "King" has been 
denned before. 

The Rules of Study-Commencing. 


The author now describes the laws of study. 

CXLIL— The Upakarman (commencement) of stu- 
dies (should take place) in &avanya, or by &ravana, or 




Hasta or when herbs have grown, or on the fifth of 
S ( ravana. — 142. 


The Upakarman or commencement of the study of Vedas (i.e., 
^rhen they are taught) should take place on the growing of the herbs, 
or on the fool-moon day of the month of ^ravana ; or on a day when 
(the moon is) in conjunction with the Star ^ravana, or on the fifth 
day, with the asterism of Hasta ; according to the rules of the 
Gfihya Sutras. 

When the herbs do not grow in the month of ^ravana, then 
let him commence in the month of Bhadrapada with the asterism of 

After that, for four and a half months let him study the Vedas. 
So also Manu (IV. 95) 

4< Having performed UpAkarman according to the prescribed rule on (the full 
moon of the month) Sravana, or on that of Prausthapada (Bhadrapada), aBrfthmaua 
Bhould diligently study the Vedas during four months and a half." 

The Time of Vacation in Study. 


CXLIIL — On the eighth day or the Rohini as- 
terism of the month of Pausa, outside at a watery place, 
let him make Utsargam (relinquishment) of the Chhan- 
das, according to rule, — 143, 


Let him make Utsargam, according to the rule ordained by his 
Gphya-Sutra, of the " Chhandas," the Vedas, near water, " outside " 
the village, on the eighth day, or (when the moon is in the constel- 
lation of Rohini) Rohini in the month of Pausa, 

When Upakarman (commencement) takes place in the month of 
Bhadrapada, then let him make Utsargam on the first day of the 
bright half of the month of Moglia. As said by Manu— (IV. 96) : — 

" When the Pusya-day (of tho month Pausa), or the first day of the bright half 
of Mftgha has come, a Br&hmana should perform in the (oreqoop aud outside (the 
village) tho Utsargatp of the Vedas,' 1 

After that, having taken rest during two days and the intervene 
ing night or a day and night, let him study the Vedas on the bright 


(halves of the months), and the Ahgas during the dark fortnight. As 
©aid Manu (IV. 97 and 98) : — 

"Having performed the Utsarga outside (the village) as the institutes (of the 
sacred law) prescribo, ho shall stop reading during two days and the intervening 
night, or during that day of the Utsarga and the following night, 

08. Afterwards ho should diligently recite the Vcdas during tho bright halve* 
of the months and duly study all the Ahgas of the Vedas during the dark fortnights/* 

The Study- Holidays. 

The author now mentions the Anadhydyas (the days on which 
there should be no study) . 


CXLIV. — Three days (are to be observed as) Ana- 
dhyayas (holidays) (on the following occasions, viz.) on 
the death of a pnpil, a sacrifice!*, a Gnru, a Bandhu, at 
Upakarman, and at Utsarga, and so when a S'rotriya of 
his own &akha (dies). — 1.44 


For one who studies in the above-mentioned way three days are 
(to be observed) as holidays on occurrence of the death of a pupil, a 
sacrificer, a Guru and a Bandhu. 

Three days and nights he should avoid study. Three days' holi- 
day is (to be observed) at the time of the performance of the cere- 
mony of Upakarman and Utsarga. 

This (rule of observance of three days' holiday is an alternative 
(optional rule) with him as propounded by Manu (IV. 119), viz., of 
observing Anadhyaya for a paksini (two days and an intervening 
night) and a day and night. 

" When a £>rotriya is of his own £kkh& " — when a ^rotriya 
studying his own Sakha dies, he should observe three days' holidays. 


CXLV. — He should observe a day and night (as 
holiday), when there is thunder at twilight, a hurricane, 
an earthquake, a fall of meteors, he has finished the 
Vedas, or when lie has studied the Aranyaka. — 145. 



When at twilight there is noise of thunder, or in the gusty 
atmosphere there are sounds of disturbance, or when the earth shakes, 



or when the meteors fall, or when the Mantra or Br&hmana is finished, 
or when the Aranyaka is studied, day and night should be observed 
as holidays. 


CXLVI. — On the fifteenth, on the fourteenth, and 
on the eighth day (of the moon), on the impurity by 
Bahu, on junction of the seasons, or having feasted at a 
Sraddha, or having received a gift. — 146. 


" On the fifteenth " — On the full and the new moon, on the 
fourteenth and the eighth days of the moon, " on the impurity- by 
Rahu," that is, on the eclipses of the sun and the moon, a day and 
night should be observed as holidays. 

As to the text " three days he should not recite the Veda when 
there is the impurity caused by the death of a king, or by Rahu," 
that refers to the statement while the luminaries are eclipsed. 

" On the junction of the seasons," when the first day of the 
moon one season ends and the other begins. 

<c Or having feasted at a Sraddha " or having received invitation 
to a Sraddha, he should observe a holiday of a day and a night. This 
refers to ^raddhas oth^l* tfaan those known as Ekoddisfca. (A rite in 
honour of one ancestor). In that case, three nights are to be observed 
as holidays. As says a fWiti (Manu IV. 110) : — 

u A learned Brahmanashall not recite the Veda during three days, when he 
has accepted an invitation to a (funeral rite) in honour of one ancestor (ekoddista), 
or when the king has become impure through a birth or death in his family (sutaka), 
or when R&hu by an eclipse makes the raoon impure. n 


CXLVII. — When cattle, a frog, a mongoose, a 
dog, a snake, a cat, or a rat pass between the teacher 
and his pupil, a day and night (should be observed as a 
holiday) ; as also when the flag of Indra is hoisted or 
lowered. — 147. 


The study of the Veda should be interrupted when cattle and 
tho rest pass between the parties studying. So also on the day when 
the flag of Indra is raised as well as on the day when it is lowered. 


The repetition of the phrase u a day and night," after having 
already premised it at the beginning of the subject in the verse 145, 
is for the purpose of indicating, that that verse (" He should observe 
a day and night (as holiday), when there is thunder at twilight, a 
hurricane, an earthquake, a fall of meteors, he has finished the Vedas, 
or when he has studied the Aranyaka ") shows the untimeline3S of 
study, and implies that the study should be interrupted from that 
moment up to the corresponding time of the next day, and not there- 
after. As says Gautama (XVI. 22) : — " The fall of a thunderbolt, an 
earthquake, an eclipse, and (the fall of) meteors (are reasons for dis- 
continuing the reading of the (Veda) until the same time (next day)/' 

(Akalika).' Beginning from the time when the occurrence takes 
place up to the same time of to-morrow is called Kala or Time. That 
which takes place during this period of twenty-four hours is called 
Akala. That which appertains to this Akala is called Akalika or 
" interruption for the time being." This interruption of the Vedic 
study for twenty-four hours is what is meant by the above text of 

This is a rule when it thunders, etc., in the morning twilight. 
When, however, it thunders in the evening twilight, then, the Veda 
study should be interrupted for the night only. Because it has been 
ordained by Harita : — 

" When it thunders at the evening twilight, then the night (when it thunders) 
at the morning twilight, for a day and night (there should be interruption of study)." 

As to what has been said by Gautama (I. 59) : — 

"If a dog, an i.chneumon, a snake, a frog, (or) a cat (pass between the teacher 
and the pupil) a three days' fast and a journey (are necessary)." 

This refers to the first instruction in the sacred texts (and thus 
there is no conflict between it and our present text, or of the corres- 
ponding text of Manu, IV. 126). 


CXLVin.— When the voice of a dog, a jackal, an 

ass, an owl, a Sama (chanting), a bamboo, or one in 

distress (is heard). In the neighbonrhood of impurities, 

a corpse, a Sudra, an antyaja, a cemetery or an outcast. 


" $va " — a dog. " Krostha " — a jackal. " Gardhava " — an ass. 
"A Sama "—the Sama hymns. " Vaoa "—a bamboo. " Uliika "—an 
owl. " One in distress " — one in pain. 



The Veda-atudy should be interrupted for the time being when 
the sounds of dogs, &c, are heard. So also when the sound of Vina 
(harp), &c, is heard. Because of the text of Gautama (XVI. 7) : — 

" Nor if the sound of Vina, of a large or small dram, the noise of a ohariot and 
the trail of a person in pain are heard." 

In the neighbourhood of impurities, &c-, the interruption to 
study lasts for that time only (as the impurities last). 


CXLIX. — In an impure country and when himself 
impure, when it lightens and thunders incessantly, and 
after meals, so long as his hands are moist, in the midst 
of water, at midnight and when high wind is blowing. — 


In an impure country and when he is himself impure. So 
when it lightens and thunders incessantly — when lightning flashes 
again and again ; and when it thunders incessantly — when thunder 
roars again and again ; (the Vedic study) should be interrupted for 
that period of time. 

After meals he should not study, so long as his hands are moist 
(Vasista, XIII. 20). 

In the midst of water " at mid night " (technically) called the 
(great) night (that is to say) the two middle praharas (or the middle 
six hours) of night and " when high wind is blowing/' though it 
might be day-time, he should not study for that period of time (as 
long only as these interruptions last). 


CL. — When it rains dust, when the quarters (of the 
sky) burn, during twilight, mist, danger, running, foul 
odour, and when a &ista (an eminent man) has come to 
his house. — 150. 


During the portentious fall of dust, " when the quarters of the 
sky burn, where the quarters appear as if in conflagration, during 
the two twilights, during "mist," foggy smoky weather, during 
" danger" caused by thieves, kings, &c, (there should be) cessation 
of study for that period of time. • . 


u Running " while going quickly, there should be cessation of 
study. " During foul odour," while nasty smell and the smell of 
impure objects and wine are perceptible and while " a Si$ta " (an 
eminent man), a ^rotriya &c, has come to his house. 

Until he has got his (the visitor's) permission, there should be 
cessation of study. 


CLI. — While on an ass, a camel, a carriage, an 
elephant, a horse, a boat, a tree, a waste land : these 
thirty-seven occasions they understand as cessations 
from study for the time being. — 151. ■ 


11 Carriage " — chariots, &c. " Waste-land " — barren land or 
desert land. While riding on an ass, &c. There should be cessation 
from study for the time being. 

So, beginning from the verse " When the voice of a dog, a 
jackal, an ass, &c, (verse 148) up to " waste-land," there are thirty- 
seven an&dhyas (cessation from study). 

Those who know the rules of cessation of study, understand 
these (above-mentioned occurrences as respite from study) for the 
time being, that is to say, such interruption lasts so long only as the 
occasions giving rise to them last. 

By the word " they understand " is included the other occasions 
for non-study as mentioned in other Smritis as said Manu (IV. 112) : — 

" While lying on a bed, while his feet are raised (on a bench), while he sits on 
his hams with a cloth tied round his knees, let him not study, nor when he has eaten 
meat, food given by a person impure on account of a birth or a dead," &c. 


Having thus mentioned the occasions for non-study, the author 
now mentions the vows of a Snataka with which the subject opened. 



CLIL — Let him not step on the shadow of a God, of 
a Ritvij , of a Snataka, of his teacher, of a king, of a 
woman other than his wife, or on blood, faeces, wine, 
spittle or things nsed for cleaning the body. — 152. 


Let him not step or tread upon or cross over the shadow of 
" Gods," i.e., of the images of Gods, of a Rifcvija, of a Sn&taka, of a 



teacher, of a king and of another person's wife knowingly, as said by 
Manu(IV. 130):— 

Let him not intentionally step on the shadow of (images of) the Gods, of a Gum, 
of a king, of a Snataka, of his teacher, of a reddish-brown animal or of one who has 
been initiated in the performance of a Srauta sacrifice (Diksita). 

" Reddish-brown," either of any one that has the color of a 
mongoose, a cow and a horse (of that color), or a Soma plant, &c, (of 
that color). Because the word reddish-brown is in the neuter gender, 
therefore it is universally applicable to men, animals and plants, &c, 
by the rule of the VaTtika under P. II. 4. 17), " Samanye Napumsa- 
kam" ("The Neuter is employed when the application is general, 
and no particular gender is meant." See p. 478 of Vol. 1. S. K. trans- 
lated by me and Major B. D. Basu). 

He should not step on blood, &c. By the use of the " etcetera " 
is specified the water used for a bath, &c, as Manu (IV. 132) : — 

Let him not step intentionally on things used for cleansing the body, on water 
used for a bath, on wine or odour, on blood, on mucus, on any thing spat out or 


CLIIL — The Vipra, the Viper, the Ksatriya and the 
self ought never to be despised. Until death let him 
desire prosperity. Let him not touch the weak point 
of anyone. — 153. 


" Vipra," a very learned Br&hmana. " Viper," serpent. Ksatriya, 
king. These should never be despised. And one's own-self should 
never be despised. Until death, so long as he lives, let him wish for 
prosperity. " Let him not touch the weak point of any one " — Let 
him not expose the " weak points," the evil conduct, of any one. 


CUV: — For let him remove the leavings, ordure,' 
urine, and the water used for washing his feet. Let 
him always follow fully the conduct which has been 
declared in the Vedas and the Smritis. — 154. 


Let him remove far from his dwelling the leavings of dinner, 
ordure, urinal and the water used for washing his feet. 

Let him always practise fully the conduct prescribed by the 
$ruti and the Smjiti. 



CLV. — Let him not touch while unwashed, the 
cow, the Brahmana, the fire, the food, nor touch them 
with his feet. Let him not revile or strike anybody. 
He may strike the son and the pupil.— 155. 


Let him not touch while impure, the cow, the Br&hmana, the 
fire, the food, " any eatable, specially the cooked food." Let him not 
touch them with his feet even while washed. If, however, he touches 
so through his folly, then after having performed the Achmana he 
should do as directed by Manu (IV. 143) : — 

"If he has touched these while impure, let him always sprinkle with his hand 
water on the organs of sensation, all his limbs and the navel. 

• So he should sprinkle water with his hand on the organs of 
sensation, &c. 

Let him never revile or strike any one. This is even while no 
harm is likely to result from so doing. But says Manu (IV. 167): — 

" A man who in his folly caused blood to flow from the body of a Brahmana who 
does not attack him, will suffer after death exceedingly great pain." 

He may beat, however, the son and the pupil for the sake of 
correcting them. By the word " and " (cha) in the text is meant even 
slaves, &c. — The beating should be inflicted with a rope, &e,, avoiding 
the noble parts of the body. Because of the following text of Gautama 
(II. 42-44) :— 

'< 42. (As a rule) a pupil shall not be punished corporally/' 
" 43. If no (other course) is possible (he may be corrected) with a thin rope 
or a thin cane. 

" 44. If (the teacher) strikes him with any other (instrument), he shall be 
punished by the king." 

So also the text of Manu (VIII. 300) :— 

"But on the back part of the body (only), never on a noble part." 


* ■ 

CLVI. — Let him diligently follow the Law (Dharma') 
with deed, mind and speech. But let him not follow (an 
ordinance) which, though lawful, is yet not conducive 
to heaven and is offensive to the people. — 156. 


Let him practise the law, according to his ability, with 




bodily deeds, let him contemplate it with his mind and let hira 
speak it with his speech. Let him not practise that which though. 

lawful," i.e., ordained, is "yet offensive to the people," i.e., which, 
causes scandal among the people, such as killing a cow at Madhu- 
parka. Because " it is not conducive to heaven," i.e., the attainment 
of heaven is not accomplished through it. 


CLVII. — With mother, father, guests, brothers, 
sisters, relations, maternal uncles, the old, the young, 
the sick, the teacher, the Vaidya, the defendants, and 
the Bandhus — 157. 

CfrVIIL— With the Ritwij, the Priest, one's 
offspring, wife, servants and the uterine brothers, the 
householder should avoid dissension ; by so doing he 
conquers all the worlds.* — 158. 


" Mother " — who has given birth. " Father," — who has begotten. 
" Guest" — way-faring visitor. " Brothers "—even though not 
uterine. " Sisters'* — women whose husbands are living. " Rela- 
tions "—related through marriage (the fathers of the bride and 
bridegroom are to each other as Sambandhis). " Maternal uncles" — 
mother's brothers. "The old"— above seventy-years of age. "The 
young" — under sixteen years of age. "The sick"— The diseased. 
u The teacher" — he who performs initiations. " The Vaidya" — The 
learned or the physician. "The dependents" — who are main- 
tained by one. The " Bandhus " — both of the father's and the 
mother's side, The separate enumeration of the maternal uncle 
(who is included in the word Bandhu) is to show that greater respect 
is due to him. "The Ritwij" — one who officiates at a sacrifice, 
" The priest the performers of the ceremonies of ^anti, Sec. 
" The offspring " — sons, &o. " Wife " — The companion in the per- 
formance of the sacred duties (Dharmas). " Servant " — The menial 
worker. " Uterine brothers " — brothers of the same womb, full 
brothers. The separate mention of the uternie brothers from the 
word brothers, is for the purpose of including sisters who are 
without husbands (either not being married or having lost their 


■ . I - - - 

husbands). Avoiding disputes with those mothers, &c, he attains all 
the worlds like those of Prajapati, &c» 


CLIX. — Let him not bathe in waters belonging 
to other men without first taking out five balls (of mud). 
Let him bathe in rivers, in ponds dug by Gods (them- 
selves), in lakes and water- springs. — 159. 


"In waters belonging to other men," in tanks, &c, owned by- 
other persons (and which have not been dedicated to the public) and 
which are not relinquished in favor of all creatures. Let him not 
bathe (in such tanks, &c.) without previously taking out five lumps of 
mud (so as to counterbalance for the impurities falling into them 
from his own body). From this it is ordained (by implication) that 
one may bathe without even taking out the five balls of mud, in tanks 
belonging to one's self or which are dedicated to the public, or in 
which he has received permission to bathe. 

Let. him bathe in rivers, &c. " The rivers " are flowing 
waters which fall into the sea either directly or through the medium 
(of another river). " Ponds dug by Gods/' tanks, &c, made by Gods. 
" Lakes" are bodies of waters situate in a very deep place and 
which make noise owing to the flow of waters. " Water springs " 
are water which trickle down from a high mountainous region. He 
may bathe in these without taking out the five lumps of mud. 
This rule is applicable in matters of daily bathing- Because the 
word " always " is used in the following text (Manu IV. 203) : — 

" Let him always bathe in rivers, in ponds dug by the Gods (themselves), In 
lakes, and in water-holes or springs." 

Bathing for the purpose of purification, &c, may be effected, as 
far as possible, in waters belonging to others without taking out 
the five balls of mud, is not prohibited to any one. 


CLX. — Let , him avoid (rising) the bed, the seats, 
the gardens, the houses and the carriages belonging to 
another, which have not been given to him. Except in 
times of distress let him not eat the food of one who is 
without the sacred fire. — 160. 



"Beds "—quilts (pillows, &c). " Seats/'— wooden seats. " Gard- 
ens," — orchards of mango trees, &e. " House " is well known, " Car- 
riages/' — chariots, &c. Let him " avoid," i.e., he should not enjoy 
these when belonging to another and " which have not been given to 
him," i.e., the permission (to enjoy which) has not been given to him. 

Persons whose food should not be eaten. 

The author now describes what food should not be eaten, be- 
ginning from the verse " of one without fire, &c." 

"Of one without fire," of one who is not entitled to keep 
$rauta or Smarta fire, such as of a ^fldra or of a person born by 
inverse connection (Pratiloma), or even of a person who, though 
entitled (to keep the sacred fire), has through neglect omitted to do 
so. Let him not eat the food (given by the above), except in cases 
of distress, nor may he accept (other gifts from them). Because of the 
following text of Gautama (VII. 1-2) : — 

"1. A Br&hmana may eat the food given by twice-born men who are praised 
for (the faithful performance of their) duties." 

" 2. And he may accept (other gifts from them)." 


CLXI. — Of a miser, of one bound, of thieves, of 
a hermaphrodite, of stage-players, a basket-maker, 
of one accused of a mortal sin (Abhisastah), of a userer, 
of a prostitute, of one- who initiates many persons. — 161. 



" Miser " — avaricious. As Las been said : — " He who through, 
avarice pinches himself, his religious works, his sons and wife and 
his ancestors and dependents, is known to be a miser." " Bound " — 
either by fetters, &c, or under custody by order of mouth. " Thief " — 
one who steals the property of another, excepting the gold belonging 
to a Brahmana. " Hermaphrodite " — A eunuch. " Basket-maker " — 
He who subsists on cutting (working in) bamboo. " Abhi&istah " €J 
one who is accused of such acts as result in degradation from 
caste. "Usurer" — one who lives by forbidden interest. "Prostitute" 
public woman. " Who initiates many persons," who sacrifices for 

* " Porfect Passive Participle from the root obJu-sams, but sometimes derived 
from tho root abhi-sas, which does not occur." M-W. 


many.f The phrase " thoir food should not bo eaten " is understood 
in the above passage. 


GLXIL — Of a physician, the sick, the angry, an 
unchaste woman, the proud, the adversary, a cruel man, 
an tJgra, a degraded, a Vratya, a hypocrite, and one 
who eats the fragments of another's meal. — 162. 


"Physician" — one subsisting by the profession of medicine. 
" The sick " — one afflicted with a mortal disease. The mortal 
diseases have been described to be eight : — Rheumatism, epilepsy, 
leprosy, gonorrhoea, leucorrhoea, fistula, piles and dysentry." 
" Angry " — one enraged. " Unchaste woman " — an adulteress. 
" Proud " — vain of learning, &c. " Adversary " — an enemy. " Cruel " 
— one who strongly nourishes his anger within. " Ugra "—one who 
causes dreadly acts by speech or body. " Degraded " — (Patita) the 
killer of Brahmanas, &c. " Vratya " — one who has fallen from Savitri 
(has lost the right of being initiated in the Savitri.) "Hypocrite " — 
an impostor. " One who eats the fragments " — one who eats the 
remnants of the food eaten by another. He should not eat the food 
given by these physicians and the rest. 


CLXIIL— Of a female who has no male (relatives), 
a goldsmith, hen-pecked, the village-sacrificer, a wea- 
pon-seller, an artisan, a tailor, one whose living is by 
dogs. — 163. 


" Female who has no male relatives " — An independent woman 
even though not unchaste. Some say one who has no husband 
and sons. <c Goldsmith " — One who works in gold by modifying it. 
" Hen-pecked "— One who is ruled in all matters by woman. " Village 
sacrificer " — One who performs the ceremony of 3a nti, &c, for 
a village or who initiates many persons (by investiture of sacred 
thread.) " Weapon-seller " — One whose livelihood is selling of arms. 
" Artisan" — Blacksmith, carpenter, &c. " Tailor " — One subsisting 

t " One who officiates for a number of persons or for a corporation (as a 
priest.)." M-W. 



by needle-work. One whose " living," livelihood or subsistence is 
through (training) dogs is " one whose living is by dogs." 
Let him not eat food of these persons. 


CLXIV. — Of a pitiless person, the king, a dyer, 
an ungrateful man, a butcher, a washerman, a publican, 
a man in whose house lives a paramour of his wife. — 164. 

CLXV. — Of an informer, of a liar and so also of a 
wheelman, a bard, a seller of Soma. The food of these 
persons are not to be eaten. — 165. 


"Pitiless'' — Merciless. "King" — The ruler of the land as 
well as his priest, because of his being a companion of the former, 
as said ^afikha : — 

" Let him avoid the food given by a person who is in a fright, is blameable, is 
weeping, is crying, is a proclaimed (offender) (or the food that has been offered 
publicly by saying, "who is willing to eat") is hungry, is dispossessed, is perplexed, 
is a mad man, an ascetic (or discarved food) or who is the family priest of the king. 

" Dyer " — One who dyes clothes into (various hues like) blue, &c. 
" Ungrateful "—One who kills (forgets) benefits. " Butcher " — One 
who lives by killing animals. " Washerman " — One who cleanses 
clothes. " Publican " — One who subsists by selling spirituous liquors. 
" Paramour "--A gallant. He who lives in the same house with 
the gallant of his wife is " a man in whose house lives a paramour of 
his wife." " Informer " — One who exposes (makes known) the faults 
of others. "Liar" — One who tells falsehood. "Wheelman" — An 
oilman. Some say it means a cartman, because it is separately 
mentioned (from that of an oilman) in the following text, "An 
abbifiasta" a degraded, a wheelman and an oilman. "Bard" — A 
panegyrist. " A seller of Soma " — One who sells Soina-creeper. 
The food of these persons should not be eaten. 

Tt is in respect of the twice-born misers, c%c, that the above- 
named rule applies, and it is because tliey arc tainted with the fault 
of niggardliness, &c, that the food given by them should not be eaten. 

Because in the case of other (than the twice-born classes) there 
is no permission to eat their food (and therefore the exception against 
misers, &c, cannot apply to them), for an exception can only be to 
that for which there is a previous permission. 


By saying that the food of one who is without the sacred fire 
should not be eaten except in times of distress (v. 1G0), it is ordained 
that the food of the ^Adras who are not entitled to keep sacred fiio 
should not be eaten. 

The author now mentions an exception (lit precept for an act 
which under other circumstances is forbidden) to the same. 


CLXVI. — His slave, his cowherd, a friend of his 
family, his laborer in tillage, are among &udras those 
whose food may be eaten : likewise his barber and a 
poor man who offers himself to be his slave. — 166. 



" SI ave " — born slave, &c. "Cowherd" — He who herds cows and 
he who lives by rearing cows. " A friend of his family " — ancient 
friendship between (two families flowing in regular) succession from 
father, grandfather,- &c. "Tillage " is synonymous with ploughing. 
He who takes a share from the produce of cultivation " is a laborer 
in tillage." " Barber " means one who transacts the household 
business as well as a barber. u Who offers himself." — He who offers 
himself completely in speech, mind and bodily deeds by saying I am " 
thine. Among ^fldras the food of these slaves, &c, may be eaten. 
By # the word " and " in the original is included a potter also. Because 
of the following text : " The food given by his cowherd, barber, 
potter, the friend of his family, the laborer in the tillage, &c, and • 
one who has offered himself as slave, may be eaten." 

Here ends the chapter on the duties of the Snataka. 

CHAPTER VII - —Lawful and forbidden food. 

Forbidden food for the twice-born. 

Having described so far the duties of a Snataka Brahmana in 
the verses beginning with " He should not attempt to get wealth 
which would prevent the study of the Vedas " (verse 129;, the 
author now describes the duties of the twice-born." 



CLXVII. — Food given without due respect, unlaw- 
ful meat, or which contains hair and insects ; or> sour 
food or stale, or the leavings (of another man), or what 
has been touched by a dog, or on which a degraded 
person has cast his sight. — 167. 

CLXVIII. — What has been touched by a menstruat- 
ing woman, or what has been publicly offered, food 


. given by one who is not the owner, or what has been 
smelt by a cow, or the leavings of birds, or what has 
been ' wilfully touched with feet (these foods) let him 
avoid. — 168. \ 


• * 

" Without due respect" — that which is given to a respectable 


person without proper respect. is Unlawful meat " that (which is 
not going to be used in exceptional circumstances such as) when 
" one's life is in danger " (V. 179), &c, to be described later on and 
which is not the remains of the offerings to Gods, &c, and which is 
obtained (by killing animals) for one's own use only. "Which 
contains hair and insects " that which contains or is mixed up with 
hair, insects, &c. "Sour food" means a substance which in itself is 
not acid, but which has become acid either simply by being kept for 
a long time, or by being mixed with other substance as well as being 

* Compare this and tho next chapter with 35th Canto of tho Markandoya 
Purftnam, from which Y&jiiavalkya seems to havo borrowed.— Tr. 


kept for a long time, with the exception of curds &c. Because of 
the ^afikha Smj'iti.: — 

" Let him not eat tho food of sinners, nor what has boon twice-cooked or which 
has turned sour or which has boen kopt for a whole night with tho exception of 
Ragkh&ndava (a kind of sweet-moat), chukra (vinegar made by acetous fermenta- 
tions of grain, &c„) curd, lump-sugar and transformation of wheat and barley-flour )." 

" Stale n * what has been kept a whole night. " The leavings " — 
the remnants of another man's meal. " Touched by a dog " which 
a dog has touched. " On which a degraded person has cast his 
sight " which has been looked upon by the degraded &c. "Mens- 
truating " a woman in her monthly courses, what is touched by her. 
The specification of "menstruating women n is here illustrative of 

the chandalas &c. Because of the ^afikha Smriti : — 
• • • • 

" Let him avoid the food which is touched by an impurity, by an outcast or by 
a Chfind&la, a Pulkasa, a menstruating woman, a person having deformed nails or a 

" What has been publicly offered " what is given by crying out 
1 who is willing to eat\ " Food given by one who is not the owner n 
that which belongs to another and is dishonestly given by the third 
person, as (stated) 

The Br&hmana's food given by a Sfidra and a SGdras' food given by a Br&hmana, 
both these should not be eaten. Eating these one should perform the Ch£ndrfiyana 

(The reading adopted in the text is paryay&nnam meaning the 
food given by one who is not the owner) but if the reading be Par- 
y&ch&ntam (sipped) then the meaning is this that a sipped food 
should not be eaten, viz., a food in which the ceremony washing or 
(Gandfisa) rinsing the mouth after the meals has already been per- 
formed.! As it has been ordained : — 

" Food should not be eaten subsequent to the rinsing of the mouth (gandnsa) . 
at the end of the meals, prior to ftchamana (sipping of water before the commence- 
ment of food). 

If the reading be < par^vachantam > then the meaning is that 
when sitting together in the same line at the same dinner with 
others and a neighbour (partivastha) has risen and performed the 
rinsing of the mouth (acMnta) then the other should leave off eating. 
Provided there is no demarcation by ash or water &c. (between the 
parties). The phrase " let him avoid " is (to be) added to all the 

tM l^ll ' ' - - — i i_ » ' 

* " trofaci " having stood for a time or in some place ; not fresh, stale, insipid." 

f " Or a food given at a dinner where a guest rises prematurely and sips water." 

" Food eaten after the last achamana at the end of meals." M&mlalik, " A food 
left by a person after sipping " M-W. 




above. " So what has been smelt by a cow " what a cow has smelled. 
" The leavings of birds " what has been eaten or tasted by " birds " 
by crows &c. " Touched by foot " — what has been intentionally 
touched by foot. He should avoid all these. 

The author now mentions an exception to the prohibition of 
stale food. 


CLXIX. — The stale and long kept food may be 
eaten (if) oily. So also the various preparations of 
wheat, barley and milk though not oily. — 169. 


" Food " eatables. " Stale but if mixed with oily substances 
like ghee (clarified butter) &c, is fit for use though it might have 
been kept long. While transformations of wheat, barley and milk 
such as sweet-meat ball, (barley meal), cheese, inspisated milk^g&c, 
though not oily and kept long, are fit for use. Provided they have 
not undergone any change (for the worse by being so kept). Because 
of the following text of Vasistha Smriti (XIV. 37). 

" Let him avoid wheat cakes, fried grain porridge, barley-meals, pulse-cakes, 
oil, rice, boiled in milk and vegetables that have turned sour by standing." 



CLXX. — Let him avoid the milk of a cow that is in 
heat or during first ten days or who is without her calf 
as also of a camel of a one-hoofed animal, of a woman, of 
a wild animal and of a sheep. — 170. 


" In heat " (sandhini) a cow covered by a bull is said to be in 
heat. Because of the following text in the Trikandi dictionary : — 
(Amarakosa II. 69).* 

" Know " that the vasa moans barren and sandhini (in heat) means one covered 
by a bttlL" 

She that does not give milk regularly (lit. that is milked after 
passing over the mere milking time) and she that suckles another 
calf are also called sandhini. 

" During first ten days M whose first ten days after calving have 
not expired. " Who is without her calf" whose calf has died. 

* The reading in the Amarako§a is as follows : — 



The phrase in t.ho original "Sandhini anirda^Avatsft, is a com- 


pound of sandhini (in heat) anirda&i (non-expired ten days) and 
avatsA, (without calf). Let him avoid the milk of such cows. 

The specification of sandhini (in heat) is illustrative (and is an 
allusion to) those who bring forth twins &c. As said by Gautama 
(XVI. 25). 

44 Nor that of animals from whoso udders the milk flows spontaneously (Sya- 
ndini), those that bring forth twins (yamalsu), and (of those giving milk while big 
with young), of those in heat." 

" Syandini " — an animal from whose udders the milk flows 
spontaneously. "Yauialsu " she that brings forth twins. 

Similarly he should not drink the milk of goats and buffalows, 
cows whose first ten days after calving have not expired : — Because 
of the Vasistha Smriti (XIV. 35,) 

41 Nor that which cows, buffalows, and goats, give daring the first ten days 
after giving birth to young ones." 

The specification of milk includes also the prohibition of itfe 
preparations such as curds (butter &c.) For example by forbidding 
the use of meat it is not reasonable to permit the use of the various 
preparations (made from it, e.g., extracts of meat, &tty oils &c.) But 
it is reasonable to permit the use of the (original) substance though 
its preparations be forbidden. By forbidding the use of milk (it 
follows) that ordure, urine &c. are not forbidden. 

" Of camel " produce of camel, e.g., milk, urine &c. " One hoof- 
ed " mare &c. The produce of one hoofed animal is meant by the word 
" of one hoofed." " Of a woman " means the produce of women. The 
specification of " woman " is illustrative of all animals having two 
udders except the goat. As it has been ordained by ^afikha. 

" The milk of all animals having two udders is not fit for use excepting (that 
of) the goat." 

11 Aranyaka is one born in the wilderness. The milk of wild 
animals is prohibited. With the exception of the wild buffalow 
cow. Because of the text (Manu V. 9.) 

" The milk of all wild animals excepting buffalow cows." 

" Of a sheep." The produce of a sheep. The phrase " let him 
avoid " (is to be) joined to each of the above. 

[The terms " austra " " ekai^apha " &c. is formed by the suffix 
" an " to the words ustra &c. meaning camel, u eka-^apha meaning 
one-hoofed, whole (not cloven) hoofed, &c. such as the horse, the use 
of the suffix is here for the purpose of indicating that it has the force 
of indicating modifications]. All their products such as milk, urine 



&c, are prohibited under all circumstances. Because of the Gautama 
Smriti (XVII, 24.) 

*' The milk of sheep, camels and of one hoofed animals must not be drunk under 
any circumstances." 


CLXXI. — Food offered to Gods, sacrificial viands, the 
&igra, the red, the incisions as well unhallowed meat, all 
plants springing from filth and the fungi. — 171. 


" FcJod offered to Gods " that which is prepared for the purpose 
of offering at Bali sacrifice. " Sacrificial viands " that which is 
prepared for the purpose of sacrifice before the burnt offering (is 
commenced.) " The tJigru " soubhanjnna tree (Moringa pterygosper- 
ma.) " The red " the red exudations from trees. " The incisions " 
the juices .flowing on incisions in trees even though not of red color 
as said by Manu (V. 6.) 

" One should carefully avoid red exudations from trees and juices flowing from 

Because red exudations have been specified, therefore the use of 
Assafoetida, camphor &c, is not forbidden. " Unhallowed meat." 
The flesh of animals not offered at the sacrifice. 

" Plants springing from filth." Plants springing from seeds 
eaten by men &c, and expelled with the feces, or plants growing on 
a dunghill, such as :— tanduliyaka (a polygonoides) &c. " Fungi " 
the mushrooms. The phrase " let him avoid" is understood before 
every one of the above substances. 


CLXXII. — All carnivorous birds, the wood-pecker, 
the parrot, the peckers, the Tittibha, (Parra jacana, L.) 
the sarasa (crane), the one hoofed (animals). The swan 
and aril those living in villages. — 172. 


" Carnivorous " birds that habitually eat raw flesh such as 
vultures &c. 11 The wood pecker," the ch&taka. " The parrot " 
called also Klra. " The peckers " those which feed striking with 
their beaks like hawk &c. i( The Tittibha " a bird that makes the 
sound resembling tittibha. The s&raaa crane is also called Laks- 
mana. "The one hoofed"— like the horse &c. 14 Swan" is well known, 


« , . . — — 

" Living in villages " like pigeons &c. Let him abstain from these 
carnivorous animals &c. 


CLXXIII. — The Koyasthi, the Plava, the chakrahva, 
the Balaka and the Baka crane and the scratch ers, the 
Krisara, the samyava 'thepayasa, the apupa and the Sas- 
kuli, which are not prepared for a sacrifice. — 173. 


Koyasthi — The Krauncha bird. " Plava " the water fowl 
" Chakrahva " the chakravaka (a bird). The Balaka and the Baka 
are well-known (varieties of crane.) " The scratchers " — Those 
which feed by scratching with their toes. Thechakoras &c, are gene- 
rally understood by this term, because the Idvaha bird and the pea- 
cock &c. (though scratchers) are permissible food. The village cock 
is already prohibited by being included in the term " those living in 
villages" (V. 172.) Let him avoid these birds like Koyasthi and the 


Let him avoid the krisara, the saihyava, the payasa, the apupa 
and the Saskuli which are not prepared for a sacrifice, which 
are not prepared with the view of being offered to Gods etc. 
"The Krisara " — Rice boiled with sesamum and kidneybean (phase- 
olus mungo). "The Samyava" — a preparation of wheat mixed 
with milk, ghee etc. and known as the Utkarika. " The P&yasa " — 
(a preparation of) milk and rice. "The Apfipa "— A preparation of 
wheat boiled in oil (flour-cakes) " The t&skuli " is also a pre- 
paration of wheat boiled in oil. Though by the text " the food 
should not be cooked for self only " (V. 104) the non-sacrificial 
krisara etc. being included were already forbidden, the repetition 
here with specification is to show that there is greater penance in 
(transgressing this rule in the case of krisara etc.) 


CLXXIV. — The sparrow, the raven, the osprey, the 
Rajjudala (a kind of wild fowl), the web-footed birds, 
the Khanjarita and the unknown birds and beasts 
etc. — 174. 




" The sparrow " — The village sparrow though owing to its 
being a dweller of the village its eating is already forbidden (V. 104) 
the repetition here is for the purpose of showing its amphibious 
nature {viz. it lives both in villages and in wilds and both are for- 
bidden.) " The raven "— the jack-daw. " The osprey "—called also 
utkrojfo. "The Rajjudalaka M — The tree-cutter. "The web-footed " 
birds whose feet are web-shaped. This is a repetition of the species 
" swan " because there are varieties of swan that have not web- 
shaped feet. " Khanjarita " — Khanjana, the wag-tail. " The unknown 
birds and beasts " — those birds and quadrupeds whose species are 
not known. Let him avoid these i.e., the sparrow and the rest. 


CLXXV. — The blue-iavs and red-footed birds; the 
butchers' meat and the dried meat and fishes. Having 
eaten these unknowingly let him fast for three 
days. — 175. 


" The blue-jay " — a bird that makes the sound of kiki. "The 
red-footed birds " — like drakes etc. " Butchers-meat. 5 ' — Meat from a 
slaughter-house even of those animals that are allowed. " Dried 
meat'*— dry flesh. " Fish "— Fish. Let him avoid these i.e., blue- 
jays etc. 

By the use of the word cha (and) in the text is implied lotus, 
hemp, safflower etc., because of the smriti texts: — 

41 Let him not eat lotus, hemp, mushroom, safflower, the bottle gourd and those 
that spring from dung, the kurabhi plant, the Kunduka, the egg-plant, and the 
Kovid&ra plant. * * 

"So also let him carefully avoid eating all flowers and fruits that grow out of 
season, and whatever has undergone any change from its natural condition. " 

"So also let him avoid eating the fruits of banyan tree, fig tree, the aswatha 
tree, the wood— apple, the Kadamba tree and the citron." 

By eating intentionally the above-mentioned (forbidden foods 
beginning with) the milk of the cow in heat etc., let him fast for 
three days ; if ho does so unknowingly then one day and night. 
Because of the Manusmriti (V. 20) : — 

44 In caso he has eaten any other kind of forbidden food he shall- fast for one 
day and night." 

* This verse is attributed to tlsana in Paraaara Madhava (B. 8. S. Vol, 1. pt. 
2. p. 375). There instead of Kunduka, the reading is Kambuka. 


As to what has boon ordained by E^afikha : — 

" By oating tho flesh of the Baka, the Balaka, tho swan, the plava, tho chakra- 
vfika, tho K&randava, tho houso— sparrow, tho pigeon, tho dovo, tho pdndu,* the 
parrot, tho starling, tho sdrasa crano, tho Tittibha, tho owl, tho heron, tho rod 
footod bird, the jay-bird, tho vulture, tho crow, tho cuckoo, tho sSdvaIi,t tho cock 
and tho green pigeon let him remain without food for twelve days and nights and 
drink cow's urino mixed with barley." 

That must be understood either to refer to habitually and 
wilfully eating for a long time or eating of all of them. 


CLXXVI. — Having partaken of onions, a village pig, 
mushrooms, a village cock, garlic and leeks, let him 
perform the Chandrayana penance. — 176. 



" Onions " — a thick bulbed tubular plant resembling garlic. 
" The village pig."— The village hog. " Mushrooms The serpent's 
umbrella. " Village-cock " is well-known- " Garlic "— rasun, a thin 
white bulbed tubular . plant. "Leek" resembles garlic and is a 
red thin bulbed plant. Having once "partaken" eaten wilfully 
these six let him perform the Chandrayana penance which will be 
described later on. The village cock and the mushrooms, though 
already prohibited before, have been repeated here to show that the 
penance (in the case of eating them) is the same as in (the case of 
eating") the onions etc. This refers to cases of wilful and long 
standing habitual eating. As said by Manu (V. 19-20). 

. 19. " A twice-born man who knowingly eats mushrooms, a village-pig, garlic, a 
village-cock, onions or leeks will become an outcast," 

. 20. '« He who unwittingly partakes of any of these six, shall perform a Kfichhra 
or the lunar penance (chandrayana) of ascetics. " 

The third book (of Yajnavalkya) must be consulted for the 
description of the " Lunar penance " of ascetics. I • 

In the case of unwitting eating, the ordinance of U$afikha§ may 
be followed : — 

" Let him drink for twelve nights cow'smilk if he has eaten garlic, onions, 
leeks, a village-pig, a village cock and a Kumbhi. 

Lawful food for the twice-born. 

* " A white Elephant. Tricosauthes dioeca, a species of shrub."— M.-W 
t This word is formed by Panini IV. 2. 88. Does it mean a bull here * Tr 
t Translated into English and published by the Panini Office in the series of 
the Sacred Laws of the Aryas. 

m Jw« P a r l SJ ^ a i M*dhaya a nearly similar verse is attributed to Sankha-Likhit* 
Smjiti (B. S. S. Vol. II, part 1. p. 404), 




GLXXVII. — Of the five-toed animals, the porcupine, 
the iguana-lizard, the tortoise, the hedge-hog ; and the 
hare ; among fishes the Simhatundaka and the Ro- 
hita. — 177. 

CLXXVIIL— So also the pathina, the Rajiva, the 
sasalka may be eaten by the twice-born classes. — 178 


"Porcupine" — (called also in Sanskrit) sVavit (dog-like.) "The 
iguana " — an animal resembling lizard but bigger. " The tortoise " — 
called also Kurma. "The hedge-hog " — called also dallaki (in 
Sanskrit). " The hare" is well-known. Of the five-clawed animals 
i.e. y among dogs, cats, monkeys, etc., the above-named porcupine 
and the rest may be eaten. The cha (" and ") in the original shows 
that the rhinoceros is also included as said Gautama (XVII. 27). 

" And five-toed animals must not be eaten, excepting the hare, the hedge-hog, 
the porcupine, the iguana, the rhinoceros, and the tortoise." 

So also Manu (V. 18) :— 

" The porcupine, the hedge-hog, the iguana, the rhinoceros, the tortoise and the 
hare they declare to be eatable, likewise those (domestic animals) that have teeth 
in one jaw only excepting camels." 

As to what has been ordained by Vasistha (XIV. 47). 

"But regarding the rhinoceros (and the wild bear) they make conflicting 

statements declaring rhinoceros flesh uneatable, that refers to other occasion than 

at oblations to the manes (i.e., at Sraddha it is lawful). Because of the declaration 

of meritorious fruit (by offering it in) Sraddha " In Sraddha the offering of the 
flesh of the rhinoceros serves for an endless time." 

So among the fishes the Simhatundas &c, may be eaten. " The 
Simhatunda/'-The lion-mouthed (fish). " The Rohita."— The Red- 
colored ; " the Pathtna " called also Chandraka. " The Rajiva " is 
of a lotus-color. " The dasalka " one that has " salkas " (scales) 
resembling mother of pearls. 

These Simhatundas may be eaten when properly used (by being 
previously offered in a sacrifice) : as (says) Manu (V. 16). 

" But the fish called p&thina and that called Rohita may be eaten, if used for 
offerings to the Gods or to the manes ; one may eat likewise R&jivas, Simhatundas 
and sanalkas on all occasions/ 1 

The specification of the twice-born (in the text) is for the pur- 
pose of excluding the £>(idras. 

General Laiv of Food 



CLXXVIII contd. — Hear now the precept as to the 

eating and avoiding of flesh. — 178. 


Beginning with the verse : — " Food given without respect &c." 
(V. 167) and upto this, the author has described the duties of the 
twice-born, he now describes the duties (common to all) the four castea 
(by addressing as follows). 

" 0 sages ! Samasfraya and others hear now the rules with re- 
gard to the eating of meat (properly) sanctified by sprinkling water 
over it with the recitation of sacred formulas as well as the rules with 
regard to the avoidance of such meat not so sanctified or which is 
forbidden- ' Such rules are the result of a mental resolution in the 
shape of a bow such as ' u I will not eat any meat except such as is 
properly sanctified by the sprinkling of water over it with the reci- 
tation of the sacred formulas." 

The author now propounds the law with regard to such eating. 


CLXXIX. — One may eat meat without incurring 
any guilt when one's life is in danger, (when engaged) 
in Sraddha, when it has been sprinkled with water while 
mantras were recited, when Brahmanas desire one's 
doing it, or when it has been properly offered to Gods 
and the pitris. — 179. 


He may eat meat according to rule in case when through want 
of food or being over-powered with disease, life cannot be saved 
without the eating of meat. Because there is the following precept 
relating to protection. " Let him protect himself on all occasions 

(at all costs)." 

As also the following precept forbidding death :— 

" Therefore O dear, let him not wish death before the term of his span of 
natural life." 

So also when invited to ^raddha, he should eat meat according 
to the rule. Because it is ordained that guilt is incurred by so 
refusing to. eating meat. As in MANU (V. 35.). — 

" But a man who being duly engaged to officiate or to dine at a sacred rite 
refuses to eat meat, becomes after death an animal during twenty-one existences." 

" Sprinkled with water '—meat sanctified according to the vedic 

" 35 



preparatory rite called " sprinkling of water " and which is the 
remaining portion of the ablution offered in an animal sacrifice such 
as Agni Someya. He may eat such meat. By refusing to eat, the 
sacrifice can not be completed. 

" When Brahmanas desire " what has been prepared for the 
sake of feeding the Brahmanas, for the purpose of offering to Gods 
and the pitris ; by eating the remnants of such offering he does not 
participate in any guilt. So also by eating the remnant of the meat 
prepared for maintaining the dependants as in MANU (V. 22). 

" Beasts and birds recommended for consumption may be slain by Brdhmanas 
for sacrifices and in order to feed those whom they are bound to maintain ; for 
Agastya did this of old." 

u Without incurring any guilt." — By saying that there is 
merely an absence of guilt it is shown that eating the remnant 
of the meat offered to guests and the rest has been simply permitted, 
and is not like unto the eating of the meat sanctified by sprinkling 
water over it with the recitation of mantras and the rest obligatory 
rules or Niyama (which latter kind of meat must be eaten.) So also 
because with regard to the flesh of the animals not forbidden such as 
the hare etc., it is declared that they even may not be eaten except 
when one's life is in danger, therefore, all the rules and prohibitions 
in connection with (the eating or non-eating of) flesh must be known 
to apply to the ^udras also, 

ftfow the author censures by the following amplification 
(Arthavada) the eating of meat on which water has not been 
sprinkled with the recitation of mantras and which is forbidden by 
the text m ualawf ul meat, (V, ] 67). 


CLXXX. — That evil doer who slays beasts unlaw- 
fully shall dwell in horrible hell as many days as there 
fire hairs on the body of the slain beast. — 180. 


He who slays a beast "unlawfully 11 not with the view of 
offering to gods etc, shall live in horrible hell so many days as there 
are hairs on the body of that slain animal. By the word " slays " 
eight kinds of slayers must be understood* as described by MANU 
(V. 51.)- 

" Ho who permits the slaughter of an animal ho who oats it up, ho who kills 
it, ho who buys or sells meat, ho who cooks it, ho who serves it up apd he who oats 
It, must bo oomudered ^s tho slayers of tho animal/' 


The author now declares an injunction for avoiding the eating 
of meat. 


CLXXXI. — He obtains all his desires, earns the 
fruit of horse-sacrifice though living in the house that 
Brahmana becomes Muni (a sage) who avoids the eating 
of meat. — 181. 


He who is true in his resolution "I will never eat flesh except 
when it has been sanctified by sprinkling of water with the recitation 
of mantras &c," obtains all desires and finds no obstacles while 
engaged in accomplishing them* Because his heart is pure- As said 
Manu (V. 47). 

" He who does not injure any creature attains without an effort what he thinks 
of what he undertakes and what he fixes his mind upon." 

These are concomitant (secondary) results. The author declares 
the principal fruit : — "He obtains the fruit of horse-sacrifice " This 
is with regard to annual ritual observance.* Because of Manu 
(V. 53). 

"He who during a hundred years annually offers a horse-sacrifice, and he who 
entirely abstains from meat obtain the same reward for their meritorious conduct." 

So also even dwelling in the house, all the four classes, 
Brahmanas &c, become honorable like Munis (sages) by refraining from 
meat. This rule does not relate to the meat that has been already 
forbidden, nor also to the meat which has been sanctified by the 
sprinkling of water over it with the recitation of mantras. But it is 
applicable to those kinds of meat that were made permissible on 
account of their being the remnants of the offerings to guests &c, 
because they are the remainders (after deducting the first two sorts 
of meat). 

Here ends the chapter on lawful and Forbidden food. 

* here means " a solemn vow or determination to perform any ritual 
Observance."— M.-W* 

Chapter VIII — On the Purification of Things. 

On the purification of untensils. 
The author now declares the purification of things. 


CLXXXII. — Of golden and silver (vessels), things 
produced in water, sacrificial vessels, the stone-vessels, 
vegetables, ropes, roots, fruit, cloth, split bamboo, hides. 

CLXXXIII. — Of vessels and chamasas the purifi- 
cation is said to be by water, and of the Charu, Sruh y 
Sruva, and oil vessels by hot water, — 183. 


• * 

" Golden "—made of gold. " Silver " — made of silver. " Produc- 
ed in water " — pearl, conch, shell, mother of pearl &c. " Sacrificial 
vessels" — the sacrificial mortar &c, on account of their being asso- 
ciated with the (sacrificial) grahas &c. " Grahas " (lit : seizing 
vessels) ladle &c* " Stone vessels" — like flat stones for grinding 
spices &c. " Vegetables " — pot herbs &c. " Ropes " — made of rope. 
" Roots " — ginger &c. " Fruits " — mangoes &c. " Cloth " — garment 
"Split-bamboos" — Baskets made of split bamboos &c. 'Hides' — of 
goats &c. The specification of split bamboos and hides is illustrative 
of the things manufactured out of these raw materials such as 
umbrellas belts &c. " Vessels " — vessels to sprinkle sacred water &c. 
"Chamasas " — sacrificial cups &c. These golden vessels and the 
rest i£ free from stains and if they have only been touched by the 
leavings of food are purified by washing with water. " Charu " — the 
pot to cook charu (sacrificial rice). " Sruk and Sruva "f are well- 

*" Tho sacrificial vessel used at the Sodasi ceremony, (ic, a libation consisting 
of 16 Grahas)". M.-W. 

t W " a sor t of largo woodon ladle (used for pouring clarified butter on a 
sacrificial fire ; and probably made of Palasa or Khadira wood and about as 
long as an arm, with a reoptaele at tho end of tho size of a hand ; three are enume- 
rated viz,, /uhu, uphabhf it, and dhruva)" M.-W. 

" a. small wooden ladle with a double extremity, or two oval collateral 

excavations, used for pouring clarified melted butter into the large laddie or 
sometimes also employed instead of tho latter in libations." M.-W. 


known (sacrificial ladles of that name). 11 Oil vessels" — containing 
oil such as Prfitiitra-harana &c.* 

These when free from stains are purified by hot water as 
ordained by Manu (V. 112). 

" A golden vessel which shows no stains, becomes pure with water alone, like- 
wise what is produced in water (as shells and coral), what is made of stone and a 
silver vessel not enchased." 

" Not enchased " — whose cavities are not filled with impurity. 
As regards the purification of vessels stained (with impurity) 
the ordinance of Manu must be followed (V. 111). 

" The wise ordain that all objects made of metal gems and any thing made of 
stone are to be cleansed with ashes, earth and water." 

As the ashes and the earth produce the same effect it is optional 
(to use any of these two). But water must always be used. More 
over this must also be seen. Let him scrape the vessel touched by 
the mouth, of a crow &c, or rubbed by the mouth of a black bird. 
Let him not use again a vessel licked by the mouth of a beast of prey. 
This is with the exception of cats &c, as ordained by Manut- 

" The cat and the ladle and the wind are always pure." 

The purification of sacrificial vessels. 

CLXXXIV. — (Similarly) of the sphya, the win- 
nowing basket, the deer-skin, the grains, the pestle, the 
mortor and the cart. Of solid things and of large 
quantities of grains and of cloth (the purification is) to 
sprinkle them with water. — 184. 


" Sphya "I adamant, a sacrificial instrument. " Cart "—carriage. 
The rest are well-known ; these are purified by hot water. The repe- 
tition of the word "skin " is to indicate the specific hide which is a 

*Pras'itra-harana lit : food bearer is an oblong sacrificial vessel made of Acacia 
catechu of the form of a cow's ear (Tr). 

"Prasitra, the portion of Havis eaten by the Brahman at a sacrifice." M. W. 

"Pra3itra-h£rana, a vessel in which the Brahman's portion of Havis is placed 9 * 
M -W. * 

t This verse is not to be found in any printed edition of Manu. But in Parasara 
Madhava it is attributed to Brihaspati and<Harita (p. 190, Vol. II., part I, of the 
B. S. S.) 

X"An implement used in sacrifices (described as a flat piece of wood shaped 

rice, or, according to some, for 

trimming the mound used as an altar)." M,-W. 


sacrificial instrument. " Of solid things ''—among the above-enumer- 
ated objects which require purification and of large quantities of 
grain and of cloth. The specification of cloth is illustrative of all 
the above-enumerated objects requiring purification. The purifi- 
cation of the above-mentioned objects requiring purification and of 
grain and cloth &c, when in " large quantities " i.e., when made in 
great heaps is by sprinkling water over them. Large quantity is 
relative with regard to the quantity defiled by touch. This is what 
has been said that when there are heaps of grains or cloths and a 
small portion of them are touched by a Chandala &c, and a large 
portion of them are untouched then the purification of the quantity 
touched is by the method first described and the purification of the 
rest is by sprinkling them with water. So also in another Smriti: — 

" When a portion of a heap of grain or cloth &c. has been rendered impure that 
much only must be taken away, the rest is purified by sprinkling with water. 1 ' 

When again the proportion of the portion defiled by touch is 
great the portion not touched is small, then all must be washed. 
As said by Manu (V. 118.) 

"The manner of purifying large quantity of grain and of cloth is to sprinkle them 
with water, but the purification of small quantities is prescribed to take place by 
washing them." 

When the quantities of the touched and of the untouched are 
equal, the purification is by sprinkling them with water. 

By ordaining that the manner of purifying large quantities is 
to sprinkle water over them (it followed) that the purification of small 
quantities was by washing them. The reason, therefore, of repeating 
that the purification of small quantities is by washing them is for 
the purpose of stopping the washing in cases when (the touched and 
the untouched) are equal in quantity, when it is impossible to dis- 
tinguish what portion has been touched and what has not been 
touched the whole must be washed, in order to remove the possibility 
of the unwashed portion being also tainted • 

The Nibandhakaras (treatise-writers) say that grains, cloths 
&c. y which have been carried by many persons and some of which are 
touched and the rest untouched arc purified by sprinkling water over 
them. , , , - 

Having described the manner of purification of objects not 
stained but merely defiled by contact, the author now describes the 
purification of stained objects. 

The "purification of stained vessels. 



CLXXXV.—By plaining (are purified) the objects 
made of wood, horns and bones, the objects made of 
fruits (i.e., fruit-shells) (are purified) by brush made of 
cow's hairs (of the tail). In performing a sacrificial 
work the sacrificial objects (are purified) by the sprinkl- 
ing of water by the hand. — 185. 


Of objects made of wood. " Horns " of sheep, buffaloes &c. 
"Bones" of elephants, wild boar, conch &c. By specification of bones 
is also included teeth. These when stained by leavings of food, oil 
&c, are purified by earth, ash, water &c, till the stain is removed be- 
cause of the general rule of purification (Manu, V. 126.) 

" As long as the foul smell does not leave an object defiled by impure sub- 
stances and the stain caused by them does not disappear so long must earth and 
water be applied in cleansing inanimate things." 

" Plaining " is the purification by removing away so much of 
the particles (of the surface as has been rendered impure.) " Made 
of fruits M — Vessels made of the shells of the fruits of Bael, gourd, 
cocoa-nut &c. Thfeir purification is by brushing them with cow's 

The sacrificial vessels like sruk, sruva &c, at the time of being 
employed in sacrificial works ought to be rubbed with the right hand 
or with the sacred grass called Durva (ku^a, poa, cynosursides) or 
with the ends of the Pavitri (strainer) according to Sastra, because it 
(such rubbing) is a part of sacrifice. 

These are £>rauta examples. Other vessels also of gold &c. while 
employed in smarta and profane works, though already cleansed 
(must be so rubbed at the time of using them), because (such rubbing) 
it is a part of the ceremony. To show this, the above special rule 
has been enjoined viz. f those vessels which form part of a sacrifice 
though already cleansed should be rubbed with the end of the Pavitri 
because it is for the sake of sacrament (and is a preparatory ceremony 
making the vessel fit to be used in the sacred work). 

The author now describes some special means of removing 

strains of certain objects which have been stained. 

. ■ 

The "purification of clothes. 




CLXXXVI. — Woollen and silken stuffs (are purified) 
with alkaline earth, water and cow's urine ; amsupattas 
with &ri fruit, and blankets with pounded arista fruit. 


Stains are removed by washing the object with water or cow's 
urine and alkaline earth. 

" Woolen "—made of wool. " Silk " made of cocoons such as 
Tassar &c. These are purified by washing them as described above. 
" Water and cow's urine " being in the plural number in the original 
indicates (that the object must be first washed with water, then with 
cow's urine) and lastly again with water. " Am^upatta (a kind of 
cloth) made of the threads of the barks of trees. " With Sri fruit " 
— With Bel fruit. " Blankets " made of the wool of the hilly goat. 
" With the arista fruit* with the froth of arista fruit and water and 
cow's urine. The phrase " is purified " is understood (after each of 
the above.) 

This rule must be understood to be applicable to cases where 
the impurity is caused by the contact with the leavings of food and 
oily substances. In cases of lesser contact with impurities (the puri- 
fication is) attained by sprinkling the substance with water. Because 
(the above-mentioned substances on account of their fine texture) can- 
not bear washing and because the object of purification is always to 
preserve the substance without destroying it. And so also Devala 
having premised : — 

" Woollen and silken stuffs, blanketst patt&s, linen and woven silk require 
softer methods of purification (such as) by drying or sprinkling water &o.," goea 
on to say : — 

" These when defiled with impurities should be washed by the following spe- 
cial method of purification, that is by decoction of barley with alkaline fruit juice." 

The purification of san (hemp) is like that of linen because it 
belongs to the same class. 

By specification of woollen stuffs &c. is meant also the inclusion 
of quilts &c, made of those materials. They also when slightly defiled 
by mere contact with impurities are to be washed. Not so when be- 
smeared with impurities. Because of the following text of Devala : — 

* 44 The soap-berry tree, sapindus detergens, Roxb s the fruits of which are used 
in washing.' ' M. W. 


Tho quilts, tho pillows and the clothes dyed with (vegetable) colors obtained 
from flowers being dried in tho sun for a short timo should bo brushed with hands 
and then having sprinkled them with water, may bo employed in their respective 
use. These when they become very unclean should bo properly (and completely) 

" Colors obtained from flowers" such as saffron (crocus sativus) 
safflower (Carthamus tinctorius^ colors, &c. By specification of colors 
obtained from flowers is also meant to be included the dyes of 
turmeric, &c, which cannot bear washing. But not those of madder 
(Rubia manjistha), &c., because these can bear washing. 

i^afikha also has declared : — 

Colored stuffs (or coloring stuffs) become pure by sprinkling them with water." 


CLXXXVII. — The linen cloth (is purified) with 
the paste of white mustard, an earthen vessel by 
a second burning. The hand of an artisan is pure, so 
(is every vendible commodity exposed) for sale and 
the food obtained by begging : and so also the mouth of 
a woman. — 187. 


The " linen cloth cloth manufactured of the threads of the 
plant (Linnm usitatissimum, called in Sanskrit hsumd) becomes pure 
by washing with the paste of white mustard, water and cow's urine. 
Earthen vessels like pots &c, become pure by a second burning. 
This is the rule only in cases of impurities causing out of the contact 
with the leavings of food, oily substances &c. Because there is 
a Smriti text (Manu V. 123) :— 

"An earthen vessel which has been defiled by spirituous liquor, wine, ordure, 
saliva, pus or blood cannot be purified by another burning: 1 ' 

When defiled by the contact of Ch&ndalas &c, they must be 
abandoned, as said Par&jJara. 1 * 

"Grains so also clothes defiled by the touch of Ch&nd£las, become pure by 
sprinkling them with water, but earthen vessels by abandonment/' 

" Artisans " — Dyer, washer-man, cook &c. Their hands are 
always pure. The purity is relative to their peculiar department 
of work. Such as washing of clothes in spite of impurities arising 

* This verse is not found in the text of Par&sara, but in Mfcdhava's commentary, 
vide B. 8. S., Vol. II., part L, p. 177. This shows that Vijnfine£vara, the author of 
the commentary, was posterior to Madhava. 



out of birth or death (in the family of the washerman.) So also in 
another smfiti.* 

u Artisans, artists, physicians, female slaves and male slaves as well the king's 
and the royal servants are declared to be always pure." 

" Vendible commodity " — Barley, rice &c, which are to be 
purchased and are to be sold. They do not become impure though 
handled by various persons desirous of purchase. Also if there is 
any impurity arising out of birth or death (in the family) of the 
vendors (the vendibles do not become impure thereby.) 

" Food obtained by begging " — The collection of food through 
begging. They are not defiled by coming into the hands pf a 
Brahmachari &c., or by being given by women who have not 
performed the purificatory ceremony of achamana (sipping of water) 
and therefore impure ; 

So also the mouth of a woman at the time of intercourse is pure. 
As Smriti| declares : — 

" Women while in the act of sexual intercourse (are pure)." 

The purification of Land. 
The author now describes the purification of land. 


CLXXXVIIL — Land is purified by sweeping, by 
burning, by time, by cows' walking over it, by sprink- 
ling, by scraping and by smearing. The house by 
sweeping and by smearing. — 188. 


" Sweeping " is the clearing away of dust, Btraw &c., by the 
broom. "Burning" with straw, fuel, &c. "Time" that period of 
time during which the defilement (arising out of) besmearing &c. f 
(with impurities) would of itself be removed. " Cows' walking over it" 
being trodden by the feet of the cows. " Sprinkling " or pouring of 
cows' milk, cows' urine, cow-dung and water. "Scraping " — planing 
or digging. "Smearing" with cows' dung &c. 

By these methods whether severally or conjointly the land 
which is impure, defiled or unclean is purified. 

* This is attributed to Prachotft in Par&aara— Mftdhava, B, 8. S., Vol. I, part II. 
p. 25C. 

t Vasistha XXVIII. 8. 


So also Devala : — 

u That land whoro a woman parturatos, whero one dies or where one is burnt 
or whoro a Ch&ncl&la has dwelt or whoro frccos, &c, are collected or where thoro is* 
a heap of filth is said to bo an impure land." 

" The land touched by dogs, hogs, assos, camels, become " defiled/' It becomes 
" unclean " by charcoal, straw, hair, bones &c. 

Having thus enumerated the three sorts of land which require 
purification, viz., impure, defiled or unclean lands, the author (Devala) 
further declares the method of purification: — 

14 The impure land is made pure by four or five (of the above methods), the 
defiled land by three or two of the said methods and the unclean land by one. M 

Where dead bodies are burnt, and where a Ch&ndala has 
dwelt these two sorts of land become pure by all the five methods 
(taken jointly that is) by burning, time, cow-walking, sprinkling 
and scraping. Where men are born, where they die and where 
there is an excessive accumulation of faeces, such places are purified 
by the remaining very same methods enumerated above with the 
exception of burning, i.e., by four methods. The land on which 
dogs, hogs and asses have dwelt for a long time is purified by 
three methods, viz., walking of cow, sprinkling and scraping. And 
that on which the camels, domestic cocks &c., have dwelt long, is 
purified by sprinkling and scraping. That land on which charcoal, 
straw, &c, has been kept for a long time becomes pure by scraping. 
Sweeping and smearing are to be taken always in conjunction with 
the above processes. 

Similarly a house is purified by sweeping and smearing. The 
separate mention of the house is for the purpose of showing that 
sweeping and smearing must be daily performed. 

The purification of food smelt by the cow, &c. 


CLXXXIX. — In order to purify food which has 
been smelt by cows ; so also that which is defiled by 
hair, flies or insects ; water, ashes or even earth must be 
scattered over it. — 189. 


" Smelt by cows " defiled by the breathing over of cows. 
" Food " all sorts of edibles "so also that which is defiled by hair, 
flies or insects." By specifying hair, downy hair &c 9 are also 
included. "Insects" — ants, &c. In order to purify (the food so 



defiled) water, ashes or earth should be scattered over it as far as 
possible. As to what Gautama (XVII. 8-9) has said : — 

" Food in which a hair or an insect has fallen is never to be eaten." 

That refers to the food cooked with hair and insect and not 
merely one defiled by contact with these impurities. 

The purification of Tin, Lead, <&e. 


CXC. — Tin, lead and copper (is purified) by alka- 
line substances, acids or water ; brass and iron by 
ashes or water and the liquids become pure by flowing 
over. — 190. 


" Tin, &c." are well-known metals. Their purification is to 
be made either by alkali and water or by acid and water or 
merely by water or by several or all of these processes according to 
(the extent and nature of) the defilement. " Brass and iron " are 
purified by ashes and water. By specifying " brass" is also included 
"pewter metal' * because they have common origin. This rule of 
purification of brass &c, by acids, water &c., is not obligatory, but 
declaratory. Because of the general ordinance : — 

" The common rule for the purification of objects is said to be this—- anything 
by which the impurity of a substance is removed is said to be its purifier." 

Therefore, when copper &c, are defiled by being besmeared 
with (the leavings of • food) impure water &c, it being possible to 
remove such impurities by other methods, it is not obligatory to 
perform their purification by acids and water &c. Therefore, Manu 
has ordained generally (V. 114). 

" Copper, iron, brass, pewter, tin and lead must be cleansed, as may be suit- 
able (for each particular case) by alkaline substances, acids or water." 

As to the text : — " Brass is purified by ashes and the copper 
becomes pure by acids." That refers to the superlative degree of 
purification for those objects like copper &c, and does not exclude 
other processes of cleansing. Where there is an excessive degree of 
impurity, there the rule of purification by acids, water &c, becomes 
applicable. Because of the following Smriti.* 

44 Brass vessels smelt by the cow or what are defiled by (the touch of) a 
Sfldra bocomes pure by ten (times rubbing) with alkali. So also those touched by 
dogs and cows." 

* Parftsara, Prftyas. VII. 28-24 B. S. S. Vol. II. pt. 1. p. 172. There it is referred 
to S&t&tapa 8mfiti III. 61. The readings are a little different from the Mitftksarft. 



" The liquids become pure by flowing over" — " liquid " — fluid 
substances like clarified butter etc., whose quantity is greater than a 
prastha (forty-eight double hand-fuls) when defiled by dogs, crows 
&c, or when touched by impure substances become pure by flowing 
over. When a vessel containing the liquid to be purified is filled 
with the same kind of liquid to the brim, till it overflows, that pro- 
cess is called flowing ov^ v — The phrase " becomes pure " is under- 
stood. In cases of small quantity of liquids they must be abandoned. 
The measure of smallness is to be known relatively to place, time 
&c. As said Baudhayana : — Pra^na T. (Adhyaya 4. Kandika 8 53.) 

"(A cleverman) *** shall perform the rites of purification after having fully 
considered the time and the place of defilement likewise himself as well as the object 
to be cleansed, and the substance to be employed, the purpose of the objects, the 
cause of the defilement and the condition of the thing or the person defiled." 

Liquids rendered impure by the falling in of insects &c. should 
be strained. As said Manu (V. 115). 

" The purification prescribed for all sorts of liquids is by straining them." 

Straining is the process of passing a liquid from one vessel 
to another through a cloth. Because otherwise it is impossible to 
remove the insects &c. 

Honey, water &c, though contained in the vessel of a Lucira 
become pure by pouring them into another vessel. As ordained by 
Baudhayana * (I. 6. 47.) 

" Honey, water, milk and its various modifications become pure by being 
poured from one vessel into another."!* 

Honey, clarified butter &c., when obtained from the hands of a 
low-caste man ought to be poured into another vessel and heated 
again as ordained by ^afikha : — 

" Food prepared by clarified butter should be cooked a second time. So also 
all oily substances and liquids that resemble oil." 

The author having thus declared the method of purification of 
gold, silver &c, which form the subject matter of discussion in this - 
chapter from certain kinds of uncleanliness such as caused by 
coming in contact with the fragments of food, oil &c, now describes 
their purification when defiled by impure substances (filth). 

* Mysore Govt. Oriental Series, p. 104. But I. 6. 16. in Dr. Hultzsch's Edition. 
I. 6. 49 in Anandasram Edition. 

f Biihler (S. B E. XIV. p. 191) translates it as follows " Hydrorael and 
preparations of milk (are> purified by pouring them from one vessel into another." 
Hydromel, i.e., Sour milk, honey, clarified butter, water and grain. 





CXCL— Objects defiled by impure substances be- 
come pure by earth and water to remove smell &c, what 
has been commended by word, what has been washed 
by water and that about which one is ignorant, are 
always pure. — 191. 


"Impure substances" — bodily excretions such as fasces, oily- 
exudations, semen &c. The following are the impurities as explained 
by Manu, Devala &c. 

" Oily exudations, semen, blood, the fatty substance of the brain, urine, faeces, 
the mucus of the nose, the ear-wax, phlegm, tears, the rheum of the eyes and 
sweat are the twelve impurities of human bodies. 11 (Manu V. 135.) 

So also (Devala.) : — 

41 Human bones, corpse, faeces, semen, urine, menstrual discharges, oily exuda- 
tion, sweat, tears, the rheum of the eyes, phlegm, spirituous liquor are said to be 
impure substances." 

Objects defiled or besmeared with these oily exudations &c, 
(are meant by the phrase) " objects defiled by impure substances. " 
Their purification must be performed with earth and water. (So 
long as) the (foul) smell is not removed — 

By the phrase Et cetera is meant the inclusion of stains also as 
declared by Gautama (I. 42) : — 

" Purification from defilement by impure substances has been effected when 
the stains and the bad smell have been removed." 

In all sorts of purifications, the removal of stains and bad 
smell must primarily be performed by earth and water. When 
these prove ineffectual then by any other process. 

That should be done by first using water and afterwards earth 
as ordained by Gautama. 

The specification of oily exudations &c, is for the purpose of 
demonstrating the impure nature of all the substances (enumerated 
under the same category and is not for the purpose of showing the 
extent of defilement) caused by them severally is equal. Because 
there is the following special mode of purification ordained in certain 
cases of defilement by some of the above (Manu V. 123) :— 

" An earthen vcssol which hns boon defilod by spirituous liquor, urine, ordure, 
saliva, pus or blood cannot bo purified by another burning." 

From the text " these are impure substances when they become 
separated from the body " it follows that only those are impure 


which have become detached from the body and not those which 
remain at their proper place in the human body. When any portion 
of the human body above the navel with the exception of the 
hands is rendered impure by contact with impure substances one 
must bathe, as said Devala : — 

41 A person must perform bathing if be has touched human bones, oily exuda- 
tions, frceos, menstrual discharges, urine, somen, marrow, or blood of another." 
Having touched the same substances which are one's own excretions, a person 
becomes pure by washing (thoroughly that part of) his body and by (performing 
tho ceremony of) sipping water, So also 

" Whenever a portion of the body above the navel is rendered impure with the 
exception of the hands, one must bathe ; when any portion below (the navel is so 
rendered impure) one becomes pure by washing that portion and sipping water." 

Where even after performing the prescribed purification one 
is not mentally satisfied and entertains doubts as to the sufficiency 
of such purification, there the purification takes place by com- 
mending with the word. The sense being that he becomes pure 
when a Brahmana has said to him " There thou art pure." 

"Washed by water" — where purity cannot be obtained by 
(any of the above) demonstrated methods, then that is purified by 
washing. That which cannot bear washing must be sprinkled with 

" About which one is ignorant are always pure " —That which 
is defiled by cows &c. and is used (by any one) without ever knowing 
(of such defilement) is always pure. The meaning is that by using 
such substances there is no invisible {i.e., spiritual) fault committed. 

(An opponent raises a doubt) :— Does not the following text 
contradict (the above statement of yours that no invisible fault is 
committed by ignorantly using such defiled object) ? 

" Once a year a Br&hmana must perform a krichhra penance, in order to atone 
for unintentionally eating (forbidden food) but for intentionally eating (forbidden 
food he must perform the penances prescribed) specially." (Manu V. 21); 

The (above text proves that) invisible fault also (is committed) 
because it lays down (the rules of) penance. 

(We reply). This is not so. Because the penance is ordained 
i only in cases of eating (forbidden things) ; but no fault is commit- 
ed by using (such things in any other way ; our contention being he 
who uses such things commits no fault). 

The purification of water, flesh &c. 




CXCII. — Water sufficient in quantity in order to 
slake the thirst of a cow, which is in its natural condi- 
tion and is collected on ground is pure. So also the 
flesh (of an animal), killed or thrown down by dogs, 
Chandalas, carnivorous animals, &c. — 192. 


" Collected on ground " — water which is on land and which is 
sufficient to satisfy the want of one cow which is not touched by a 
Chandala &c, which is in its natural condition, that is, which has 
not undergone any change for the worse with regard to its form, taste, 
smell and touch, is "pure " i.e., is fit for performing the ceremony 
of dchamana with. The phrase collected on the ground is used to 
declare the non-pure nature of the water which is collected when on 
an impure ground and is not employed to show that the water in 
the firmament is pure, nor that which is drawn out (of some reservoir 
&c), because of the following text of Devala. 

" Water that has tteen drawn out becomes pure if brought within a pure vessel. 
Water that has been kept for one night must be thrown away, though otherwise 

So also there is no fault in the water of a tank made by a 
Chandala &c. Because of the following text of ^atfttapa : — 

" Having bathed in or drank of a well, a defile, or a tank made by an out-caste 
there is no penance." 

So also the flesh of animals killed by dogs, Chandalas, carni- 
vorous animals &c. are pure. By mentioning of the phrase "etcetera" 
in the above included the pulkasa &c. The specification of the 
word killed is for the purpose of forbidding the flesh which has been 
eaten by the dogs &c. 

Purification of fire dec. General purification. 


CXOIIL— The rays (of light), fire, the dust, the 
shade, a cow, a horse, the earth, the wind, drops of 
water and flies are pure to the touch ; the calf when 
sucking (for milching) is pure. — 193. 


" The rays" — of the sun &c. of the luminous objects. "Fire" is 
well-known. " Dust " — except (such as has been contaminated) by 


contact with goats and the rest. Because of the mentioning of the 
following evil : — "Life and wealth are destroyed by the contact 
* with the dust (raised by) dogs, crows, camels, asses, owls, pigs, the 
domestic birds, goats. 1 9 

" The shade " of trees &c, in the act of ablution &c. " A 
cow, a horse, the earth 9 or land, the air or wind ; 4< drops of water " 
(or dew (?) ) drops (not) the drops as come from the mouth, they being 
mentioned (separately further on); and the flies — all these even 
though touched by the Chandalas and the like are pure on being 
touched, A calf is pure on the flowing of the milk i.e., while sucking 
the milk from the udders. 

The specification of " calf 99 (vaste) does by analogy denote an 
infant. Because of the following text: — 

" What is spoiled by children, what is handled by woman,* and what is done 
in ignorance are always pure. This is the settled rule." 


CXCIV. — The mouth of a goat and of a horse is 
pure but not of a cow nor impure excretions of man. 
The roads are purified by the rays of the moon and 
sun and by the wind. — 194. 


A goat and a horse are pure as regards their mouth. Not so a 
cow. " Nor impure excretions of a man." The word ' man ' by 
metonomy signifies human body ; the impure excretions of man such 
as faeces and the rest are not pure. 

" The roads." — The highways though touched by Ch&nd&las and 
the rest become pure in the night time by the rays of the moon and 
the wind : and in the day time by the rays of the sun and by the 


CXCV. — The drops issuing from the mouth are pure; 
so are dchamana (sipped water) drops, so also the beard 
entering the mouth. One becomes pure by throwing 
out what adheres to his teeth. — 195. 


" Issuing from the mouth " — born (or produced) in the mouth ; 
such as drops of phlegm are pure, they do not render one impure if 

• This half of the verse is from Vasistha III, 45. 




they do not fall on a limb of the body. Because of the following 
text of Gautama (I. 41). 

"Drops (of saliva) falling from the mouth do not cause impurity except if they 
fall on a limb of the body." 

However, the drops of sipped water (achamana) that (fall) touch 
the feet are pure. "So also the beard entering the mouth " going into 
the mouth does not cause impurity. One becomes pure by throwing 
away (the remnants) of food #c., that clings to the teeth if they 
detach of themselves. If they do not so detach they are as the teeth. 

So also Gautama (L 38, 39, and 40). 

" (Remnants of food) adhering to the teeth (do not make the eater impure as 
little) as his teeth except if he touches them with his tongue. Some (declare that 
such remnants do not defile) before they fall (from their place). If they do not 
become detached he should know that he is purified by merely swallowing them as 
(in the case of) saliva. ,, 

The swallowing is optional beoause Yajfiavalkya ordains 
throwing out (of such remnants). " Merely swallowing "—The force 
of the word " merely " is for the purpose of prohibiting the sipping 
of water (achamana) as ordained by Visnu. 

w Let him always sip water after chewing anything (with the exception of the 
betel) after touching the lips on which no hair grows and after putting on clothes." 

The specification of the word "betel" by analogy indicates 
fruits and the rest. As ordained by Satatapa.* 

" The twice^born is not rendered impure by chewing betels, fruits and things 
roasted in oil nor by the contact of anything adhering to the teeth.* 9 


CXCVL— Having bathed, drunk, sneezed, slept, 

eaten, and ridden a chariot, he should again sip the water 

(though he might have) sipped before : and so also after 

having p\it on clothes. — 196/ 


The sense is that though one may have sipped before, he should 
sip water again (that is to say) twice sip water having bathed, drunk, 
sneezed, slept, eaten, ridden on a carriage and put on clothes, 

By the use of tbe word *'cha n (and) in the text is indicated 
weeping, beginning of study, having uttered small falsehood &c. 
As has been said by Vasist^a (III. 38 . 

•* If after having sippod wator ho sloops, oats, snoozes, drinks, weeps or bathos 
or puts on a dress ho must again sip wator." 

* Par&sara M&dhava (B, S. S. Vol. I. pt. l f p. 244) gives the reading differently 
from that given above. The prosont verso is almost tho same as quoted in the 
ftbovo'inontioned book from qgfft'qv?|?i. 


So also Man u (V. 145). 

" Though ho may bo already puro lot him sip wafcor after sleoping, snoezing, 
eating, spitting, tolling untruths and drinking wator ; likowisoono whon ho is going 
to study the " Vodas." 

While going to eat he should twice sip water. As ordained by 
Apaatamba (I. 5. 16. 9). " But if he is going to eat, he shall though 
pure twice sip water." (That is to say) while going to bathe or drink 
he should sip water once ; while he is going to begin the study of 
the Vedas, he should sip water twice. As regards the rest he should 
sip water twice at the end. 


CXCVII. — The mud and waters of the road if 
touched by out-castes (Antya)and dogs and crows become 
pure by the wind alone so also houses built of burnt 
brick— 197. 


" Road "—Every sort of way. " Mud "—Swamp. " Water "— 

The mud and water standing on the road if touched by an 
" Antya " such as Chandala and the rest or by dog or crows become 
purified or attain purity by wind alone. The plural number (of the 
verb) is for the purpose of including the cow-dung, sugar &c, con- 
tained in them. 

" Houses built of burnt bricks " — white houses if touched by 
the Chandalas &c, become pure by wind alone. The washing of these 
has been thus prohibited though they be capable of bearing washing. 
Houses built of straw, wood, leaves &c, become pure by washing 
alone. , , , , • 

Here ends the chapter on the purification of things. 

CHAPTER IX.— On Gifts. - 

The proper recipients of gifts. 

Now the author before explaining the law of gifts and in order 
to explain the part of subject relating to the fitness of the donees 
praises his virtues. 


CXCVIII. — Brahma having performed austerities 
created the Brahmanas for the preservation of the 
Vedas, for the satisfaction of the Pitris and the Devas 


and for the protection of Dharma (Law). — 198. 


" Brahma " — Hiranyagarbha, in the beginning of the Kalpa; 
" having performed austerities," performing meditation as to 1 whom 
shall I create as the highest,' created first the Brahmanas. With 
what object? " For the preservation of the Vedas "—for the protec- 
tion of the Vedas ; for the satisfaction of the Pitris, and the gods ; 
and for the protection of the Dharma (Law) by their observing it 
themselves and teaching others. The sense being that by making 

gifts to them (Brahmanas^ one obtains unexhausting reward or fruit. 


The proper Brdhmana recipient. 


CXCIX. — The lords of all are the Brahmanas 
versed in the stndy of the Vedas. Among them those 
who perform (practise) observances are superior. Even 
among the latter are those best who are knowers of the 
science of spirit. — 199. 


" Of all " — Of the Ksatriyas and the rest, the Brahmanas are 
the " lords" or superior both as regards birth and work. Among 
the Brahmanas " those versed in the study of the Vedas " those who 
have completed the ntudy of the Vedas are superior. Among the 
latter those " who practise observances " those who perform the 
(various) ceremonies &c, ordained (by law). Among the latter even 
" those who are best among the knowers of the science of spirit " — 




those who following the path to be described later on, who by practis- 
ing the yoga relating to Sama (controlling the passions), Dama 
(restraining the senses) &c, are immersed in the acquisition of the 
knowledge of truth, are superior (the latter phrase is understood in 
the text). 

The author having thus explained the fitness of the donee 
by the separate possession of birth or learning or practice of 
observances or austerities now shows the complete fitness of the 
donee in whom all these qualities combine* 

What constitutes fitness, 

CO. — Fitness does not arise by mere learning or 
austerities. Where conduct and these two dwell, that 
is declared to be the fit recipient. — 200. 



Complete fitness does not arise simply by the " learning " — • 
by the study of the Vedas (i.e., possessing the power of reciting and 
understanding the Vedas.) Nor merely by " austerities " ie. y by dama 
(controlling the passions), dama (restraining the senses) &c. The 
word " mere " in the text signifies that complete fitness does not arise 
simply by religious practice or simply by birth. How then (complete 
fitness arises)? Where there exists in a person these two " learning 
and austerities " together with " conduct" or practical observance (of 
the rules of the law) as also Brahmanical birth (which is indicated 
by the word "cha" or "and" in the original), that has been de- 
clared by Manu and the rest as the completely fit recipient- Because 
there is no one more excellently qualified than such a one. 

Now because among the group of birth, learning, observance, 
and austerity those that follow are more praiseworthy than those 
that precede so also must be understood to be the difference in the 
fruit of gift if made to any one of these persons severally. 

Giving of cows &c, to Brahmanas. 


CCL — A cow, land, sesamum, gold &c., should be 
given to a fit person with honor. The knowing man 
desiring his welfare should not give anything to an 
unfit person. — 201. 




To a fit person as described above a cow and the rest should 
be given with honor, i.e., with the giving of water &c, together 
with other supplementary ceremonies as ordained by the fkstras 

" To an unfit person " to a Ksatriya &c, and a Brahmana who 
is degraded &c. y " By the knowing man " by a person who knows the 
special results produced by giving gifts to special persons. 
" (Desiring his) welfare " — desiring the full fruit (of his gift) ; 
should not be given " anything " however little. The specification 
of " welfare " indicates that some kind of tamas (inferior result or) 
fruit is produced by giving to even an unfit person. As said Krisna 
Dwaipayana (Gita, 17. 22.) : — 

" That which is given out of place and season and to unworthy objects and at 
the same time, ungraciously and scornftrily is pronounced to be of tamoguna 
(inferior quality)." 

It being ordained that no gift should be made to an unfit 
person, it follows that in a case where proper place, season and 
thing (to be given) are ready but the proper person is wanting of 
(vice versa) the thing is wanting, (the proper person being present) 
then let him make a gift in the first case by abandoning the thing 
in favour of (or keeping it apart for the purpose of giving to) such a 
(fit) person (when he should arrive), and in the second case, by 
promising to give such a thing (when obtained) to the person ; but 
he should on no account give it to an unworthy person. Even after 
promising it if he comes to know that the (promisee) is degraded &c, 
he should not give. Because of the prohibition " Let him not give 
(anything) to one though promised who is tainted with unrighteous- 

The author having prohibited the donor not to give to an 
unfit person now addresses to the donee. 

An unfit person should not accept gifts. 


CCII. — A gift should not be accepted by one who 
is destitute of learning and austerities. By so accepting 
he leads the donor down as well as himself. — 202. 


One who is destitute of learning and austerities should not 
accept gifts of gold &c. Because a person destitute of learning &c, 



by accepting a gift "leads to" or causes to go "down" to hell the don- 
or as well as himself. 

The author, having ordained that a cow etc. should be given to 
fit person, now lays down a special rule. 

A special rule of gift. 


CCIII. — -Every day something should be given to a 
fit person more so on special occasions. A person 
begged of should also give with faith according to his 
means. — 203. 


" E very-day " in*accordance with one's means and according 
to the rules as ordained, cows &c, (which are his property) should 
be given without injuring the family estate. 

On special occasions (like) the eclipse of the moon &c, "more " 
a greater (quantity) should be given with ease. 

By saying " a person begged of should also give " it is ordained 
that great reward is obtained by that gift which is made by person- 
ally going to above-mentioned fit person or by wanting (such for 
the object of making a gift). So also is ordained in a Smriti : — 

41 That gift which is made by going (to the donee) is said to confer eternal 
reward by inviting (such a fit person and giving confers) a thousand fold merit and 
on giving being begged half of that." 

A special rule of cow-gift. 

Having premised that cows etc., should be given, the author 
now mentions the special reward of making a gift of cow. 


CCIV. — A quite milch cow with gilt-horns, silvered 
hoofs, covered with cloth and with a vessel of bell metal, 
should be given with daksina (present of money). — 204. 


" Gilt-horns " — whose horns are covered with gold. " Silvered- 
hoofs " — hoofs covered with silver. Covered with cloth and accom- 
panied by a vessel of bell metal, a cow, yielding a large quantity of 
milk, should be given together with a present of money according 
to one's means. 

The fruit of cow- gift. 





CCV. — The giver of her attains heaven for years 
measured by hairs on her body. If the cow be a Kapilad 
she saves also his family up to the seventh 
degree. — 205. 



The giver of such a cow resides in heaven for as many years 
as are " measured by hairs " or are equal to the number of hairs on 
her body. If such a cow be Kapila she not only saves the giver 
but also his family " up to the seventh degree " i.e., extending over 
seven persons, namely, six ancestors father, grandfather &c.) and 
himself the seventh. The word bhfiyah in the text means ' also.' 

The fruit of the gift of the cow and her calf. 


CCVL — If she be two-faced, the giver of her, giving 
according to the afore-mentioned method attains heaven 
for as many nygas (ages) as there are hairs on her body 
and on her calf. — 206. 


The word " savatsaromatulyam " is a compound of savatsa and 
romatulya. Savatsa means " a cow with her calf." As many hairs 
as are on the body of the cow and the calf so many number of 
"yugas" (ages) like Satya, Treta &c, one resides in heaven by 
giving a two-faced cow according to proper method. 

The fruit of such a gift. 

The author now explains what is a two-faced cow and why 
there is such a high merit in giving it. 


CCVIL — While the two legs and the face of her 
yonng one appear from within her womb and while she 
is not delivered of the foetus, a cow is to be considered 
as the earth. — 207. 



That period of time during which the two legs and the face of 
the call appear from within her womb is the period during which she 



is called " two-faced " because she has theu two faces (one of her own 
and the other of her calf). As long as the foetus is not delivered so 
long that cow is to be considered like unto the earth. Therefore 
there is such a high reward in making a gift of such a cow. 

The fruit of ordinary cow-gift. 


CCVIIL— Having somehow given a cow whether 
(she be) a dhenu or an adhenu which is without disease 
and without emaciation, the giver is glorified in heaven. 


Somehow even in the absence of gilt-horned cows &c, according 
to one's means and in the manner described above. 

" Dhenu "—milch cow. " Adhenu "—not barren ; (or not 
giving milk). "Without disease" — free from disease. "Without 
emaciation " — not excessively enfeebled. By giving (such a) cow 
(even) the giver is glorified or honored in heaven. 

The equivalents of cow-gift. 


CCIX. — Affording relief to the weary, the tending of 
the sick, the worshipping of the gods, the washing of the 
feet, the sweeping of the remnants of the twice-born, *are 
like the giving of a cow. — 209. 


Removing the weariness of a fatigued person by giving him 
seat, bed &c, is called " affording relief to the weary." Tending of 
the sick " by giving medicines &c, according *to one's means. 
" Worshipping of the gods " propitiating Hari, Hara, Hiranyagarbha 
&c, by (the offering of) sandal paste, garland of flowers &c. " Washing 
of the feet " of the twice-born ; and of the equals and superiors &c, 
and " Sweeping of the remnants" (of food eaten by) such persons. These 
are equal (in efficacy) to the gift of the cow as stated above. 

The fruit of granting land. 


CCX. — Having given land, lamps, food, clothes, 
water, sesamum, clarified butter, asylum, naivesika, gold 
and bull, he is glorified in heaven, — 210. 






" Land "—yielding fruit (agricultural land). " Lamps " — in the 
temples of gods. " Asylum "—refuge to the travellers. " Naive - 
tftka" — is that which is given to a girl for domestic purposes or 
purposes of household.* " Gold "—gold. " Bull "—a strong bull 
with a load. The rest are well-known and (need no explanation). 

By giving these land, lamps &c, one is glorified or honored in 
heavenly regions. The reward of attaining heaven by giving landa 
&c, does not include other rewards which also follow by the giving 
of those things. Because it has been declared that other rewards 
also accrue by the giving of these things. Such as " whatever sin is 
committed knowingly or unknowingly, one is purified of that by 
giving land to the extent of a bull's hide.' 1 So also 

" A giver of water obtains the satisfaction (of his hunger and thirst), a giver 
of food, imperishable happiness, a giver of sesamum, desireable offspring, a giver of a 
lamp, a most excellent eyesight. " 

" A giver of a garment, a place in the world of the moon, a giver of a horse 
(aava) a place in the world of Asvins, a giver of a draught— of great good fortune, 
a giver of a cow the world of the sun/' (Manu Chap. IV, 229 and 231). 

The definition of a "bull's hide" has been declared by Bphas- 
pati I. 8 (Anandaj/ram edn). 

"Measuring with a rod one hasta (cubit) long (the land whose area) Is three 
hundred (such) rods long and ten broad is (called) a bull's hide. By giving this one 
is glorified in heaven. "f 

^ (See also Visnu V. 183). 

The fruit of giving house cfec. 


CCXL — Having given a house, corn, protection, shoes, 
an umbrella, a garland, an ointment, a conveyance, a tree, 
a desired thing, or a bed, he shall become extremely 
happy. — 211. 


u House " — is well-known. " Corn " — barley, wheat &c. "Pro- 
tection " — saving the frightened. " Shoes and an umbrella." " Gar- 

* 44 Any vessel or implement belonging to the furniture of a houso ; a present to 
a BrAhraana householder, a girl so given or ornaments with her, &c. M.-W." 

t This verse is attributed to Vjiddha Manu XII. 10. in ParAsara (B. S. 8. Vol. II. 
Part U. p. 3C'. But the rcadiug in the Iftst Pftda there is m^; ugwl i 

'trnfo, " an oxhide, cow's hide. A particular measure of surface (a place large 

enough for the rango of 100 cows, one bull and their calves ; or a place ten times as 
largo ; a place 300 font long by 10 broad. An extent of land sufficient to support a 
man for a year. Originally probably a piece of land large enough to be enoompassed 
by straps of leather from a cow's hide." M.-W. 


land n of malliha flower &c. " Ointment ,r — of kuftkuma:, sandal &c. 
" Conveyance "—chariots &c. u Tree " capable of maintaining one r 
euch as mangoe trees, &c. "Desired thing " — that which is pleasant 
.to one, virtue &c. "And bed" — By giving these one shall become- 
1 extremely ! excessively happy. 

Though like gold &c, virtue cannot be (physically) delivered 
into the hands (of the donee) yet (it must not be concluded> that the 
gift of virtue is impossible. It is like unto the gift of land &c. r 
(which also cannot physically be put into the hands of the donee), 
Also because the gift of virtue is declared in other Smritis.* 

" To gods, to gurus, to father and mother, with great care, virtue should be 
given. (The gift of) sin (to these) has not been mentioned anywhere.", 

By the gift of sin in the same way (the sin of the donor) 
increases as well as (the sin) of the donee (who is) moved by avarice 
&c., (to accept- the gift of sin). Because of the following Smriti : — 

" That evil-minded person who considering sin to be powerless accepts it in 
gifts, on account of this despicable conduct of his, the whole of that sin attaches 
to him in the same fold, in two thousand fold or in infinite fold as well as to the 

Here as well as everywhere according to the difference in 
place, time and recipient to the difference in the object given and to 
the difference in the donor | 

"Has been mentioned by me the fruit (obtained) in cases of gift so also in 
cases of injury. " 

and to the difference in the occupation of the donee must be under- 
stood to be the difference in the rewards of donor and donee. 

The reward of liberality (or gift) has been declared; now the 
author declares a cause which even without actual gift produces the 
fruit of gift. 

The gift of education is the highest. 


CCXIL — Because the Bralima containing all Dhar- 
mas being greater than gifts, (therefore) by its giving, 
one fully attains the region (sphere) of Brahma without 
retrogression. — 212. 

* This is attributed to Angira in Par£*ara (B. S. S.^Vol. I, Part I. p. 191.) 

| Daksa Smriti III. 27. (Auandasram Edn.) The reading there i s qptw RiSft; 
wfg *tW3f^tf* r The ^hole verse has been thus translated by M. N. Dutt. " In 
making a gift, the particular fruit multiplies, in order, in equal namber, two-fold, 
thousan dfold, and endleesly. Similar [is^the fruit] in committing Mary." 




a • 

Because " Brahma (Veda) contains all Dharmas" that is, through 
its knowledge (one knows all Dharma) therefore its gift is greater 
than all (other) gifts. Therefore * by its giving ' through the medium # 
of instruction &c., one attains the sphere of Brahma. " Without retro- 
gression "—where there is no retrogression. The sense is that he 
resides in the sphere of Brahma till the dissolution of the elements. 
Here the gift of the Veda is (termed) a gift in a metaphorical sense 
inasmuch as it merely invests another (a pupil) with a proprietary 
right (in such knowledge) (but it has not the other essential of gift, 

namely) that it is impossible to divest (the donor of his) proprietary 


Getting the fruit of gift without giving. 


CCXIII. — He who, though entitled to accept, does 
not take gifts, attains all those excellent spheres which 
the persons given to liberality attain. — 213. 


He who, being a proper recipient, does not condescend to receive 
or accept gifts like gold &c, attains all those spheres which persons 
given to liberalitj' do attain by making gift of those objects. 

The author now mentions an exception to the above rule of 
refraining from the acceptance of all sorts of gifts. 

Some gifts must always be accepted. 


CCXIV. — The kusa grass, vegetables, milk, fish, 
perfumes, flower, sour milk, land, meat, conch, seat, 
barley and water should not be refused. — 214. 



" Barley "—fried paddy, " Land " earth. 

The rest are well-known. These Kwta &c, when offered spon- 
taneously (without being asked) should not be refused. The word 
" cha " in the text includes houses &c. (Because of the following) :— 

" A conch, a houso, kusa grass, perfumes, water, flowers, jewels, soar milk, meat 
and vegetables lot him not reject." (Manu IV. 250). 

So also (Manu IV. 247) : — 
"Ho may accept from any man, perfumes [in somo texts instead of gandha (per- 
fumo) tho word « ©dho " (fuel) occurs] , water, roots, fruit, food, offered without 



asking and honoy and clariQcd buttor likewise a gift (which consists in) a promise 
of protection." 

The author now explains how it should not be refused. 

What must be accepted. 


CCXV. — Without soliciting, these should be accept- 
ed even when offered by an evil doer, except from a 
harlot, a hermaphrodite, an outcast and an enemy. — 215. 


If then the acceptance of these kusa &c, is obligatory when 
offered, without being solicited, even by evil-doers, how (much more) 
should these not be accepted when offered by righteous men (lit 
who observe the ordinances). Therefore, these should never be 
rejected : except in the cases of harlot, a hermaphrodite, an outcast 
and an enemy. 

" Harlots " (knlatd in Sanskrit) they who rove from one family 
(KulaJ to another family like Svarini &c. " Hermaphrodite n — the 
third sex. 

The author now mentions another exception to the rule refrain- 
ing from acceptance. 

An exception. 


CCXVI. — For the sake of honoring the gods and 
guests ; and for the sake of (relieving) his Gurus and 
dependents he may accept (gifts) from anybody ; as well 
as for his own maintenance. — 216. 


When it becomes necessary to honor gods and guest for their 
sake and not for his own personal use, he may accept gift from any 
body excepting the out-casts and the most abominable persons. 

" The Gurus " — father, mother &c. " Dependents "—those whom 
one is bound to maintain, wife, son, &c. 

Here ends the chapter on gifts. 

Chapter X. On Sraddhas. 

An Introduction. 

I take the following extracts from Mr. Rajakuinara Sarv&dhikari's 
Tagore Law Lectures 1880 as an introduction to this chapter on 
Sraddhas : — 

" The Rik-Veda enjoined several offerings to the shades of departed ancestors, 
and the "White Yajus distinctly hinted that, in adoring the progenitors in general, 
our three immediate ancestors should also be remembered. Gautama and Apas- 
tamba laid it down that the three immediate ancestors had a right to funeral 
oblations from their descendants, and defined the degrees of relationship within 
which the competence to perform the SrAddha ceremonies should be confined. 
Manu commanded that not only the father, the grandfather, and the great grand- 
father, are entitled to obsequial offerings, but the three ancestors beyond them 
should also partake of butter and rice from the hands of their successive children 
of children's children. Even the more remote ancestors were not forgotten. If 
their birth and family names be unknown, balls of funeral cakes cannot be presented 
to them, but libations of pure water should be given in their honour, that they too 
from whom we may have derived the least particle of blood, may be satisfied that 
they live in the minds of posterity, and are gratefully remembered as the first 
progenitors of the family. Yajnavalkya, the law-giver, pointed out that the maternal 
ancestors are equally entitled like the paternal ancestors to acts of adoration in 
the shape of Sraddhas, and the impulse given by him gained accelerated strength 
in subsequent ages, and created that elaborate system of funeral ceremonies, which 
has guided, and is still moulding, in spite of foreign influences, the national 

'* The word Sr&ddha is immediately derived from Sraddha, faith, devotion, 
veneration. The word Sr&ddha, therefore, means an act prompted by faith or vene- 
ration. Now the word Sr&ddha is derived from two Sanskrit roots : Srat, truth, 
and Dha, to hold. It signifies, accordingly, the holding of or belief in, truth. 

u This is Sraddha, the tribute of respect paid to the memory of our ancestors, 
the food offered to the manes, the solemn feast of the dead." 

"Ancestor-worship had its origin in the wilds of Central Asia, and that the 
Greeks and the Romans and the Teutonic nations carried it, with them to the coun- 
tries towards the sotting-sun, and that the followers of Ormazd and the worshippers 
of Brahma brought it with them to Iran, and the land of fivo wators." 

" Funeral rites are of throe descriptions, the initiatory, intermediate, and the 


44 The first are those which aro observed from the burning of the corpse to the 
touching of holy water, woapons, etc., and the cessation of impurity caused by the 
death of a kinsman. 

44 The intermediate ceremonies are the SrAddhas which are performed during 
the first year after death, including the Sapindikarana, or the first anniversary 

of death. J 

" The final rites are those which follow the Sapindikarapa, when the deceased 
\n admitted amongst the ancestors of his race, and the ceremonies are thenceforth 
general or ancestral. M 



" The first sot of funeral coromonies aro performed to effect by moans of obla- 
tions the ro-ombotlying of the soul of the deceased after burning his corpse. The 
intermediate rites aro intended to raise his shade from this world, whore it would 
else continue to wander among demons and evil spirits, up to the " ancestral region,' 1 
and there deify him as it were among the manes of departed ancestors. For this 
end, a 6'rfiddha should bo offered to the deceased on the day after mourning expires; 
twelve other Srftddhas singly to the deceased in twelvo successive months ; similar 
obsequies should be performed at the end of the third fortnight, and also before the 
expiration of the sixth month, and the oxequial rites Sapindikarana, on the first 
anniversary of death, complete the number sixteen of the intermediate SrSddhas, 
whose apparent scope is to raise the shade of the deceased to heaven. When the 
intermediate ceremonies are finished, the deceased, as we observed before, takes his 
proper place in the ancestral region of eternal region of eternal bliss among his 
ancestors, and is for ever free from the woe, misery, and evils, incident to human 
nature.* ' 


Now the chapter on ^raddha (funeral oblations) is commenced. 

^raddha is defined to be the renunciation (gift) with faith 
(rfraddha) with regard to the departed, of eatables or anything equi- 
valent to them. 

It is again of two sorts, Parvana and Ekoddista. Here that 
which is performed in honour of three ascendants (ancestors) is 
Parvana l^raddha. That which is performed in honor of one ancestor 
is Ekoddista (lit. in view of one.) 

It is again of three sorts, viz., Nitya (obligatory), Naimittika 
(occasional) and Kamya (desire-accomplishing). Here Nitya is that 
^raddha which is ordained to be performed on the happening of 
(a fixed and) a certain event, such as every day, on new-moon day, on 
the Asiaka days, &c. Naimittika ^raddha is that which is ordained 
to be performed on the happening of an uncertain event, such as 
on the birth of a son, and the like. Kamya ^raddha is that which 
is prescribed in order to accomplish certain desired object, such as 
with the desire of attaining heaven to perform Sraddha when the 
moon is in the Krittika asterism, &c. 

It is again of five kinds : — (1) Daily $raddha, (2) Parvana, 
SSrAddha (3) Vriddhi ^raddha, (4) Ekoddista ^raddha and (5) Sapin- 
dikarana $r&ddha. 

As to the daily ^raddha that has been ordained by the text 
"Food should be given daily to manes, &c," (vide ante v. 104.) 
So also MAN U (III. 82):— 

" Let him daily perform a funeral sacrifice (sr&ddha) with food or with water or 
also with milk, roots, and fruits and (thus give) in exhaustible satisfaction to the 

. The times of S'raddha. • 



Now the author, desirous of describing the Parvana and the 
Vriddhi Sraddha, (first) declares their (proper) times : 


CCXVII. — -The new moon's day, the Astaka, the 
Vriddhi, the dark fortnight, the two solstices, getting 
(the particularly suitable) materials and the worthy 
Brahmanas, the (two) equinoxes ; and the passage of the 
sun (from one sign of the zodiac to another). — 217, 

CCXVI1I. — The Vyatipata yoga, the gaj achchhaya, 
the eclipses of the sun and the moon, and whenever 
the performer of Sraddha feels so inclined — these are 
declared to be the times for performing Sraddha. — 218. , 



The day (or period) during which the moon is not visible is 
called the " new moons " day. If this period extends over two days, 
then that day, the afternoon of which is covered by such period, 
is to be taken. Because of the text : — 

" The after-noon is (the period sacred) to the manes." 

A day being divided into five (equal) parts, the fourth is called 
the after-noon, (whose period) is of three muhfirtas (two hours and 
24 minutes, or 3 x 48=144 minutes.) 

" Asfcakas " (the eighth days of the moon) are four in number. 
They have been described by A^WALAYANA. 

" On the eighth days of the four dark-fortnights of (the two seasons of) winter 
and Sisira the Astak&s (are celebrated) " (II Adhy&ya 4, Kandika v. 1 of Aswalftyana 
Gfihya Sdtra.) 

" Vriddhi" (on occasions of rejoicing) — such, as the the birth of 
a son, &c. " Dark fortnight " — (also called) apara pak$a, the waning 
of the moon. " The two solstices " — called the southern and 
the northern solstice, (the tropics of Capricorn and Cancer) : 
the turning points of the Sun from the extreme south and the extreme 
north. "Materials" — dainties like the flesh of black antelope, &c. 
" Worthy Brahmanas " — as will be described later on. " The two 
equinoxes " — the passage of the sun through the (first points of 
Aries and the Libra are equinoxes.) " The Safikranti or the passage 
of the sun " — the time of the going of the sun from one sign of 
the zodiac to another sign. Though the 'solstices' and the equinoxes 
are (also) days of Safikranti when the sun passes from one sign 


to another, and so are included in the general term the " SaiikrSnti " 
yet their separate mention is for the sake of indicating that (special 
and) greater merit accrues (on the performance of t$raddha on those 
four particular Safikrantis). " Vyatipata a special kind of yoga 
(conjunction of the moon with one of the twenty-seven constellations 
through which it revolves.)* 

" Gajachchhaya " (lit, elephant's shadow) is defined by the 
following verse : — 

"When the moon is in the asterism presided over by the Pitris (called Maglid) 
and at the same time the Divine Swan (sun) is in the asterism of Hastd and that tithi 
happens to be the thirteenth day of the dark fortnight sacred to the god Yama, it is 
known as Gajachchhaya." 

This tithi is called yamya, Vai^ravani or Vaivasvatf . Some say 
it means the elephant's shadow in its literal sense, viz. y the eastern 
quarter where the shadow of the elephants of the quarter falls. But 
that is not the sense here as the latter sense would make the passage 
refer to a locality, and so would be incongruous in relation to 
the context (where times are enumerated.) 

"Eclipse" — the observation of the sun and moon. 
That also is a proper time when the performer of a Sraddha 
feels inclined to do so. The word " cha " in the text includes 
the anniversaries of the beginning of a yuga, &c. All the above are 
the (proper) times for (the performance of) a Sraddha. Though 
the text " Let him not eat during the eclipse of the sun or moon " 
forbids the taking of food (at such times), yet (it does not show that 
riraddha should not be performed at such times, but it only shows 
that) the eater (at such a sraddha) incurs guilt, while the giver 
thereof acquires merit. 

The Brahmawas to be invited in the Sraddhas. 

The author now describes the ' worthy Brahmanas ' (who are 
to be feasted at) the four kinds of Sraddhas (the daily sraddha being 
excluded), to be described later on. 


CCXIX. — The most learned in all the Vedas, the 
&rotriya, the knower of Brahman, the youth, the knower 
of the meaning of the Vedas, of the jyesthasama, of the 
Trimadhu, and the Trisupamika. — 219. 

* " The day of new moon (when it falls on Ravi-v&ra or Sunday, and when 
the moon is in certain Naksatras.)" M-W. > 



" In all the Vedas," — in the Rigveda&c. He who, without inatten- 
tiveness of mind, is capable of studying with constancy is the most 
learned or agryah. ^rotriya — versed in the study and recital (of 
the Vedas). He who knows the Brahman, (whose attributes will be) 
described later on, is a knower of Brahman, " The youth/' — middle 
aged. This attribute applies to all (the above-mentioned persons). 
He who knows the meaning of the mantras and the Brahmarias of 
the Veda is a " knower of the meaning of the Veda." Jyesthasama 
is a portion of the Sama Veda. He who has taken the vow of 
its study and studies it with the observance of that vow is 
a Jyesthas&ma. " Trimadhu " — is a portion of the Rig- Veda 
(I. 90. 6-8). He who has taken its vow and studies it with tlie 
observance of that vow is a Trimadhu. " Trisuparna n is a portion 
of the Rig and Yajur Veda (Rig Veda X, 114, 3-5). He who has taken 
its vow and studies it with the observance of that vow is a 

The predicate mentioned later on (in verse 221) i.e., " these are 
the Brahmanas who give success to a ^raddha " is understood 
here also, 


GCXX. — The nephew, the Ritwij, the son-in-law, 
a man for whom one offers sacrifices, the father-in-law, 
the maternal uncle, the Trinachiketa, the daughter's 
son, the pupil, a relation and a bandhu (a cognate 
kinsman). — 220, 


tf Nephew "—sister's son. " Ritwij "—as has been described 
above, i.e., one's own officiating priest. " Son-in-law "—Daughter's 
husband. " Trinachiketa " — a portion of the Yajur Veda. He who 
has taken its vow and studies it with the observance of that vow is a 
Trinachiketa. The rest are well-known and these are to be understood 
(as persons fit to be feasted in a ^raddhaj in case the first-mentioned 
persons " the most learned " and " fWriyas "#c, are not available, 
Because Manu (III, 147; having premised, "This is the chief rule (to 
bo followed) in offering sacrifices to the gods and manes, known that 
the virtuous always observe the following subsidiary rule " mentions 
the eieter's son and the rest (in the category of subsidiary persons in. 



the next verse (III. 148,) and, therefore, they are inferior to the 
first-mentioned persons (Srotriya &c.) 

Translator's note : Compare Manu III. 184—188, So also 149, 145 and 284, and 
148. , "' As a girl is given in marriage to a person nob belonging to tho same Gotra 
nnd Pravara, so tho Srftddha feast should bo givon to such a person." Kurma 
Pur&na quoted by B&Iambhatta. 


CCXXI. — Those who are devoted to (the perfor- 
mance of) sacred rites, and those who are devoted to 
(the performance of) austerities — the Panchagni, the 
Brahmachari, and those who are devoted to their fathers 
and mothers — are the Brahmanas (who give) Success to 
a Skaddha.— 221. 


" Devoted to sacred rites " — versed in the performance of the 
ordained ceremonies* " Devoted to austerities " — devoted to the 
performance of austerities. " The Panchagni " — He who has kept 
the two fires known as Sabhya or the fire for cooking and heating, 
and a vasathya the fire for domestic rites as well as the three firea 
(called Garhapatya, Daksinagni and AhavaniyaJ. And (it also means) 
one who has studied the Panchagni vidya (taught in the Chh&ndogya 
Upanisad IV. 10.) 

The " Brahmachdri " includes both the temporary and the 
professed (life-long students). " Devoted to father and mothers 
devoted to their service. 

The word " cha " " and," in the text implies " those who are 
devoted to knowledge " &c, (as mentioned in Manu III. 134 to 137.) 

" Brahmanas " — not K§atriyas &c. 

" Success te a ^raddha " — In the ^raddhas they cause success 
in the shape of exhaustless reward.* 

The Brdhmaxtas to be avoided. 

The author now mentions those persons who ought to be 
avoided in f^raddha. 


CCXXII. — The diseased, one having less or more 
limbs, the one-eyed, the son of a re-married woman as 

* Translator s note Compare Apastamba II. 17. 6-6 ; and Visrm Purana 
III. 15. 1-17. The Ritvij Ac, should be fed in the Vaisvadeva Srddhha, but not in the 
Sriddhain honor of the Pitris. See also Matsya Pur4na (Sacred Books of the 
Hindus) Chap. XVI. 7-13. 



well, one who has broken the vow of studentship, son 
of an adultress (Kunda), the son of a widow (Golaka) a 
man with deformed nails and one with black teeth. — 


" The diseased " — one afflicted with a mortal disease. He who 
has a limb less than or in excess of those of others is " one 
having less or more limbs." He who sees with only one eye is 
called " one-eyed." By this is also excluded the blind, the deaf, the 
impotent, the bald-headed, one afflicted with a skin disease and the 
rest. The son of a Punarbhfi who has already been described above 
(see verse 67) is called a Paunarbhava or the son of a re-married 
woman. .He who, being a Brahmachari (student), has fallen from the 
vow of chastity, is an avahirni one who has broken the vow of student- 
ship. "Kunda and Golaka" — Have been defined (by the following 
verse of (Manu III. 174). 


" Two (kinds of) sons, a Kunda and a Golaka, are born by wives of other men, 
(ho who is born) while the husband lives will be a Kunda, and (he who is begotten) 
after the husband's death, a Golaka." 

" A man with deformed nails " — one whose nails are crooked. 
" Black teeth " — one whose teeth are naturally black. The phrase 
" these are censured in ^raddha " is to be supplied from the subse- 
quent verse (224). 


CCXXIII. — He who teaches for a stipulated fee, 
a eunuch, the reviler of maidens, he who is accused of 
a mortal sin (the Abhisastaka), the betrayer of a friend, 
the informer, the seller of soma, and a parivindaka. — 


He who teaches by taking salary is one " who teaches for a 
stipulated fee." It includes him also who learns by paying fee. 

" Eunuch" — hermaphrodite. He who slanders a maiden with 
a true or falso accusation is "a reviler of maidens." He who is 
accused of crimes like the murder of Br/lhmanas &c, whether truly 
or falsely, is an abhiffasta (one accused of a mortal sin). "The be- 
trayer of a friend" — one who commits treachery towards his friend. 
" The informer" is one who is addicted to the publication of the 



faults of others. " The seller of soma" — who sells soma in a sacri- 
fice. Parivindaka — also called parivetta- That younger brother 
who marries or kindles the sacred fire while the elder brother has 
not yet married or kindled the sacred fire is called a parivettd. The 
elder brother is parivetti. As says (Manu III. 171) : — 

"Ho must bo considered as a Parivetta who marries or begins the performance 
of tho Agnihotra before his elder brother, bub, tho latter as a Parivetti." 

Similarly the giver (of the girl in such marriage) and the 
sacrificing priest (ought to be excluded). Because of the following 
text (of Manu III. 172). 

" The elder brother who marries after the younger (Parivetti), the younger 
brother who marries before the elder (parivetta) ; the female with whom such a 
marriage is contracted, he who gives her away and the sacrificing priest as the fifth 
all fall into hell." 


CCXXIV. — He who forsakes his mother, father, 
or Guru, he who eats the food given by the son of an 
adultress, the son of an infidel, the husband of a 
parapurva (re-married woman), the thief and evil-doers 
are censured. — 244. 


Without a (sufficient) reason, he who forsakes his mother, 
father or Guru is ' he who forsakes his mother, father and guru 
(spiritual guide).' 

Similarly the forsaker of wife and son also (is excluded) as says 
a well-known text (Manu. XL 11) : — 

" The old father and mother, the chaste wife and the infant son must be main- 
tained even by committing hundred wrongful acts, such has been declared by 

He who eats (asndti), the food given by a Kunda is called a 
kunda^i or who eats the food given by the son of an adultress. This also 
applies to (the eater of the food given by) Golaha (the son begotten 
of a widow). Because of the text : — " He who eats the food given 
by those two (Kunda and Golaka) is called kunda^i." 

The " infidel" is one who has no religion, his son is i the son of 
an infidel.' Parapfirv& also called punarbhfl or a re-married widow; 
her husband is called the para-purva-pati, the husband of a re- 
married woman. " Thief — he who appropriates a thing not given 
to him. "Evil-doer" — he who acts against the precepts of the sacred 
institutes. By the use of the word " cha," " and" in the text are in- 



eluded the gambler, the temple-priests and the rest. These are 
"censured " or prohibited in ^raddha. 

Though by the texts "the most learned in the Vedas &c.," 
(V. 219) the author merely by declaring the Brahmanas worthy (to be 
entertained) at a $raddha has by (implication) proved, the unworthi- 
ness of those who are excluded from the former (enumeration), yet 
the (special) prohibition of certain persons afflicted with disease &c, 
has been ordained, in order to make it permissive, in case the above 
described (worthy) Brahmanas be not available, (to entertain any other 


Brahmanas who are free from the (latter mentioned) defects*. 

The Pdrvana Srdddha. 
The author having described the times of Sr&ddha and the 
Brahmanas (fit to be invited therein), now proceeds to describe (the 
ritual for performing) the ceremony of the Parvana $r&ddha. 


CCXXV. — Being self-possessed, and pure, let him 
invite on the day before, the Brahmanas. They also 
should remain self-restrained with regard to mind, 
speech and deed. — 225. 


Let him invite on the day before (the ^raddha rite is performed) 
the Brahmanas (such as have been) mentioned above (by saying) 
" Deign to devote a moment to the ^raddha" and by solicitations let 
him make them accept the invitation. 

Or on the day (when the Sraddha takes place he may invite). 
As ordained by (Manu III. 187) :— 

" On the day before the Sr&ddha-rite is performed, or on the day when it takes 
place, let him invite with due respect, at least three Br&hmanas such as have been 
mentioned above." 

" Self-possessed 1 5 — Being free from grief, excitement &c, (and 
so who) is without defect. Or he is self-possessed who has controlled 
his senses. " Pure "—and self-subdued. " They also the invited 
Br&hmanas should remain self -restrained or self-controlled with regard 
to the actions of the mind, speech and body. 


. CCXXVI. — In the afternoon (the sacrificer) being 
clean-handed, having duly honoured with welcome those 

* Translator's note— Compare Manu III. 150—182. Matsya Parana XVI. 14—17. 
(Sacred Book* of tho Hindus Vol. XVII. Part I p. 50.) 


• — — ■ ■ — ■ ■■ - ■ ■ ■ ■ — — ■ -- ■ ■ ■ - -■ 1 i 

Brahmanas). who have arrived and have sipped water 
shall make them sit down on seats. — 226. 


In the ' afternoon ' which has been already defined (the sacri— 
licer) having called those invited Brahmanas and having honored 
them with welcome words, having washed their feet and making them 
sip water, shall (himself being) clean-handed, cause (those) clean- 
handed (Brahmanas) to sit down on prepared seats. Though this has 
been said of an afternoon in general yet it is better (if the ceremony) 
be completely finished during the five muhfirtas* that follow the 
commencement of Kutapa. Because of the following text : — 

"In a day (of 12 hours) there are always fifteen well-known muhflrtas, 01 
them that which is the eighth muhflrta is the period called Kutapa. 

"Because at mid-day the sun's (progress in the heavens) becomes slow, 
therefore it is specially said that endless reward is obtained by commencing at 
that time. 

" These four muhfirtas which follow the Kutapa (together with the Kutapa) 
constitute the five muhfirtas sacred to the Sraddha (manes)." 

So also in another place the term Kutapa is used to designate 
certain accessories of Sraddha. 

u The noon, the vessel of rhinoceros horn and the blanket of Nepalese wool, 
the silver, the fcusa grass, the sesamum, the cows and the eighth is said the daughter's 

" Because these eight destroy (tapa), sin which is also called fcu, therefore 
these are renowned as Kutapa (Sin-killers)." 


CCXXVIL— In Daiva (Sraddha) an even number, 

according to one's ability and so in Pitriya Sraddha an 

uneven number. In a strewn and pure place sloping 

towards the south. — 227. 


In a " Daiva f^r&ddha" i.e., in a ^r&ddha on auspicious occasions 
of (rejoicing &c.,) Vriddhi let him seat even, equal number of Brah- 
mans. How many? "According to one's ability "not surpassing 
one's means. Thus in VaisVadeva sacrifice two, two Brahmanas for 
every one of the three ancestors mother and the rest {i.e., paternal 
grandmother and paternal great grandmother. Two Brahmanas or 
two for all these of them. So also for every one of the (three 
ancestors) father and the rest {i.e., grandfather and great grand- 
father) two Brahmanas or two for all three of them. So also for 

* A muhftrta=*48 minutes. — 



(the three ancestors) maternal grandfather and rest {i.e., maternal 
great grandfather). Or even for the whole three groups (of the 
threes) {i.e. y the father, the mother and the maternal grandfather) 
the Vaisvadeva may be common. 

"Pitriya &addha."— In Parvana ^raddha " odd " or unequal 
(number of Brahmanas). The phrase (let him seat) is understood. 
And this ought to be done in a place which is ' strewn ' or totally 
covered, which is ' pure ' by being smeared with cow dung &c, and 
which slopes towards the south or includes towards the south. 


CCXXVIIL— Two (Brahmanas) in the Daiva 
(&raddha) facing east, three in the Pitriya facing west 
or one only in each. For the maternal grandfathers 
the same, the Visva Deva (worship) may be common. — 


" Two in the Daiva "—In the " Daiva " or Vi^vadeva i^raddha 
" two " Brahmanas ought to be seated facing the east. The author 
having already mentioned generally that " an uneven number of 
Brahmanas in the Pitriya Sraddha " now specifically declares (the 
number). " Three in the Pitriya." — Three Brahmanas ought to be 
seated facing the west in place of (representing the) father and the 
rest. The author also mentions an alternative by declaring 11 or one 
only on each," that is, he may seat one Brahmana each in a Vaisva- 
deva and in Pitriya ^raddha. This alternative applies in cases where 
it is otherwise possible to do. 

" For the maternal grandfathers, the same." (The rule) 
of invitation &c, in the Sraddha is the same viz. , two in the Daiva, 
facing east, three in the Pitriya facing west or one only in each &c. 
All this should be done (for the maternal grandfathers) in the same 
way as in the Paternal ^rftddha. In the Sraddha of the paternal 
ancestors and in the i^raddha of the maternal ancestors the Vidvadeva 
worship may be performed by common. 

" The word w common " (tantra)* denotes totality." 

* Translator's note.— Tho word used in tho toxt as well as in the commentary 
is "tantra" translated roughly by tho word common. The word tantra however, 
as horo used has a vory technical moaning. For a complete explanation of the tern* 
PQrva Mim&msa Adhyftya 5 Chap. II Sfttra IS et. seq. and the eleventh book of the 
same may bo consulted. A shorfc explanation is however given here* In a sacrifice 
called N&n&blyaisti a variety of seeds is ordained to be pounded. This pounding 



When two Brahmanas only aro available, then in VaWvadeva 
worship a vessel may be set apart (containing all the edibles) while 
one Brahmana each may be appointed for the other two. As said 
Vasistha (VIII. 30-31). 

"But how can tho oblation to tho gods (Daiva) bo made if ho feeds a single 
Brahmana at a funeral sacrifice ? Lot him take (a portion) of each (kind of) food 
that has been prepared and put it into a vessel. 

"Let him place it in tho sanctuary of a god and afterwards continue (tho 
performance of) the funoral sacrifices. Lot him offer that food in tho fire or givo 
it (as alms) to a student." 

The Parvayta tirdddha — (contd.) 
The Visvedeva &rdddha. 


CCXXIX. — Having given water to wash the hands, 
and Kusa seats for sitting, having obtained (their) per- 
mission, let him invoke with the rik (beginning with) 
visve devdsah (R. V. II. 4. 41). — 229. 



After this, for the purpose of Vaisvadeva worship he should 
give water into the hands of Brahmanas and give them KutJa-seats 
two, joined together with their corners bent and in a place facing 
the south. Then he should ask the Brahmanas' permission by saying 
" may I invoke the Vi^vadevas. They should permit him by saying 
" Invoke." He should then invoke them (gods) by the Rik begin- 
ning with "Vi^vadevasa agata &c.," and with the Smarta hymn begin- 
ning with " agachchhanti Mahabhaga &c." 

' ■ ■ ■ I II II ■ Ml I . .. . - ^^^^^^^^^^ ^ ^ — ^ _ 

can bo done in 2 days, first pounding each variety of seed in a separate mortar, thus 
if there be four varieties of seeds then 4 mortars will be required. The method of 
performing the same action is by pounding all the seeds together in one mortar 
when the seeds may be pounded in one mortar and when they must be pounded in 
separate mortars and what are the different fruits of each method may become very 
vital questions for a practical sacrificer. As for a practical chemist it may become 
a very important question to know whether in preparing a certain compound 
he is to combine all the ingredients at once and then to apply the chemical action 
upon them in common, such as heating, electrifying, melting, etc., or he is to first pre- 
pare chemically all the ingredients separately then to mix such already chemically 
prepared ingredients. When "a certain action is only once performed and its 
effect is as it were stored up " such an operation is called Tantra such as pounding 
all the grain seeds in one mortar. u tf^ fam$% q^\*j*m%\ 3i ^rxmiri'^ af^a^^i <\%wt 

W nfi WFftH! i Jaiminiya Nyayamala vistara, XI, 1. 7, 




In this (Vaisiva Deva Sraddha) the sacred thread should be 
worn on the left shoulder (passing under armpit of the right hand) 
and circumambulation (of the united Brahmanas) should be made by 
keeping them towards his right hand. Because of the special text 
(verse 232) that in the Pitriya (Sraddha) the thread should be worn on 
the right shoulder and circumambulating by keeping on the left." 


CCXXX, — Then having strewn barley and ponred 
water in a vessel containing the purifier with the 
mantra $anno devi (R. V. X. 9. 4) and barley grains 
with the mantra " Yavosit " etc. — 230. 

CCXXXI(a). — -He should place the arghya in their 

hands with the mantra Yadivya &c, — 231(a). 


Then for the Vai^vadeva Sraddha he should strew the ground 
all around the Brahmanas with barley grains by circumambulating 
from right. Then afterwards in a * vessel 1 of metal &c, containing 
the " purified " i.e., which has two Ku^a blades he should sprinkle 
water with the Rik beginning with ^annodevi rabhistaya &c." (R.V.X. 

Then with the mantra " yavosi dh&nya rajosi &c," (Vi. Smj\ 
XLVIIL 17* ; Baudhayana III. 6-5f) he should scatter on that vessel 
barley grains together with perfumes and flowers. 

Afterwards he should pour arghya water on the hands of the 
Brahmanas which contain Ku&i-blades and arghya vessel reciting 
the mantras " yadivya apah payas " &c„ (Taittirjya Brahmana, U. 7, 
15.) and " VisSvedeva idam vo' rghyam.' &c: 


CCXXXI & CCXXXIL— Having given water, 

perfumes, garland, and the gift of incense together with 

a lamp. So also the gift of a garment and water iov 

washing the hand, — 231 & 232. 


Then " having given water " to wash hands let him make gift; 

in their proper order of scent and flowers, incense and a lamp. So 

tilso the gift of a garment must be made. 

■ ■ ■ 

* Jolly's Edition p. 108, 
| Hultz's „ p. 89. 
Mysore „ p. 331, 


For particulars of tho perfumes &c, the other law books (Smri- 
tis) may be consulted as ordained in Viflnu (LXX1X.) 

" IIo may givo sandal, saffron, camphor, also wood or Padmaka wood instead ot 
an ointmcnt. ,, 

And of flowers the following have been ordained : — 

"In 6'rfiddha tho flowors called Jdti, mallikd, white yxtthikd aro praised. So 
also all flowors that grow in water and the champaka flower."* 

The following flowers should be avoided : — 

" Flowers having nasty odours or no odour at all or those that grow on old 
trees (sacred to some tutelary deity) and all flowers that have blood-red color should 
be discarded." 

[Saiikha Smriti XIV. 15 (Anand&srama, p. 386).] 

(In connection with the above the following rule should also 
be) observed : — 

" He must not give flowers, grown on thorny plants. He may give white and 
sweet-smelling flowers though grown on thorny plants. (He must not give) red* 
But though red he may give saffron and aquatic flowers." (Visnu LXX1X. 9 and 10). 

The particulars regarding incense has also been described by 
Visnu (LXXIX. 9 and 10) :— 

"He must not give any products or member of animals instead of incense. 
He may give bdellium mixed up with honey and clarified butter, Sandal, aloe* 
wood, deodar wood and Savala &c." 

Saftkhaj has described the particulars about the lamp :— 

"The lamp should be given (fully) with clarified butter otherwise with 
sesamum oil. But let him carefully avoid the lamp containing fat or marrow. 

" The garment— Let him give white garment which is new, not 
torn and whose both ends are intact. 5 ' All these ceremonial works 
in a VaisSvadeva worship should be performed facing the west. 

The Pitfiya ceremonial should be performed facing the south. 
As said Vriddha SatatapaJ : — 

"He should give (oblation &c.) in that of Gods, facing west, in that of Fathers, 
facing, south. In Parvana Sraddha all ceremonies must be preceded by sacrifice to 

Gods according to Law." > 

{Parvana Srdddha). 
Pitriya Srdddha. 


CCXXXII. (Continued)— Then having done the 
Apasayya and (performed) eircumambulation of the Pitris 
(Fathers) to the left.— 232. 

* This verse with a slightly different reading occurs also in Parasara Mfidhava 
(B. S. S. Vol. I part II. p. 393). There it is assigned to the Markantleya Purana. Bub 
the Editor in a footnote remarks that it is not found in that Purana. 

t XIV. 17 (Anandasram p. 387. But the reading is a little different) 

t Not found in any printed edition. 



OOXXXIII. — Having given doubled kusa blades, 
having invoked the Pitris with the rih usantastu &c, 
with their permission let him then mutter " Ayantunali." 
—233. » 


(So far the ceremony of Vai^vadeva-Kanda has been described). 
Then after the Vai^vadeva-Kanda, (he should place the sacred thread) 
€ apasavya 9 i. e., he should wear the sacrificial cord in the manner 
called prdchindvita (suspending the cord over the right shoulder). 

By saying ' then ' the author here indicates that the ceremony 
is to be performed according to Kanda samaya method. 

For the three ancestors, viz., the father and the rest, he should 
first give water to (the Brahmanas) and then give uneven kusla blades 
(double-folded) and circumambulating from the left, i.e., beginning 
from the left hand side, he should place seats for their accommodation 
and then he should again give water. Because (of the following text 
of) A^valayana (IV. 7. 7) :— 

"Having given water to the Brahmanas." 

" Having given to them double-folded Darbha blades and a seat." 
" Having again given water to them." 

This giving of water to the Brahmanas twice viz., in the begin- 
ning (and) in the end both in the Vai^vadeva and the Pitriya $rad- 
dhas is to be understood to have been ordained for the performance 
of one ritual act for all objects in orderly succession before performing 
another act for all objects in the same order. 

Then having asked the Brahmanas " I shall invoke the fathers, 
grandfathers and great grandfathers " and being permitted (by 
them) by saying " you may invoke ; " then having invoked the fore- 
fathers and the rest by the Rik " Usantastva nidhimahi &c," (R. V. 
X. 16. 12) he should contemplate them by the mantra " Ayantunah 
Pitarah &c. n 


CCXXXIY. — Having scattered sesamum all round 
(with the mantra) ' apahata the purpose of barley 
should be served by sesamum, (all the other) oblations 
&c., should be done as before. — 234. 

CCXXXV. — Having given arghya water, having 
collected their dripplings in a vessel according to pro- 


per method, he turns, the vessel downwards with the 
mantra Pitribhya Sthanamasi. — 235. 


" The purpose of barley " — the things that are to be performed 
by barley such as scattering &c, should be done by sesamum (i.e., 
the latter should be substituted for barley). Then he should do the 
other oblations &c., such as beginning with the putting or laying 
down of the vessel and ending with covering it, as before. The 
detail in this is as follows : — 

1 The sesamum should be scattered around the Brahmanas from 
the left side beginning with the mantra. 

" The Asuras and the Raksasas are driven away &c. (apahata)."** 

He should pour water in three vessels of silver &c, within which 
are thrown ktirchas (bunches) made of uneven Ku&t-blades with the 
mantra " ^annodevi &c." t Then with the mantra " Tilosisoma. 
Daivatya &c." (Arfvalayana Grihya Sutras IV. 7. 8)4, he should 
throw sesamum, flowers and sandal. Then placing the arghya vessels 
before the Brahmanas reciting " Svadha Arghya " and finishing with 
the mantra " YadivyS, &c." let him pour arghya water into the hands 
of the Brahmanas saying : — " Father ! this is thy arghya, grandfather ! 
this is thy arghya, great grandfather ! this is thy arghya." 

In this case also three vessels should be placed one for each or 
one for every two. 

Having thus given arghya water " the drippings of those arghya" 
i.e., the arghya waters that have dropped from the hands of the Brah- 
manas should be collected in the vessel sacred to Pitris. 

Having placed on the ground a kuria-figure facing the south 
he should upset over it that vessel (containing the drippings) turned 
downwards with the mantra. " Pitribhya sthanamasi." § 

He should place over it arghya vessels and the strainers. Then 
let him offer (to the* Brahmanas) perfumes, flowers, incense, lights 

* V&jasaneyi Samhita II. 29 ; Asvalayana Srauta Sfltra II. 69. 

t For luck and help the divine waters &c. R. V. X. 9. 4. Consult the Daily 
Practice of the Hindus. S. B. H. XX. 

{" Sesamum art thou, Soma is thy deity at the Gosava sacrifice, thou hast 
been created by the Gods. By the ancients thou hast been offered. Through the 
funeral oblations render the fathers and these worlds propitious to us. Swadha 
adoration." S. B. E. Vol. XXIX. pp. 251—252. 

§ This mantra occurs also in Brihat Par&sara Saruhita V. 203. 


and clothes, with the formulas " Father, this is thy perfume. Father, 
this is thy flower etc." 


CCXXXVI. — Having taken food besmeared with ghee 
and desirous of offering it in the fire he asks and 
on being permitted by being said " Do offer," he should 
sacrifice into the fire as in Pitriyajna.— 236. 

CCXXXVIL— The remainings of the sacrifice he 
should place with attention into vessels procured accord- 
ing to his means particularly in silver. — 237. 


Afterwards taking food besmeared or annointed with ghee and 
desirous of offering it in fire let him ask the Brahmanas. " I will 
offer it in fire." The ghee is specified in order to exclude pulses, 
vegetables, pot herbs, &c. 

Then being permitted by them by (the word) " offer it M he 
should, placing the sacred thread on the right shoulder and establish- 
ing the fire taking up the food with the ladle, offer it into the fire by 
proper sacrificial method of avaddna 0 (sacrificial portions) repeating 
the mantras :— (A. V. XVIIL4-72 and 71) :— * 

" To Soma with the Pitris, Svadha, adoration. To Agni Kavyav&hana, svadhd 
adoration." f 

He should, having offered oblations, according to the ritual, the 
Pinda pitriyajna, place the remainder of the oblations cleansing the 
ladle in vessels of the Pitris procured according to one's means 
especially in silver ones but never in earthenware vessels. Nor 
(should he place the remnant) in the VaWvadeva vessels. 

" With attention "—with concentration of mind. 

Here in Parvana draddha which is (a portion or sub-division) 
included in Pindapitriyajna though by saying " in Fire M no special 
(fire) is indicated yet for a person who keeps the sacred fire, the homa 
is to be offered in the Daksina fire when there is properly consecrated 
Daksina fire, this rule being applicable in the case of a person who 
has completely established fire (Sarvadhana) and when there is an 

* " Cutting or dividing into pieces ; a part, portion." M.-W. 

t 41 To Soma connected with the Fathors Hail 1 and homage ! 
" To Agni, bearer of oblation to tho Manes, bo hail ! and homage/ 1 (Griffiths). 
" To Soma with the Fathers [be] svadha [and] homago, 
N To Agni, carrier of the kavyas, [bo] Svadha [and] homage.*' (Whitney). 


absence of aupnsana or nuptial's Firo (fire kindled at wedding and 
kept permanently.) 

Because the text 11 the householder should daily perform the 
emfirta works in nuptial fire " {Vide supra. V. 97), shows an exception 
to this rule (which is one of general applicability). As also said Mar- 
kandeya : — 

" The person who keeps sacred fire should offer oblations into the Daksin& fire 
with caro. The person who does not keep sacrod fire should offer in the aupdsana 
Fire, or in the absence of firo (he should oiler oblation) into the twice-born (Br&h- 
manas) or in water." 

For a person who has half established fire (ardhadhana), the 
homa is to be performed in aupasana (nuptial) Fire which (as a matter 
of course) exists for a person who keeps sacred fire ; (so also) for a 
person who does not keep sacred fire (it must still be done) in au- 
pasana (nuptial or domestic) fire only. 

So also in the three rites of anvastaka * &c, the ceremonial 
observances of Pinda pitriyajna must be followed. 

In the four rites of kamya &c, the homa is to be made on the 
hand of the Brahmanas (and not in fire) as said the authors of the 
Griha sutras : — 

" The anvastakya, the Purvedyu (the previous day), the monthly, and the 
P&rvana Sraddhas, the kamya sraddhas performed for the attainment of some 
desired object (kamya), the Sraddha performed on auspicious occasions (abhyudaya), 
the sraddha on the astami (eighth day of the moon) and the Ekkoddista sr&ddha are 
the eight (kinds of sraddhas). In the first four of these the homa is ordained for 
those who keep fire, to be in fire, the latter four the homa is in the hands of Pitrya- 
Brahmanas (the Brahmanas representing the Fathers.) " 

The meaning of the above is this : — 
The (rule of) astaka is (thus) ordained : — 

11 On the eighth days of the four dark fortnights of the two seasons of winter 
and Sisira the astakas are celebrated." (Asvalayana II) 

In this (the. Sraddha performed) on the ninth day (of the moon, 
i.e., on the day following the astaka) is called " anvastakya " (that 
which is performed) on the seventh day (of the moon) is (< Pfirvedyu " 
or the Sraddha performed on the day preceding the astaka. 

'-Monthly." — The sraddha ordained to be performed according 
to the ritual of the anvastakya on the fifth day of the moon or on 
any other day of the dark fortnight. 

* " The ninth day in the latter half of the three (or four) months following 
the full moon in Agrahayana, Pausa, Magha (and Phalguna)." M>W. 

Anvastakya "A Sraddha or funeral ceremony performed on the anvastaka 11 



" Parvana." — is that ifraddha which is ordained to be performed 
after the Pinda pitriyajna on the new moon day. 

" Kamya " is that ^raddha which is ordained to be performed 
on the day when the moon is in the asterism of krittika &c, with the 
object of attaining heaven, &c. 

" Abhyudaya." — ^raddha is that which is ordained to be 
performed on the occasion of the birth of a son or a grandson or of 
digging of a tank, of planting a garden, or consecrating (an image of 
any) deity. 

" Astami " ^raddha is the same as Astaka. 

" Ekoddista*" — Here by the word Ekoddista, sapinda karana is 
indicated, because in the latter Ekkoddista is also present (or is per- 
formed). It does not mean the ^raddha of Parvana only, for though 
it is direct Ekkoddista, yet that (Sapindikarana) is absent there. 

Or according to the opinion of the commentator on Grihya 
Siltras it may mean even the direct Ekkoddista, because in the direct 
Ekkoddista also the offering of homa is on the hand. 

Of these eight ceremonies in the first four (i. e. y Anvasfcakya, 
Pfirvedyu, monthly, and Parvana) the homa (is to be offered) in fire 
by a person who keeps sacred fire> In the latter four ceremonies the 
homa is offered on the hand of the Pitrya Brahmana, so also of a per- 
son who does not keep sacred fire and also of that person (twice-born, 
whose father is dead) the homa is on the hand (according to the text 
"of a twice-born whose father is dead, the Parvana is always") and of 
the text*: — 

u The twice-born whoso father being dead does not offer monthly Sr&ddhas od 
the waning of the moon becomes liable to perform Pr&yaschitta or penance." 

So also in Kamya, Abhyudayaka, Astaka and Ekkoddista, the 
homa offering is on hand as according to Manu (Chap. III. 212) : — 

But " If no sacred fire is available he shall place the offerings into the hand of 
a Br&hmana. M 

Prohibition is declared of the separate eating of the food placed 
(as an offering) on the hand. As say the authors of Grihya Sfitras : — 

'* Tho unwise (only) eat separately the food placed as au offering on the hand. 
Their Fathers are not satisGod, and they do not obtain tho last food. That food which 
has been offered on tho hand tbat which is given afterwards, both those should bo 
oaten in one state, there is nosoparato stato in thorn." 

Now the author describes tho method of placing the food 
before the invited guests : — 

M| M , . . ii m muu mi i mi ■ ■ ■- — -i " -ri " " — — — ■ I M^ ^^"^ 

*A verse of very nearly tho same meaning is assigned to Laug&ksi 
in Paraaara M&dhava (B. 8. S. Vol. L pt. 2 p : 308 and 445). 


« * 


CCXXXVTIL — Having placed the eatables (on 
a plate and) having consecrated it with the mantra 
" Prithivi te patram." " The earth is thy vessel," and 
having uttered the mantras " Idam Visnuh " he should 
,cause the invited Brahmanas to place their thumb on 
the food.— 238. 


Having placed in the plates " eatables " like boiled rice, broth, 
rice boiled in milk and sugar, clarified butter &c, and having 
consecrated the plates with the mantra (a) " The earth is thy 
vessel " he should cause the thumb of the invited Brahmanas put in 
the food with the mantra (6) " Idam Visnuh vichakrame " " through 
all this world strode Visnuh, &c." In so doing in the Vai^vadeva 
ceremony the hosts should have the sacred thread on his left shouider 
(yajnopaviti) and recite the mantra (c) " 0 Visnu protect the havya 
food," and in the ceremony (in honor) of the ancestors he should 
place the sacred thread on his right shoulder (prachinaviti) reciting 
the mantra id) " 0 Visnu protect the havya food." For thus it is 
remembered by MANU(?) u Then let him say in succession " O 
Visnu protect thou the havya and havya offerings," 


CCXXXIX. — Having silently recited the Gayatri 
mantra, with its vyahritis together with' the three Rik 
verses beginning with Madhuvatah &c, he should add- 
ress the invited guests by saying " Eat as you please," 
and they should also eat with speech controlled. — 239. 

(a) Hiranyakesin Grihya sfitra IT. 11. 4. " The earth is thy .vessel, the heaven 
is thy lid. I sacrifice thee into the up-breathing and downbreathing of the 
Brahmanas. Thou art imperishable, do not perish for the Fathers yonder, in yon 
world. The earth is steady, Agni is its surveyor in order that what has been given 
may not be lost." 

(b) Rigveda I. 2 2. 17, and the four verses that follow it " Through all this 
world strode Visnu, thrice his foot he planted, and the whole was gathered in his 
footstep's dust." 

(c) Yajurveda I. 4. or Taittiriya Samhitfl, I, 13. 1. 

The vessel of food should be carried with both hands, Manu III. 224, 225. 

(d) Not traceable, 




Then after thus (placing the plates of food before the guests) 
he should, in the VaWvadeva ceremony, invoke the Devas with water 
containing barley with the mantra : — " Vi^vebhyo devebhya idam 
annam parivistam pariveksyamanam chatripteh " f 1 to the Vi^vadevas 
is this food so served and waited upon, let it be to their satis- 
faction/ 5 In the rites for the manes the dposana water should 
have sesamum in it, and the father should be invoked with the 
mantra, " This food is presented to my father, of such and such 
Gotra, named so and so, let this food served to him and waited upon 
be to his satisfaction." Similarly, the grandfather and great grandfather 
also. After this the ciposana water should be given to the guests, 
and he should recite the Gayatri, with the Vyahritis already mentioned 
before and should mutter silently the three Rik verses beginning 
with " Madhuvata (a) &c, and he should repeat thrice " Madhu " 
" Madhu " " Madhu/' and then address the invited guests ;— " Yatha 
sukham jusadhvam " " Eat, sirs, at your pleasure." For thus it has 
been declared by Pavaskara and others : — 

" Having taken the food intended in the sacrifice for the 
Devas and Pitris, and having recited the Gayatri and the Madhuvata 
hymns (a) he should offer the aposana water and having addressed 
the guests " Eat at your pleasure," he should recite the Gayatri along 
with its Vyahritis thrice, or once only. He should recite the three 
hymns beginning with ° Madhuvata " &c, and should utter three 
times the word Madhu, Madhu, Madhu." 

" They should also eat with speech controlled " :— the invited 
Brahmanus should eat, with their speech controlled, namely, in 


CCXL.— He should give them food which is 
agreeable and sacrificial (holy), without anger and 
without haste, till they are satisfied and (even after). 
He should recite, all the while silently (while the guests 
are eating), sacred texts, (and when the guests have 

(a) For Madhuv&ta hymns seo Yajurvcda XIII. 2. 7. "Tho winds waft sweets, 
tho rivers pour swoots, for fcho man who keeps tho Law : So may tho plants bo 
awcot for us," <&o. I 

Comparo Manu. III. 223. For Apos'ana or Oanilnsa (sipping tho water beforo 
eating seo verso 31 pago 79). 



been fully gratified) ho should also mutter the former 
prayers (the Gayatri arid the Madhuvata hymns). — 240. 


<c Food," consisting of five sorts that which is hard, (and. 
requires mastication), that which is soft, that which is licked, that 
which is sucked, and that which is drunk. " Agreeable/' that which 
is pleasant to the invited guests, or which was liked by the deceased or 
is liked by the hosts. " Sacrificial, " fit to be offered as an oblation in 
^raddha, namely, rice, *4ali rice, barley, wheat, kidney-bean (mudga) 
masa-bean, munyanna (the food of ascetics) viz., nivara grain (wild 
rice), kala^akaor the pot-herb, ocimum sanctum, mahasalka or a kind 
of prawn or sea-crab, cardamom, dry ginger, black pepper, assafaetida, 
raw sugar, refined sugar, camphor, rock salt, lake salt, jack-fruit, cocoa- 
nut, plantain, jujube, gavya (preparation of cow's milk &c), milk, 
curd, clarified butter, rice boiled in milk and sugar, honey (or wine), 
and meat &c, these are to be understood as sacrificial foods, well- 
known in other Smritis. 

By using the word " sacrificial " it is also declared by implica- 
tion, that food which is not fit for sacrifice, and which has been 
prohibited in other Smritis are not to be employed in the ^raddhas, 
such as Kodrava grain (Paspalum scrobiculatum), Masura grain, 
chanaka (gram), kulittha (dolichos biflorus), Pulaka (shrivelled grain), 
nispala (simbi), rajamasa (barbati), pumpkin (the white), egg-fruit 
(brinjal), apodaki (a sort of pot-herb), the shoot of bamboo, long 
pepper, the vacha root, ^atapuspa, usara salt, bicla salt, and the milk 
of wild buffalo or of chamari antelope, nor the preparations of such 

• • 

milk, such as curd, clarified butter or rice cooked with sugar in 
such milk. All these are prohibited. 

" Without anger." Though there may be occasion to get 
rightly angry. " Without haste." Without hurry or excitement. 


The word " should give " is to be construed with the words 
"till they are satisfied " (that is, he should go on plying them with 
food till they are surfeited). 

" And (even after) "—the word " tu " meaning " and " indicates 
that even after the guests have been satisfied, he should give food, 
so that some may remain on the plates, because the remainder of 
food is the allotted share of the servants. For says MANU 
(III-246) : — " They declare the fragments which have fallen on the 


ground at a (Sraddha) to the manes, to be the share of honest, ^dutiful 

So also " he should recite sacred texts till they are satisfied " 
namely texts like the Purusasfikta (Rigveda X. 90. 1) and Pavmani 
hymns &c. 

After reciting these hymns while they are eating, and having 
known that the guests have been satisfied, "He should mutter also 
the former prayers," that is, the Gayatri with its vyahritis should be 
muttered by him as mentioned before. / 

Translator's notes :— For havisya food see Visnu Pnr&na Book III. Ch. XVI. 
Mflrkandeya P. Chap. XLIX ; 70 et seq. Visnu Smpti LXXIX. 17-18. 

For the hymns to be murmured, while the guests are eating, see Sankhyayaua 
Grihya Sutra IV. 1. 8. Visnu Smriti LXXIII. 14-15. 


COXLI. — Taking the food (in his hands he should 
ask the guests) " are you satisfied ? " and as regards the 
remainder, having received their permission, he should 
scatter that food on the ground. And he should give 
water once to each (guest on the hand for final Aposana). 


Then " taking tip " all " the food," and having asked them f 
11 are you satisfied," and having received the reply from them "We 
are satisfied," and (then again asking them) * there is some 
remainder, what is to be done with it," and getting the reply " Eat 
in the company of your relatives " and after he has accepted (the 
permission) he should deposit that food, in front of the Brahmana 
representing the deceased Father, near the leavings on the ground 
upon blades of ku^a grass with the ends turned towards the south. 
And after having sprinkled it with water containing sesamum with 
the Rig formula " Ye Agnidagdhfi, " &c, he should again throw 
sesamum and water (on it)." 

After that " he should give water " for gandfi§a sipping, 
" once " to each (Brahmana guest). 

Translator's notes:- Compare Vi. Sm r , LXXIII. 17, MANU, III. 251-253. 
All :— the remainder of the food after being eaten. 

Having accepted moans here having received permission by the words " Eat 
with your relatives/' and having accepted it." (Abhyupag nmya-anujnftm prapya). 
A* says MANU (III. 253) 


'« Next let him inform (his guests) who havo finished thoir meal, of tho food 
which remains ; with the permission of the Brahmanas lot him dispose (of that), as 

thoy may direct." ■ 
Tho words of MANU " let him dispose of that as they may direct " show that 

he must do as they say oven though it bo otherwise. This is made clear by 

» Asvalayana Grihya Sutra IV. 11. 20-30. (Soo also fcaukhayana G. S. IV. 2. 5.) 
If the Brahmanas say "Givo us the remainder of tho food," he should give it 

to them. But if thoy say " Eat it along with your friends " then he should do so. 
Before tho Brahmanas havo porformcd the final gandusa, ho should offer the 

pindas to tho ancestors. * 

According to Yajfiavalkya, (supported by Asvalayana) the pindas are offered 
after the Brahmanas are fed. But MANU ordains the offering of tho pindas before 
the Brahmanas are fed. Compare MANU III. 244 :— 

« Let him mix all the kinds of food together, sprinkle them with water and 
put them, scattering thorn (on Kusa grass), down on the ground in front of (his 
guests), when they have finished their meal." 

" That food "—the food about which permission has been obtained. Taking a 
portion out of that food, the pinda offering should be made. 

The scattering on the ground ordained by MANU in III. 244, is to be on the 
blades of Kusa grass as mentioned in Vi. Sm F . LXXXI. 21-22. Some hold that it 
should be on the ground. 

" Ye Agnidagdh& &c." The whole Mantra is :— 

" Those in my family who have been cremated in fire, and those in my family 
who have not been so cremated, let them be satisfied with this food strewn on the 
ground, and being satisfied let them attain the highest end." 

Reciting this, the food should be strewn on the ground in front of that 
Br&hmana guest, who represents the deceased father. 

In giving the final gandusa water for sipping he should begin with the Brahma- 
nas sitting facing the north, and then to those facing the east as in the Vi. Smriti 
(LXXIII. 25). 

The hands should not be washeld for accepting the gandusa water. Half of the 
gandusa water should be drunk and the other half should be thrown on the ground. 
In drinking, the formula " Amritapidhanam asi " should be uttered. In throwing 
the water on the ground the following mantra should be recited :— 

■ Those dwelling in Rauravas the hell of the sinners fo r myriads of years, may 
they get satisfaction inexhaustible by this water given for them." 

Then the hands should be washed while still seated on the chair. 

The Kusa finger ring should be taken out before washing the hands. The hands 

should be washed in some earthen dish &c. 


CCXLIL— Having taken up' all food along with 
sesamum, and facing south, near the leavings, he should 
offer pindas, even as (in the ritual of) pitri-yajna. — 242. 




Then according to the analogy of the ritual laid down for 
Pindas, Pitri-Yajna, where the charu mess has been cooked, and the 
oblation to fire has been made, then with the remainder of that charu 
mixed with the rest of all the food, the pinda oblations should be 
made (to the Fathers). But where the charu mess has not been 
cooked, then taking up all the food cooked for feeding, the Brahma- 
nas, and " along with sesamum," by mixing it with sesamum, and 
" facing south," and " near the leavings," " he should offer pinda " 
oblations in the manner of Piuda-Pitri-Yajna. 

" All food all kinds of food. 

" Near ''—on the ground strewn with Kusa grass, near the altar. This in the 
case of the person who keeps fire. Bat in the case of one who is devoid of such 
fire, the place for pinda oblation is near the leaving. According to Atri it should be 
three aratnis distant from the leavings. 

An aratni is equal to a cubit of the middle length, from the elbow to the tip 
of the little finger, a fist. 

Some say it should be in the very vicinity of the leavings. Others hold that it 
should be at a distance of one cubit from the leavings. According to Vydsa the 
distance should be one aratni only. In any case, the oblation should not be offered 
in the immediate neighbourhood of the leavings. 

The pindas should be offered on a square or circular altar or vedi. 

The size of the pindas varies according to the nature of the Sraddha. In the 
Parvana S. it should be of the size of a wet amalaki, in the ekoddista S. of the size of 
a biiva fruit, or kharjura fruit. Or always of the size of a badari fruit. In Sapindi- 
karna it should be 12 angulis long and thick like Ekoddista. In Nava-S., a little 
thicker than Ekoddista. In Pasa-gatra S., still more thick. 

The Giving of the Ah§ayya Water, 


CCXLIII. — Thus also (he should give pindas) to 
(his) maternal grandfather (and the rest). Then he 
should give water for achamana sipping (to the Brahmana 
guests). Then he should cause to be recited the benedi- 
ctory speech, and also (the making of the Aksayya- 
udaka). — 243. 

mitAksara. « 


In the same manner the obsequiel rites should be performed 
regarding the maternal grandfathers (and the rest) beginning with 
the invocation of the Visvadevas and ending with tho offering. of the 
pinda cakes. After this he should give water to the Brahinanas for 


sipping. Then he should cause a " Svastivachya " — that is, he 
should cause the Bmhmanas to recite Syasti-formulac by telling 
them " Now recite Svasti." 

When they have said " Svasti," he should pour water on the 
hands of the Brahmanas and saying " say ye that let the rite be 
(conducive of) exhaustless (aksayyam) merit." They should say " Let 
it be exhaustless-aksayyam astu." 

Note —This Sraddha of the maternal grandfathers &C, is obligatory on the 
Putrikaputra as well as on that daughter's son whose maternal grandfather has 
got no male issue. For such is the opinion of Dhaumya. 


CCXLIV. — Then having given fee (to the guests) 
to the best of his power he should say " I shall now 
utter Svadha." Being permitted (by the guests) by the 
words " cause it to be uttered, 55 he should say " let 
svadha be pronounced on the ancestors." — 244. 


Afterwards, to the best of his power, having given daksina-fee 
with gold, or silver &c , he should say " May I cause now svadha 
to be recited/' Those Brahmanas should give permission by saying, 
" Cause it to be uttered. " He should then say " utter svadha for 
the ancestors" viz., for the father and the rest, and for the maternal 
grandfather and the rest. Thus he should cause the svadha 
to be recited. 

Translator's notes —Compare MANU III. 252. Vi. Srar. XXIII. 36-37. 

The gold should be the daksina given to the Brahmanas invited in the 
Vaisvadeva Sraddha, and the silver to those in the Pitri Sraddha, according to 
Pd askara, Jamadagni and Saunaka, Sacred thread and betel leaves should also 
be given as present. The order in which Daksina should be given is that first the 
Pitf i-guests, and then the Deva guests, 


CCXLV. — And they should say " svadha. 55 Having 
^said so, he should sprinkle water on the ground. He 
should say " let Visvadevas be satisfied." And the 
Brahmanas have (also) said (so), he should mutter 
silently this (next verse). — 245. 


And those Brahmanas should say " let svadha be." When they 
have said so ; then he should sprinkle water on the ground through 



a Kamandalu. After that he should say " Let the Vi^vadevaa 
be satisfied." The Brahmanas should respond " Be satisfied the 
VisJvadevas." This being said, he should recite the following stanza. 


COXLVL— Thus " May the liberal-miuded abound 
with us ! May the Vedas and the progeny also (increase)! 
And may faith not forsake us ! May we nave plenty to 

bestow ! "—246. 


m Liberal-minded " — the givers of gold and the rest. " With us " 
— in our family. "May abound" — may they be many. "May the 
Vedas increase " — through our regularly studying, teaching, and 
knowing their meaning. "And the progeny also "increase by the 
unbroken succession of sons, grandsons and the rest. " And may 
faith," or the reverence for ancestral rites, "not forsake us" 
or not depart from us. "And to bestow" gold, &c, "plenty," 
unlimited in quantity, may be to us. " Thus " — means that he should 
silently pray thus. 

Translator's notes:— Compare MANTJ HI. 259. Vi. Sm.r. LXXIII. 28. 

The word "iti" is not in the Yajoavalkya's text, but it is found in MANU and 
other Smritis where tho same Mantra occurs verbatim. The metre also requires 
the addition of « iti " at the end of " astu." 

In the Visnu Smriti (LXXIII.. 30) there is this additional prayer : — 

(The second half of the benediction shall be as follows), " May we have plenty 
of food, and may we receive guests. May others come to beg of us, and may not we 
be obliged to beg of any one." 

The invited Br£hmanas should respond by saying : " Thus let it be." 

Dismissal of Brahmanas. 


CCXLVIL — Having said thus, (and) having spoken 
pleasant words, and having saluted them, he should 
dismiss (the Manes). The (method of) dismissal is by 
reciting "Help us, Deep-skilled, &c., with a pleased 
heart, beginning with the Father. " — 247. • 


" Thus," having " 6aid ,? muttered silently, the prayer mantra 
mentioned above, and " having spoken pleasant words," to this effect 
" Blessed have we become by our house being sanctified with the dust 


of your feot, and by your talcing tlio trouble of eating this humble 
and unworthy repast of pot-herbs, &c, yea, wo are very much obliged 
to you." " And having saluted " by bowing after circumambulating 
them. " He should dismiss " — How should ho dismiss them ? Ho 
mentions that next He should recite the Rig verso ("VII. 38.8) 
commencing with " Deep-skilled in Law eternal, 0 Vajins, help 
us, &c." 

w Beginning with the father "— he should dismiss the Manes of 
the great grandfather first, and ending with the VisVadevas, holding 
a Kurfa grass in his hands, and saying " Arise 0 Fathers." " With 
pleased heart " — with a delighted mind. Thus " the dismissal V 
should be performed by him. 

Translator's notes.— The verse &c, is given below :— from Big Veda 

VII. 88. 8. 

firmer *n^*r <jht w qfafri?Hrqi^: it" 

V Deep-skilled in Law eternal, deathless, Singers, O Vajins, help us in each 
fray for booty. 

Drink of this meath, be satisfied, be joyful : then go on paths which Gods are 
wont to travel." 

The salutation should be made by all the family members of the host, with 
their folded hands. The BrShmanas should .bless them by putting up husked barley 


into their folded hands according to Saunaku. 

The doubt arises as to the method of dismissing the Manes, as to how it should 
be done. Should it begin with the dismissal of the Father first, then of the grand- 
father, and then of the great grandfather or how ? The answer is that the dismissal 
is in the reverse order of the offering of the pindas. First the Manes of the great- 
grandfather should be dismissed, then the grandfather and then the father. 

In dismissing the Pitris, the root of the Kusa-grass should be grasped, while in 
dismissing the Visvadevas the top of the Kusa should be clutched. 

After dismissing the Fathers, he should dismiss the two Brahmanas repre- 
senting the VLsvadevas, according to Saunaka. 

In the text of the Yajnavalkya the prayer for blessing is enjoined to be recited 
after praying to the Visvadevas (see above, verse 245.) According to Prdchetas, 
it should be uttered before the prayer to Vi3vadevas. According to Paraskara it is 
to be after the Svasti-vachana. 

According to MANU (HI. 258), it should be after the invited Brahmanas have 
been dismissed. 


CCXLVIIL— Then he should dismiss the Brah- 
manas, after having turned up the Pitri-patra, viz., the 
arghya-patra in which the droppings were collected be- 
fore.— 248. 




"The arghya-patra in which, before " at the time of finishing 
of the giving of arghya, " those droppings " from the hands of the 
Brahmanas when the arghya water was given, " were collected " or 
deposited, that Pitri-patra which was so long nyubja, or face-down, 
should now be turned up with its face upwards, and then the (in- 
vited) Brahmanas should be dismissed. 

It should be observed that this is to be done after the recital of 
the prayer for benediction, and before the uttering of the Vaje-Vaje 
Rig hymn. This is inferred from the construction of the stanza, 
where the participial affix " tva " in " Kritva " after having done " 
is employed in the text. 

The doubt arises that dismissal had already been taught before, why is it re- 
peated here ? It is answered by Vijfianesvara by saying " it should be observed 
&c." This is in fact supplementary to the last stanza. This is also what Paraaara 


CCXLIX. — Then having followed them and having 
' circumambulated them, he should eat the remnant of the 
food offered to the Pitris. He should also remain that 
night as a Brahmachari, along with the invited Brah- 
manas. — 249. 


Then u following " the departing guests up to the boundary (of 
his village), and being permitted by them by saying " now desist/' 
and then by " circumambulating them " he should return home ; and 
eat along with his family members the remnant of the ^raddha 
food, " eaten by the Pitris," 

This is a niyama rule and not a Parisaiikhya (he must eat the 

remnant of the f^raddha food). But with regard to the meat food 


(offered in Sr&ddha) he may eat it, if he is inclined to eat it (but not 
bound to do so), as has already been mentioned before in stanza. 179. 

The performer of the ^raddha along with the Brahmanas fed 
therein should remain chaste observing the vow of Brahmacharya 
during the night of that day on which the iSmiddha was performed. . 

The force of the word " also" indicates that he should not take 
a second meal &c.,- that day : as say the texts : — 

" Brushing the teeth, chewing the betel leaves, bathing by 
rubbing oil on the body, and not taking any food, sexual intercouse, 


taking medicines and eating food given by another, these seven acts 
should be avoided by the performer of Sraddha/' 

" Taking a second meal, undertaking a journey, carrying a 
load, sacred study, conjugal intercourse, giving alms, accepting gifts, 
and fire-offering, these eight acts should be avoided by the performer 
of a Sraddha/' 

Translator's Notes The Brahma-Purana says that the feet of the guests should 
be worshipped with ghee mixed with curd : and with scented water, and they should 
be propitiated with salutations. 

According to Vriddha-Yogi, he should follow the departing guests for eight 
paces, accompanied by his wife, children &c. 

After their departure, the place of eating should be swept of all remnants as 
says MANU (III. 265)- 

These remnants so swept should be buried in ground by digging a trench 
according to Prdchetas. 

After thus clearing the remnants the Bali Vaisvadeva should be done as says 
MANU III. 265. A different rule is laid down in the Brahmanda-Pur&na and in the 

He should not take that day any food which has not been offered to the Pitrte. 
But if there be no remnant of such food remaining, he should cook fresh food, but 
never fasting on the Sr&ddha day. But if the Sraddha day falls on a fast-day like 
ekSdasi he should smell the food. 

According to others, he should eat even on a fast day. 

Therefore the commentator has said that this eating on a Sraddha day is a 
Niyama or a restrictive rule, (and on no account should it be left unobserved). 
(Eating is natural to man, but when a sacred text says that one should eat on such 
a day, it makes eating a niyama-— the man has no option left, he must eat on that day 
— he cannot fast that day. It cannot be a Parisankhya rule which occurs only then 
when two rules present themselves for application, and one is selected). 

The commentator mentions a special case with regard to the meat offered in 
s'r&ddha. For with regard to it, he is not obliged to take it, if he has no inclination 
for it. 

Compare also the Matsya Pur&na, Ch. XVII, 31-36 (S. B. H. Vol. XVII. pt. l.p : 



Vfiddhi Sraddha. 

The author having described the Parvana Sraddha now des- 
cribes the Vriddhi Sraddha. 


CCL.— Thus (also) in the Vriddhi Sraddha he 
should worship the Nandi-mukha Pitris, the movement 
to be from (left to) right, and the pindas should he mixed 
with curd and Karkandhu fruit, and all rites to be with 
barley. — 250. 




"In the Vriddhi " in the ^raddha on the occasion of the birth 
of a son, " thus " in the manner described above, he should worship 
the Pitris i.e., honour them. 

The author now mentions the special mode of ritual with regard 
to this (Vriddhi ^raddha). " His movement to be from left to right." 
He whose method of performing the ceremony is from left to right is 
called " whose movement is from left to right." That is to say, he 
moves from left to right in offering the pindas. 

The word " Nandimukha " qualifies the word "Pitris." Hence 
it means that in all texts relating to invocation &c, the word " Nandi- 
mukha " should be added everywhere to the word " Pitri," thus, " I 
shall now invoke the Nandimukha fathers ; I shall now invoke the 
Nandimukha grandfathers, &c." 

How should he worship them ? The author answers " He should 
worship them by offering pindas mixed with curd and Karkandhu," 
Karkandhu is badari fruit or jujube. The pindas should have these 
two things (curd and jujube) in addition, and all the rites that are 
performed with sesamum (in Parvana ^raddha) should be here done 
with barley. 

The number af Brahmanas to be invited here is the same as 
mentioned before, viz., " even in the Vi^vadeva an